You are on page 1of 107

Chapter 4

Vector Spaces
4.1 Vectors in R
n

4.2 Vector Spaces
4.3 Subspaces of Vector Spaces
4.4 Spanning Sets and Linear Independence
4.5 Basis and Dimension
4.6 Rank of a Matrix and Systems of Linear Equations
4.7 Coordinates and Change of Basis
Elementary Linear Algebra
R. Larsen et al. (6 Edition)
2/107
4.1 Vectors in R
n

a sequence of n real number ) , , , (
2 1 n
x x x
An ordered n-tuple:
the set of all ordered n-tuple
n-space: R
n

Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.1, p.183
3/107
n = 4
= set of all ordered quadruple of real numbers
R
4
= 4-space
) , , , (
4 3 2 1
x x x x
R
1
= 1-space
= set of all real number
n = 1
n = 2 R
2
= 2-space
= set of all ordered pair of real numbers ) , (
2 1
x x
n = 3 R
3
= 3-space
= set of all ordered triple of real numbers ) , , (
3 2 1
x x x
Ex:
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.1, p.183
4/107
Notes:
Ex:
a point
( )
2 1
, x x
a vector
( )
2 1
, x x
( ) 0 , 0
(1) An n-tuple can be viewed as a point in R
n
with the x
i
s as its coordinates.
(2) An n-tuple can be viewed as a vector
in R
n
with the x
i
s as its components.
) , , , (
2 1 n
x x x
) , , , (
2 1 n
x x x
) , , , (
2 1 n
x x x x =
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.1, p.183
5/107
( ) ( )
n n
v v v u u u , , , , , , ,
2 1 2 1
= = v u
(two vectors in R
n
)
Equal:
if and only if
v u =
n n
v u v u v u = = = , , ,
2 2 1 1

Vector addition (the sum of u and v):
( )
n n
v u v u v u + + + = + , , ,
2 2 1 1
v u
Scalar multiplication (the scalar multiple of u by c):
( )
n
cu cu cu c , , ,
2 1
= u
Notes:
The sum of two vectors and the scalar multiple of a vector
in R
n
are called the standard operations in R
n
.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.1, p.183
6/107
Negative:
) ,..., , , (
3 2 1 n
u u u u = u
Difference:
) ,..., , , (
3 3 2 2 1 1 n n
v u v u v u v u = v u
Zero vector:
) 0 ..., , 0 , 0 ( = 0
Notes:
(1) The zero vector 0 in R
n
is called the additive identity in R
n
.
(2) The vector v is called the additive inverse of v.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.1, p.184
7/107
Thm 4.2: (Properties of vector addition and scalar multiplication)
Let u, v, and w be vectors in R
n
, and let c and d be scalars.
(1) u+v is a vector in R
n

(2) u+v = v+u
(3) (u+v)+w = u+(v+w)
(4) u+0 = u
(5) u+(u) = 0
(6) cu is a vector in R
n

(7) c(u+v) = cu+cv
(8) (c+d)u = cu+du
(9) c(du) = (cd)u
(10) 1(u) = u
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.1, p.185
8/107
Ex 5: (Vector operations in R
4
)

Sol: (a)
Let u=(2, 1, 5, 0), v=(4, 3, 1, 1), and w=( 6, 2, 0, 3) be
vectors in R
4
. Solve x for x in each of the following.
(a) x = 2u (v + 3w)
(b) 3(x+w) = 2u v+x
). 8 , 9 , 11 , 18 (
) 9 1 0 , 0 1 10 , 6 3 2 , 18 4 4 (
) 9 , 0 , 6 , 18 ( ) 1 , 1 , 3 , 4 ( ) 0 , 10 , 2 , 4 (
3 2
) 3 ( 2
=
+ + =
=
=
+ =
w v u
w v u x
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.1, p.185
9/107
(b)
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 4 , , , 9
, 0 , 3 , 9 , , , 2 0 , 5 , 1 , 2
3 2 2
3 2 3
2 3 3
2 ) ( 3
2
9
2
11
2
9
2
1
2
1
2
3
2
3
2
1
=
+ + =
=
=
=
+ = +
+ = +


