IMPLEMENTATION OF SIGNALING SYSTEM 7 PROTOCOL FOR GSM

Signaling can be classified as • 1.In band signaling • 2.Out of band signaling Signaling is used to route the call (speech or voice) to its destination.

• In band signaling: It is the traditional signaling which was implemented in mobiles when they were discovered. • In in-band signaling, signaling information is conveyed over the same channel that is used to carry the speech. IN BAND CHANNEL •
Signaling information +speech

In- band signaling has many drawbacks • Long call set up times(10 to 20 sec). • Limited information can be transferred resulting in restrictive network routing capabilities. • Call in progress cannot be modified. • The net work can be subjected to fraud. Due to these draw backs many countries have replaced in band signaling with out of band signaling

Out of band signaling • A common data channel is used to convey signaling information related to number of trunks
Out of band channel Signaling information of no of calls

Voice channel

Advantages of out-of-band Signaling 1.Call set up times is drastically reduced. 2.Unlimited information can be transferred with in the network using the routing capabilities. 3.Call in progress can be modified. 4.The net work cannot be subjected to fraud.

OUT OF BAND SIGNALING(ISDN)

Access signaling

Net work signaling

Net work signaling: Signaling between net work nodes Protocol standard used to implement the network signaling is signaling system 7(SS7). Frequency bands used in GSM Technology 890-915 MHz 935-960 MHz

• ISDN is a network architecture in which the network conveys all information, voice and/or non-voice, as a digital bit stream directly to the customer's premises. • It is a set of communications standards allowing a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice, digital network services and video.

• ISDN was first published as one of the 1984 ITU -TSB recommendations. It builds on groups of standard transmission channels: • B-channels or "Bearer" channels for voice up to 64 Kbps of data • D-channel (Data channel) for call-control signaling up to 16Kbps of packet data

• Figure 2. Signaling Network Elements

F

OSI MODEL

SS7 PROTOCOL MODEL

• Signaling data link is the bidirectional transmission path for signaling. • Here recommended bit rate by the CCITT (Consultative committee for international telegraph and telephone) is 64 kbps. • MTP level 2 carries out the signaling link functions in frames of variable length.

• Flag Flags delimit SUs. A flag marks the end of one SU and the start of the next. • Checksum The checksum is an 8-bit sum intended to verify that the SU has passed across the link error-free. The checksum is calculated from the transmitted message by the transmitting signaling point and inserted in the message. On receipt, it is recalculated by the receiving signaling point. If the calculated result differs from the received checksum, the received SU has been corrupted. A retransmission is requested.

• The length indicator is used to indicate the number of octets following it and preceding check sum. • For MSU:LI>2 LSSU:LI=1 FISU:LI=0
MSUs have a length-indicator greater than 2. According to the protocol, only 6 of the 8 bits in the length indicator field are actually used to store this length; thus the largest value that can be accommodated in the length indicator is 63. For MSUs with more than 63 octets following the length indicator, the value of 63 is used.

• • • • •

SIF=63 octets For CCITT,SIF=300 octets For national net works it is up 272 octets SIO (service information octet) For ANSI (American national standards institute)

Service indicator Ex :If 0100Telephone user part.0101 connects to

Sub service field Differentiates national &international signaling

• The status field in LSSU is made up of one or two octets. • In case of a one octet field the first 3 bits function is as follows: • First 3 bits Meaning
00 0 001 010 101 011 Out of alignment Normal alignment Emergency alignment Busy Out of service

• Routing label(32 bits or 4 octets)

4 bits for signaling Link selection

6 bits for origination point code.

6 bits for destination Point code.

It appears at the beginning of the SIF. SCCP provides addressing capability using this routing label. The Ups of SS7 utilize the transport services provided by MTP &SCCP.

• Two predominant methods for shaping traffic exist a leaky bucket implementation and a token bucket implementation. • Sometimes the leaky bucket and token bucket algorithms are mistakenly lumped together under the same name. • Both these schemes have distinct properties and are used for distinct purposes .

