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AUTOMOTIVE MATERIALS

Prepared By: Mr. Hardik Shah


Syllabus
1. Engines
2. The cylinder
3. The piston & piston ring
4. The camshaft & crankshaft
5. The connecting rod
6. The catalyst

Contents
The reciprocating engine
Advantages and disadvantages of
reciprocating engines
Engine components and typical materials
Recent trends in engine technology

The reciprocating engine

The reciprocating engine is an engine in
which one or more pistons move up and
down in cylinders which gives power to
crankshaft to rotate.
The engine is the heart of a car although it
is normally hidden under the bonnet.
Another type is rotary engine.
Basics of Reciprocating Engines
The cylinder which is closed at
one end is filled with a
mixture of fuel and air.
As the crankshaft turns it
pushes piston.
The piston is forced up and
compresses the mixture in the
top of the cylinder.
The mixture is set alight and,
as it burns, it creates a gas
pressure on the piston, forcing
it down the cylinder.

Air-cooled Reciprocating engine

Constructional details of Reciprocating
Engines
A cross-section of an air-cooled engine with principal parts is
shown in next page.

A. Parts common to both Petrol and Diesel engine:
1. Cylinder, 2. Cylinder head, 3. Piston,
4. Piston rings, 5. Gudgeon pin, 6. Connecting rod,
7. Crankshaft, 8. Crank, 9. Engine bearing,
10. Crank case. 11. Flywheel, 12. Governor,
13. Valves and valve operating mechanism.
B. Parts for Petrol engines only:
1. Spark plug, 2. Carburetor, 3. Fuel pump.
C. Parts for Diesel engine only :
1. Fuel pump, 2. Injector.



Four Stroke Engine
Working of Four Stroke Engines
1. Intake stroke: the intake stroke draws air and fuel into
the combustion chamber. The piston descends in the
cylinder bore to evacuate the combustion chamber.
When the inlet valve opens, atmospheric pressure forces
the air-fuel charge into the evacuated chamber. As a
result, the combustible mixture of fuel and air fills the
chamber.
Working of Four Stroke Engines
2. Compression stroke: at the end of the intake stroke, both
inlet and exhaust valves are closed. The inertial action of
the crankshaft in turn lifts the piston which compresses
the mixture. The ratio of the combustion chamber
volume before and after compression is called the
compression ratio. Typically the value is approximately
9:1 in spark ignition engines and 15:1 in diesel engines.



Working of Four Stroke Engines
3. Power stroke: when the piston ascends and reaches top
dead center, an electric current ignites the spark plug and
as the mixed gas burns, it expands and builds pressure in
the combustion chamber. The resulting pressure pushes
the piston down with several tons of force.


Working of Four Stroke Engines
4. Exhaust stroke: during the exhaust stroke, the inlet valve
remains closed whilst the exhaust valve opens. The
moving piston pushes the burned fumes through the now
open exhaust port and another intake stroke starts again.




Salient Features About Engines
During one cycle, the piston makes two round trips and
the crankshaft revolves twice.
The inlet and exhaust valves open and close only once.
The ignition plug also sparks only once.
A petrol engine, whether four- or two-stroke, is called a
spark ignition (SI) engine because it fires with an
ignition plug.
The four-stroke-cycle engine contains the lubricating oil
in the crankcase.
The oil lubricates the crankshaft bearings and cools the
hot piston



The two-stroke engine is similar to that of the
four-stroke-cycle engine in its reciprocating
mechanism.
It uses the piston-crankshaft mechanism, but
requires only one revolution of the crankshaft
for a complete power-producing cycle.
The two-stroke engine does not use inlet and
exhaust valves.
The gas exchange is implemented by
scavenging and exhaust porthole openings in
the bore wall. The upward and downward
motion of the piston simultaneously opens and
closes these portholes. The air-fuel mixture
then goes in or out of the combustion chamber
through the portholes. Combustion takes place
at every rotation of the crankshaft.