w v u x
w v u x
w v u x x
x v u w x
x v u w x
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.1, p.185
10/107
Thm 4.3: (Properties of additive identity and additive inverse)
Let v be a vector in R
n
and c be a scalar. Then the following is true.
(1) The additive identity is unique. That is, if u+v=v, then u = 0
(2) The additive inverse of v is unique. That is, if v+u=0, then u = v
(3) 0v=0
(4) c0=0
(5) If cv=0, then c=0 or v=0
(6) ( v) = v
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.1, p.186
11/107
Linear combination:
Ex 6:
Given x = ( 1, 2, 2), u = (0,1,4), v = ( 1,1,2), and
w = (3,1,2) in R
3
, find a, b, and c such that x = au+bv+cw.
Sol:
2 2 2 4
2
1 3
= + +
= + +
= +
c b a
c b a
c b
1 , 2 , 1 = = = c b a
w v u x = 2 Thus
scalar : , , ,
2 1

n
c c c
The vector x is called a linear combination of ,
if it can be expressed in the form
n
v ,..., v , v
2 1
n n
c c c v v v x
2 1
+ + + =
2 1
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.1, p.187
12/107
Notes:
A vector in can be viewed as:
) , , , (
2 1 n
u u u = u
n
R
] , , , [
2 1 n
u u u = u
(
(
(
(

=
n
u
u
u

2
1
u
(The matrix operations of addition and scalar multiplication
give the same results as the corresponding vector operations)
or

a n1 column matrix (column vector):
a 1n row matrix (row vector):
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.1, p.187
13/107
) , , , (
) , , , ( ) , , , (
2 2 1 1
2 1 2 1
n n
n n
v u v u v u
v v v u u u
+ + + =
+ = +

v u
] , , , [
] , , , [ ] , , , [
2 2 1 1
2 1 2 1
n n
n n
v u v u v u
v v v u u u
+ + + =
+ = +

v u
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
=
(
(
(
(

+
(
(
(
(

= +
n n n n
v u
v u
v u
v
v
v
u
u
u

2 2
1 1
2
1
2
1
v u
Vector addition Scalar multiplication
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
n n
cu
cu
cu
u
u
u
c c

2
1
2
1
u
) , , , (
) , , , (
2 1
2 1
n
n
cu cu cu
u u u c c

=
= u
] , , , [
] , , , [
2 1
2 1
n
n
cu cu cu
u u u c c

=
= u
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.1, p.188
14/107
Keywords in Section 4.1:
) , , , ( 2 1 n u u u c c = u ) , , , ( 2 1 n cu cu cu c =
] , , , [ 2 1 n u u u c c = u ] , , , [ 2 1 n cu cu cu c =
ordered n-tuplen
n-spacen
equal
vector addition
scalar multiplication
negative
difference
zero vector
additive identity
additive inverse
15/107
4.2 Vector Spaces
Vector spaces:
Let V be a set on which two operations (vector addition and
scalar multiplication) are defined. If the following axioms are
satisfied for every u, v, and w in V and every scalar (real number)
c and d, then V is called a vector space.
Addition:
(1) u+v is in V
(2) u+v=v+u
(3) u+(v+w)=(u+v)+w
(4) V has a zero vector 0 such that for every u in V, u+0=u
(5) For every u in V, there is a vector in V denoted by u
such that u+(u)=0
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.2, p.191
16/107
Scalar multiplication:
(6) is in V. u c
(7)
v u v u c c c + = + ) (
(8)
u u u d c d c + = + ) (
(9)
u u ) ( ) ( cd d c =
(10) u u = ) ( 1
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.2, p.191
17/107
Notes:
(1) A vector space consists of four entities:
(2) { } 0 = V
zero vector space
Vnonempty set
cscalar
) , (
) , (
u u
v u v u
c c = -
+ = +
vector addition
scalar multiplication
( ) - +, , V is called a vector space
a set of vectors, a set of scalars, and two operations
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.2, Addition
18/107
Examples of vector spaces:
(1) n-tuple space: R
n

) , , , ( ) , , , ( ) , , , (
2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 n n n n
v u v u v u v v v u u u + + + = +
) , , , ( ) , , , (
2 1 2 1 n n
ku ku ku u u u k =
(2) Matrix space: (the set of all mn matrices with real values)
n m
M V

=
Ex: (m = n = 2)
(

+ +
+ +
=
(

+
(

22 22 21 21
12 12 11 11
22 21
12 11
22 21
12 11
v u v u
v u v u
v v
v v
u u
u u
(