• They differ principally in that the leaky bucket imposes a hard limit on the data transmission rate. whereas the token bucket allows a certain amount of burstiness while imposing a limit on the average data transmission rate.

RESULTS
PERFORMANCE OF LEAKY BUCKET ALGORITHM WHEN PACKETS WHERE SEND ACROSS THE ROUTER (CASE 1) SHOWN IN FIG. BELOW INPUTS

• • • •

Packets send=70 C1=50 C2=40 C3=39

GRAPH FOR LEAKY BUCKET ALGORITHM 80 70 60 PACKETS DELIVERED 50 40 30 20 10 0 Maximum carrying capacity of router Desirable Congested

0

10

20

30 40 50 PACKETS SEND

60

70

80

• The implementation of leaky bucket algorithm is preformed in the network layer of signaling system 7 protocols and uses routers. • In the below figure maximum carrying capacity of the router represents how packets are delivered up to the maximum capacity when desired packets are send.

PERFORMANCES OF TOKEN BUCKET ALGORITHM OVER THE LEAKY BUCKET ALGORITHM FOR SAME PACKETS SEND(CASE 1) INPUTS Packets send=70 C1=50 C2=40 C3=39 B1=20 B2=18 B3=17

• • • • • • •

GRAPH FOR TOKEN BUCKET ALGORITHM 80 70 Max buffer Desirable buffer 60 PACKETS DELIVERED congested buffer 50 40 30 20 10 0

0

10

20

30 40 50 PACKETS SEND

60

70

80

PERFORMANCE OF LEAKY BUCKET ALGORITHM WHEN PACKETS WHERE SEND ACROSS THE ROUTER (CASE 2)

INPUTS • Packets send=80 • C1=60 • C2=50 • C3=49

G R A P H F O R L E A K Y B U C K E T A L G O R IT H M 1 0 0 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 P A C K E T S D E LIV E R E D 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0 M a x im u m c a rry in g c a p a c it y o f ro u t e r

D e s ira b le

C o n g e s te d

• • • • • • •

PERFORMANCES OF TOKEN BUCKET ALGORITHM OVER THE LEAKY BUCKET ALGORITHM FOR SAME PACKETS SEND(CASE 2) INPUTS Packets send=80 C1=60 C2=50 C3=50 B1=20 B2=18 B3=17

GRAPH FOR TOKEN BUCKET ALGORITHM 100 90 80 PACKETS DELIVERED 70 60 congested buffer 50 40 30 20 10 0 Max buffer Desirable buffer

0

10

20

30

40 50 60 PACKETS SEND

70

80

90

100

PERFORMANCE OF LEAKY BUCKET ALGORITHM WHEN PACKETS WHERE SEND ACROSS THE ROUTER (CASE 3)

• • • •

Packets send=100 C1=80 C2=70 C3=69

GRAPH FOR LEAKY BUCKET ALGORITHM 120

100

PACKETS DELIVERED

80

Maximum carrying capacity of router Desirable

60

40

Congested

20

0

0

20

40

60 PACKETS SEND

80

100

120

PERFORMANCES OF TOKEN BUCKET ALGORITHM OVER THE LEAKY BUCKET ALGORITHM FOR SAME PACKETS SEND (CASE3)

• • • • • • •

Packets send=80 C1=60 C2=50 C3=50 B1=20 B2=18 B3=17

GRAPH FOR TOKEN BUCKET ALGORITHM 100 90 80 PACKETS DELIVERED 70 Max buffer 60 congested buffer 50 40 30 20 10 0 Desirable buffer

0

10

20

30

40 50 60 PACKETS SEND

70

80

90

100

PERFORMANCE OF LEAKY BUCKET ALGORITHM WHEN PACKETS WHERE SEND ACROSS THE ROUTER (CASE 4) INPUTS • Packets send=69 • C1=49 • C2=39 • C3=38