Two-stroke Engines
The gas exchange is implemented by
scavenging and exhaust porthole openings in
the bore wall.
The upward and downward motion of the
piston simultaneously opens and closes these
portholes.
The air-fuel mixture then goes in or out of the
combustion chamber through the portholes.
After spark ignition inside chamber,
Combustion takes place at every rotation of
the crankshaft.

Working of Two-stroke Engines
In the two-stroke engine, the space in the
crankcase works as a pre-compression
chamber for each successive fuel charge.
The fuel and lubricating oil are premixed
and introduced into the crankcase, so that
the crankcase cannot be used for storing
the lubricating oil.
When combustion occurs in the cylinder,
the combustion pressure compresses the
new gas in the crankcase for the next
combustion.
The burnt gas then exhausts while drawing
in new gas. The lubricating oil mixed into
the air-fuel mixture also burns
Features of Two-stroke Engines
Diesel Engine
The only difference between
diesel engine and a four-stroke
gasoline engine is:
No sparkplug on Diesel engine.
Has a higher compression ratio.
(14:1 to 25:1)
Better fuel mileage.
Diesel Engine
Intake Stroke:
Piston moves from TDC
to BDC
creating vacuum in the
cylinder Intake valve
opens allowing only
air to enter the cylinder
and
exhaust valve remains
closed

Diesel Engine
Compression Stroke
Both valves stay closed
Piston moves from BDC to TDC,
compressing air to 22:1
Compressing the air to this extent
increases the temperature inside the
cylinder to above 1000 degree F.
Diesel Engine
Power Stroke
Both valves stay closed
When the piston is at the end of
compression stroke(TDC) the injector
sprays a mist of diesel fuel into the
cylinder.
When hot air mixes with diesel fuel
an explosion takes place in the cylinder.
Expanding gases push the piston
from TDC to BDC
Diesel Engine
Exhaust Stroke
Piston moves from BDC to
TDC
Exhaust valve opens and the
exhaust gases escape
Intake valve remains closed
Diesel Engine
Four Strokes of Diesel Engine
The piston loses speed at the dead-center points where the
travelling direction reverses, which gives enough time for
combustion and intake as well as for exhaust.
The piston ring faces the cylinder bore wall, separated by
an oil film. The resulting lubrication generates low friction
and high durability.
By sealing the gap between the piston and the cylinder,
high compression ratio, high heat efficiency and low fuel
consumption can be achieved.
Advantages of Reciprocating Engine
It is difficult to reuse the exhaust heat.
The unbalanced inertial force may results in piston slap
that can cause noise and vibration.
Disadvantages of Reciprocating Engine
Engine Components
Parts Of An Engine.
PISTON
SPARK PLUG
CAM SHAFT
VALVE
ROCKER ARM
Components and its work
Cylinder
A cylinder is the central working part
of a reciprocating engine or pump, the
space in which a piston travels
Gray cast iron, compact graphite
cast iron, cast Al alloy

Piston
its purpose is to transfer force from
expanding gas in the cylinder to
the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or
connecting rod
Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy


Components and its work
Piston rings
Piston rings provide a sliding seal
between the outer edge of the piston
and the inner edge of the cylinder.

The rings serve two purposes:
They prevent the fuel/air mixture and
exhaust in the combustion chamber
from leaking into the sump during
compression and combustion.
They keep oil in the sump from
leaking into the combustion area,
where it would be burned and lost.
Gray cast iron, spheroidized graphite
cast iron, alloy cast iron, spring steel
and stainless steel
Components and its work
Connecting rod
The connecting rod connects the piston to the
crankshaft. It can rotate at both ends so that its angle
can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft
rotates.
Carbon steel, iron base sintered metal, micro-alloyed
steel, spheroidized graphite cast iron
Crankshaft
The crankshaft turns the piston's up and down motion
into circular motion just like a crank on a jack-in-the-
box does
Carbon steel, micro-alloyed steel, Cr-Mo steel and
nodular, cast iron
Sump
The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some
amount of oil, which collects in the bottom of the sump
(the oil pan).