=
(

22 21
12 11
22 21
12 11
ku ku
ku ku
u u
u u
k
vector addition
scalar multiplication
vector addition
scalar multiplication
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.2, Addition
19/107
(3) n-th degree polynomial space:
(the set of all real polynomials of degree n or less)
) (x P V
n
=
n
n n
x b a x b a b a x q x p ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1 0 0
+ + + + + + = +
n
n
x ka x ka ka x kp + + + =
1 0
) (
(4) Function space: (the set of all real-valued
continuous functions defined on the entire real line.)
) ( ) ( ) )( ( x g x f x g f + = +
) , ( = c V
) ( ) )( ( x kf x kf =
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.2, p.193
20/107
Thm 4.4: (Properties of scalar multiplication)
Let v be any element of a vector space V, and let c be any
scalar. Then the following properties are true.
v v
0 v 0 v
0 0
0 v
=
= = =
=
=
) 1 ( (4)
or 0 then , If (3)
(2)
0 (1)
c c
c
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.2, p.195
21/107
Notes: To show that a set is not a vector space, you need
only find one axiom that is not satisfied.
Ex 7: The set of all second-degree polynomials is not a vector space.
Pf: Let and
2
) ( x x p = 1 ) (
2
+ + = x x x q
V x x q x p e + = + 1 ) ( ) (
(it is not closed under vector addition)
R , V e e
2
1
1
V e =
2
1
2
1
) 1 )( (
(it is not closed under scalar multiplication)
| | |
scalar
Pf:
Ex 6: The set of all integer is not a vector space.
integer
noninteger
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.2, p.195
22/107
Ex 8:
V=R
2
=the set of all ordered pairs of real numbers
vector addition:
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1
v u v u v v u u + + = +
scalar multiplication:
) 0 , ( ) , (
1 2 1
cu u u c =
) 1 , 1 ( ) 0 , 1 ( ) 1 , 1 ( 1 = =
the set (together with the two given operations) is
not a vector space

Verify V is not a vector space.


Sol:
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.2, p.196
23/107
Keywords in Section 4.2:
vector space
n-spacen
matrix space
polynomial space
function space
24/107
4.3 Subspaces of Vector Spaces
Subspace:
) , , ( - + V : a vector space
)
`

_
=
V W
W |
: a nonempty subset
) , , ( - + W a vector space (under the operations of addition and
scalar multiplication defined in V)

W is a subspace of V
Trivial subspace:
Every vector space V has at least two subspaces.
(1) Zero vector space {0} is a subspace of V.
(2) V is a subspace of V.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.3, p.198
25/107
Thm 4.5: (Test for a subspace)
If W is a nonempty subset of a vector space V, then W is
a subspace of V if and only if the following conditions hold.
(1) If u and v are in W, then u+v is in W.
(2) If u is in W and c is any scalar, then cu is in W.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.3, p.199
26/107
Ex: Subspace of R
3
Ex: Subspace of R
2
{ } ( ) 0 0, (1) = 0 0
origin he through t Lines (2)
2
(3) R
origin he through t Planes (3)
3
(4) R
{ } ( ) 0 0, 0, (1) = 0 0
origin he through t Lines (2)
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.3, p.199
27/107
Ex 2: (A subspace of M
22
)
Let W be the set of all 22 symmetric matrices. Show that
W is a subspace of the vector space M
22
, with the standard
operations of matrix addition and scalar multiplication.
sapces vector :
2 2 2 2
_ M M W
Sol:
) ( Let
2 2 1 1 2 1
A A , A A W A , A
T T
= = e
) (
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
A A A A A A W A W, A
T T T
+ = + = + e e
) ( kA kA kA W A , R k
T T
= = e e
2 2
of subspace a is

M W
) (
2 1
W A A e +
) ( W kAe
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.3, p.200
28/107

W B A e
(

= +
1 0
0 1
2 2 2
of subspace a not is

M W
Ex 3: (The set of singular matrices is not a subspace of M
22
)
Let W be the set of singular matrices of order 2. Show that
W is not a subspace of M
22
with the standard operations.
W B , W A e
(

= e
(

=
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 1
Sol:
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.3, p.200
29/107
Ex 4: (The set of first-quadrant vectors is not a subspace of R
2
)
Show that , with the standard
operations, is not a subspace of R
2
.