GRAPH FOR LEAKY BUCKET ALGORITHM 80 70 60 PACKETS DELIVERED 50 40 30 20 10 0 Maximum carrying capacity of router Desirable Congested

0

10

20

30 40 50 PACKETS SEND

60

70

80

PERFORMANCES OF TOKEN BUCKET ALGORITHM OVER THE LEAKY BUCKET ALGORITHM FOR SAME PACKETS SEND(CASE 4) INPUTS

• • • • • • •

Packets send=69 C1=49 C2=39 C3=38 B1=19 B2=18 B3=17

GRAPH FOR TOKEN BUCKET ALGORITHM 80 70 Max buffer Desirable buffer 60 PACKETS DELIVERED congested buffer 50 40 30 20 10 0

0

10

20

30 40 50 PACKETS SEND

60

70

80

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

IMPLEMENTATION OF ESTABLISHING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN INTERNATIONAL NETWORK AND TELEPHONE USER enter ck=16 enter inflag=8 enter oflag=8 Fsn=4 Bsn=4 Li=3 Input a, b, c, d= [1111] Input a1, b1, c1, d1= [1111] A=3 A1=3 f3bits=111 Sei in bits=[0100] Sif input=300 Signaling data link, signaling link is established with international network connected to telephone user part

• IMPLEMENTATION OF ESTABLISHING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN NATIONAL NETWORK AND TELEPHONE USER • enter ck=16 • enter inflag=8 • enter oflag=8 • Fsn=4 • Bsn=4 • Li=3 • Input a, b, c, d= [1111] • Input a1, b1, c1, d1= [1111] • A=3 • A1=3 • F3bits=111 • Sei in bits=[0100] • Sif input=270 Signaling data link, signaling link is established with national network connected to telephone user part

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

IMPLEMENTATION OF ESTABLISHING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN NATIONAL NETWORK AND TELEPHONE USER enter ck=16 enter inflag=8 enter oflag=8 Fsn=3 Bsn=3 Li=0 Input a, b, c, d=[1111] Input a1, b1, c1, d1=[1111] A=3 A1=3 f3bits=111 sei in bits=[0100] sif input=270 Fill in signal unit is ready As the length indicator (Li) is 0, the signal unit is empty and requires to be filled by message signal unit.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

IMPLEMENTATION OF ESTABLISHING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN NATIONAL NETWORK AND TELEPHONE USER enter ck=16 enter inflag=8 enter oflag=8 Fsn=3 Bsn=3 Li=2 Input a, b, c, d=[1111] Input a1, b1, c1, d1=[1111] A=3 A1=3 f3bits=001 sei in bits=[0100] sif input=270 Link status signal unit is being operated as the length indicator is 2 and decides which type of alignment is to be done depending on first 3bits .

REFERENCES 1. Andrew s. Tanenbaum. “Computer networks “, 4th edition Pearson education 2001 2. Pankaj Arora, G.S.M. Mobile Report by, HTML Document 3. T.S.Rappaport, Wireless communications principles and practices, Pearson education, second edition, 1999. 4. Vijay K.Garg &Joseph E.Wilkes,” Principles & Applications of GSM”, Pearson education, First edition,1999. 5. Rudra pratap ”getting started with Mat lab”, 6. HTML document, Token bucket algorithm

7. Neda document 105-101-05” signaling system 7 applications and over view” 8. Bellcore, “Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) Release 1 Switching system Generic Requirements”, August 1997 9. Buchnan, K., et al.,”IMT-2000: Service providers Perspective,”IEEE personal Communications, August 1997. 10.Leite, F., et., “Regulatory considerations Relating to IMT-2000,”IEEEpersonal Communications, August1997. 11.Pandya, R., et al., “IMT-2000 Standards: Network Aspects,”IEEE Personal Communications, August 1997. 12.Carsello, R.D.,et al., “IMT-2000 Standards: Network Aspects,”IEEE personal Communations,August 1997

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