Components and its work
Camshaft
Its an internal component of valve train which
controls the valve operation timing with pushrod or
rocker arms or self controlling lobes.
Chilled cast iron, Cr-Mo steel, iron base sintered
metal
Valve and Valve spring
The valve which allows mixture into the cylinder is
the inlet valve; the one through which the spent
gases escape is the exhaust valve. They are designed
to open and close at precise moments, to allow
the engine to run efficiently at all speeds.

Valve: Heat-resistive steel, Ti alloy, SiC ceramics.
Valve spring: Spring steel, music wire
Valve Seat: Iron base sintered metal, cast iron
Components and its work
Exhaust Manifold
The exhaust manifold is the first part of your vehicles exhaust
system.
It is connected to your vehicles engine and collects your
engines emissions.
The exhaust manifold receives the air/fuel mixture from the
multiple cylinders in your vehicles engine, it completely burns
any unused or incomplete burnt gases using its very high
temperature.
Components and its work
Exhaust Manifold
The manifold also houses the first
oxygen sensor in your exhaust
system to inspect the amount of
oxygen entering the system.
Once the amount of gas in one
place completely burnt, the manifold
sends the emissions into the rest of
the exhaust system.

High-Si cast iron, niresist cast iron,
cast stainless steel,stainless steel
tube and sheet
Components and its work
Engine Bearings
Bearing is a device supporting a mechanical
element and providing its movement relatively to
another element with a minimum power loss.

Main crankshaft bearings
It support the crankshaft and help it rotate under inertia forces
generated by the parts of the shaft and oscillating forces
transmitted by the connecting rods. Main bearings are
mounted in the crankcase
Connecting rod bearings
provide rotating motion of the crank pin within the
connecting rod, which transmits cycling loads applied to the
piston. Connecting rod
bearings are mounted in the Big end of the connecting rod.
Camshaft bearings
It support camshaft and provide its rotation.
Al-Si-Sn and Cu-Pb alloys
Recent trends in engine technology
1. The multi-valve engine was previously limited to sports
cars and motorcycles. To obtain higher output power, the
number of valves used in car engines has increased.
2. The multi-cylinder engine has become more widespread.
It has a smoother rotation to decrease noise and
vibration.
3. Three-way catalyst (Pt-Pd-Rh alloy) technology, using
O2 and knock sensors, has decreased the three
components CO, HC, and NOx in the exhaust gas, to
decrease environmental pollution.
4. The variable valve system has decreased fuel
consumption.
5. Decreased inertial weight and electronic control have
given improved engine performance.
6. Hybrid systems including an electric motor have reduced
fuel consumption.


Part name Material
Cylinder block Gray cast iron, compact graphite cast iron, cast Al alloy
Piston Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy
Piston ring
Gray cast iron, spheroidized graphite cast iron, alloy cast iron, spring steel and
stainless steel
Camshaft Chilled cast iron, Cr-Mo steel, iron base sintered metal
Valve Heat-resistive steel, Ti alloy, SiC ceramics
Valve seat Iron base sintered metal, cast iron
Valve spring Spring steel, music wire
Piston pin Nodular cast iron, Si-Cr steel, stainless steel
Connecting rod
Carbon steel, iron base sintered metal, micro-alloyed steel,spheroidized graphite
cast iron
Crankshaft Carbon steel, micro-alloyed steel, Cr-Mo steel and nodular,cast iron
Turbo charger Niresist cast iron, cast stainless steel, superalloy
Exhaust manifold
High-Si cast iron, niresist cast iron, cast stainless steel,stainless steel tube and
sheet
Plain bearing Al-Si-Sn and Cu-Pb alloys
Catalyst Pt-Pd-Rh alloy
The science and
technology of materials in
automotive engines
by Hiroshi Yamagata
Automotive Engineering
Lightweight, Functional,
and Novel Materials
by Brian Cantor.

Advance composite
materials for automotive
applications
by Ahmed Elmarakbi

Reference Books