Sol:
W e = ) 1 , 1 ( Let u
of subspace a not is
2
R W
} 0 and 0 : ) , {(
2 1 2 1
> > = x x x x W
( ) ( )( ) ( ) W e = = 1 , 1 1 , 1 1 1 u
(not closed under scalar
multiplication)
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.3, p.201
30/107
Ex 6: (Determining subspaces of R
2
)
Which of the following two subsets is a subspace of R
2
?
(a) The set of points on the line given by x+2y=0.
(b) The set of points on the line given by x+2y=1.
Sol:
{ } { } R t t t y x y x W e = = + = ) , 2 ( 0 2 ) , ( (a)
( ) ( ) W t t W v t t v e = e =
2 2 2 1 1 1
, 2 , 2 Let
( ) ( ) W t t , t t v v e + + = +
2 1 2 1 2 1
2
( ) ( ) W kt , kt kv e =
1 1 1
2
2
of subspace a is R W
(closed under addition)
(closed under scalar multiplication)
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.3, p.202
31/107
( ) { } 1 2 , = + = y x y x W
W v e = ) 0 , 1 ( Let
( ) ( ) W , v e = 0 1 1
of subspace a not is
2
R W
(b)
(Note: the zero vector is not on the line)
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.3, p.203
32/107
Ex 8: (Determining subspaces of R
3
)
{ }
{ } R x x x x x x W
R x x x x W
R
e + =
e =
3 1 3 3 1 1
2 1 2 1
3
, ) , , ( (b)
, ) 1 , , ( (a)
? of subspace a is subsets following the of Which
Sol:
W e = ) 1 , 0 , 0 ( Let (a) v
W e = ) 1 , 0 , 0 ( ) 1 ( v
of subspace a not is
3
R W
W W e + = e + = ) u , u u , u ( , ) v , v v , v ( Let (b)
3 3 1 1 3 3 1 1
u v
( ) ( ) ( ) W u v , u v u v , u v
3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1
e + + + + + = +u v
( ) ( ) ( ) W v , v v , v
3 3 1 1
e + = k k k k kv
3
of subspace a is R W
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.3, p.204
33/107
Thm 4.6: (The intersection of two subspaces is a subspace)
. of subspace a also is
) by (denoted and of on intersecti then the
, space vector a of subspaces both are and If
U
U V W V
U W V

Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.3, p.202


34/107
Keywords in Section 4.3:
subspace
trivial subspace
35/107
4.4 Spanning Sets and Linear Independence
k k
c c c u u u v + + + =
2 2 1 1
form in the written be can if in vectors the
of n combinatio linear a called is space vector a in A vector
2 1
v u u u
v
V , , ,
V
k

Linear combination:
scalars :
2 1 k
,c , ,c c
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.207
36/107
Ex 2-3: (Finding a linear combination)
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
, , of n combinatio linear a not is 2,2) (1, (b)
, , of n combinatio linear a is (1,1,1) (a) Prove
1,0,1) ( (0,1,2) (1,2,3)
v v v w
v v v w
v v v
=
=
= = =
Sol:
3 3 2 2 1 1
(a) v v v w c c c + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 0 1 2 1 0 3 2 1 1,1,1
3 2 1
, , c , , c , , c + + =
) 2 3 , 2 , (
3 2 1 2 1 3 1
c c c c c c c + + + =

1 2 3
1 2
1

3 2 1
2 1
3 1
= + +
= +
=

c c c
c c
c c
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, pp.208-209
37/107
(
(
(

1 1 2 3
1 0 1 2
1 1 0 1

n Eliminatio Jordan Guass
(
(
(

0 0 0 0
1 2 1 0
1 1 0 1
3 2 1
1
3 2 v v v w + =
= t
t c t c t c = = + =
3 2 1
, 2 1 , 1
(this system has infinitely many solutions)
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, pp.208-209
38/107
3 3 2 2 1 1

) (
v v v w c c c
b
+ + =
(
(
(

2 1 2 3
2 0 1 2
1 1 0 1


n Eliminatio Jordan Guass
(
(
(

7 0 0 0
4 2 1 0
1 1 0 1
) 7 0 ( solution no has system this =
3 3 2 2 1 1
v v v w c c c + + =
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, pp.208-209
39/107
If S={v
1
, v
2
,, v
k
} is a set of vectors in a vector space V,
then the span of S is the set of all linear combinations of
the vectors in S,
the span of a set: span (S)
= ) (S span { }
) in vectors of ns combinatio linear all of set (the
2 2 1 1
S
R c c c c
i k k
e + + + v v v
a spanning set of a vector space:
If every vector in a given vector space can be written as a
linear combination of vectors in a given set S, then S is
called a spanning set of the vector space.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.209
40/107
{ } 0 = ) ( (1) | span
) ( (2) S span S _
) ( ) (
, (3)
2 1 2 1
2 1
S span S span S S
V S S
_ _
_
Notes:
V S
S V
V S
V S
of set spanning a is
by ) (generated spanned is
) (generates spans
) ( span

=
Notes:
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.209
41/107
{ } sapns ) 1 , 0 , 2 ( ), 2 , 1 , 0 ( ), 3 , 2 , 1 ( set that the Show
3
R S =
Ex 5: (A spanning set for R
3
)
. and , , of n combinatio linear a as be can in
) , , ( vector arbitrary an whether determine must We
3 2 1
3
3 2 1
v v v
u
R
u u u =
Sol:

3 3 2 2 1 1
3
v v v u u c c c R + + = e
3 3 2 1
2 2 1
1 3 1
2 3
2
2
u c c c
u c c
u c c
= + +
= +
=
. and , , of values all for consistent is
system this whether g determinin to reduces thus problem The
3 2 1
u u u
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.210
42/107
0
1 2 3
0 1 2
2 0 1
=

= A
u. every for solution one exactly has b x = A
3
) ( R S span =
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.210
43/107
Thm 4.7: (Span(S) is a subspace of V)
If S={v
1
, v
2
,, v
k
} is a set of vectors in a vector space V,
then
(a) span (S) is a subspace of V.
(b) span (S) is the smallest subspace of V that contains S.
(Every other subspace of V that contains S must contain span (S).)
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.211
44/107
dependent. linearly called is then
zeros), all not (i.e., solution nontrivial a has equation the If (2)
t. independen linearly called is then
) 0 ( solution trivial only the has equation the If (1)
2 1
S
S
c c c
k
= = = =
{ }
0 v v v
v v v
= + + +
=
k k
k
c c c
S

2 2 1 1
2 1
, , ,
Linear Independent (L.I.) and Linear Dependent (L.D.):
: a set of vectors in a vector space V
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.211
45/107
t independen linearly is (1) |
dependent. linearly is (2) S S e 0
{ } t independen linearly is (3) v 0 v =
2 1
(4) S S _
dependent linearly is dependent linearly is
2 1
S S
t independen linearly is t independen linearly is
1 2
S S
Notes:
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.211
46/107
( ) ( ) ( ) { } 1 0, 2, , 2 1, 0, , 3 2, 1, = S
Ex 8: (Testing for linearly independent)
0 2 3
0 2
0 2
3 2 1
2 1
3 1
= + +
= + +
=
c c c
c c
c c
= + + 0 v v v
3 3 2 2 1 1
c c c
Sol:
Determine whether the following set of vectors in R
3
is L.I. or L.D.
(
(
(

0 1 2 3
0 0 1 2
0 2 0 1

n Eliminatio Jordan - Gauss
(
(
(

0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
( ) solution trivial only the 0
3 2 1
= = = c c c
t independen linearly is S
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.213
v
1
v
2
v
3
47/107
Ex 9: (Testing for linearly independent)
Determine whether the following set of vectors in P
2
is L.I. or L.D.
S = {1+x 2x
2
, 2+5x x
2
, x+x
2
}
c
1
v
1
+c
2
v
2
+c
3
v
3
= 0
i.e. c
1
(1+x 2x
2
) + c
2
(2+5x x
2
) + c
3
(x+x
2
) = 0+0x+0x
2

c
1
+2c
2
= 0
c
1
+5c
2
+c
3
= 0
2c
1
c
2
+c
3
= 0
v
1
v
2
v
3
Sol:
This system has infinitely many solutions.
(i.e., This system has nontrivial solutions.)
S is linearly dependent. (Ex: c
1
=2 , c
2
= 1 , c
3
=3)
(
(
(

0 1 1 2
0 1 5 1
0 0 2 1
(
(
(

0 0 0 0
0
3
1
1 1
0 0 2 1


J. G.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.214
48/107
Ex 10: (Testing for linearly independent)
Determine whether the following set of vectors in 22
matrix space is L.I. or L.D.
)
`

=
0 2
0 1
,
1 2
0 3
,
1 0
1 2
S
Sol:
(

=
(

+
(

+
(

0 0
0 0
0 2
0 1
1 2
0 3
1 0
1 2
3 2 1
c c c
c
1
v
1
+c
2
v
2
+c
3
v
3
= 0
v
1
v
2
v
3
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.215
49/107
(This system has only the trivial solution.) c
1
= c
2
= c
3
= 0
S is linearly independent.

2c
1
+3c
2
+ c
3
= 0
c
1
= 0
2c
2
+2c
3
= 0
c
1
+ c
2
= 0
(
(
(
(

0 0 1 1
0 2 2 0
0 0 0 1
0 1 3 2
(
(
(
(

0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1


n Eliminatio Jordan - Gauss
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.215
50/107
Thm 4.8: (A property of linearly dependent sets)
A set S = {v
1
,v
2
,,v
k
}, k>2, is linearly independent if and
only if at least one of the vectors v
j
in S can be written as
a linear combination of the other vectors in S.
dependent linearly is S
c
i
= 0 for some i
k
i
k
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
v v v v v + + + + + =
+
+


1
1
1
1
1
i
1
() c
1
v
1
+c
2
v
2
++c
k
v
k
= 0
Pf:
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.217
51/107
) (:
Let
(nontrivial solution)

S is linearly dependent
Corollary to Theorem 4.8:
Two vectors u and v in a vector space V are linearly dependent
if and only if one is a scalar multiple of the other.
v
i
= d
1
v
1
++d
i-1
v
i-1
+d
i+1
v
i+1
++d
k
v
k
d
1
v
1
++d
i-1
v
i-1
-v
i
+d
i+1
v
i+1
++d
k
v
k
= 0
c
1
=d
1
, ,c
i-1
=d
i-1
, c
i
=-1,c
i+1
=d
i+1
,, c
k
=d
k
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.4, p.217
52/107
Keywords in Section 4.4:
linear combination
spanning set
trivial solution
linear independent
linear dependent
53/107
4.5 Basis and Dimension
Basis:
Va vector space

) (
) (
b
a
S spans V (i.e., span(S) = V )
S is linearly independent
Generating
Sets
Bases
Linearly
Independent
Sets
S is called a basis for V
Notes:
(1) is a basis for {0}
(2) the standard basis for R
3
:
{i, j, k} i = (1, 0, 0), j = (0, 1, 0), k = (0, 0, 1)
S ={v
1
, v
2
, , v
n
}_V
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.5, p.221
54/107
(3) the standard basis for R
n
:
{e
1
, e
2
, , e
n
} e
1
=(1,0,,0), e
2
=(0,1,,0), e
n
=(0,0,,1)
Ex: R
4
{(1,0,0,0), (0,1,0,0), (0,0,1,0), (0,0,0,1)}
Ex: matrix space:

)
`

1 0
0 0
,
0 1
0 0
,
0 0
1 0
,
0 0
0 1
2 2
(4) the standard basis for mn matrix space:
{ E
ij
| 1sism , 1sjsn }
(5) the standard basis for P
n
(x):
{1, x, x
2
, , x
n
}
Ex: P
3
(x)

{1, x, x
2
, x
3
}
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.5, p.224
55/107
Thm 4.9: (Uniqueness of basis representation)
If is a basis for a vector space V, then every
vector in V can be written in one and only one way as a linear
combination of vectors in S.
{ }
n
S v v v , , ,
2 1
=
Pf:

basis a is S
1. span(S) = V
2. S is linearly independent

span(S) = V Let v = c
1
v
1
+c
2
v
2
++c
n
v
n
v = b
1
v
1
+b
2
v
2
++b
n
v
n
0 = (c
1
b
1
)v
1
+(c
2
b
2
)v
2
++(c
n
b
n
)v
n
t independen linearly is S
(i.e., uniqueness) c
1
= b
1
, c
2
= b
2
,, c
n
= b
n
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.5, p.224
56/107
Thm 4.10: (Bases and linear dependence)
If is a basis for a vector space V, then every
set containing more than n vectors in V is linearly dependent.
{ }
n
S v v v , , ,
2 1
=
Pf:
S
1
= {u
1
, u
2
, , u
m
} , m > n Let
V S span = ) (
u
i
eV
n nm m m m
n n
n n
c c c

c c c
c c c
v v v u
v v v u
v v v u
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =

2 2 1 1
2 2 22 1 12 2
1 2 21 1 11 1

Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.5, p.225


57/107
L.I. is S
d
i
=0 i
i.e.
0

0
0
2 2 1 1
2 2 22 1 21
1 2 12 1 11
= + + +
= + + +
= + + +
m nm n n
m m
m m
k c k c k c
k c k c k c
k c k c k c

Let k
1
u
1
+k
2
u
2
++k
m
u
m
= 0
(where d
i
= c
i1
k
1
+c
i2
k
2
++c
im
k
m
) d
1
v
1
+d
2
v
2
++d
n
v
n
= 0
Thm 1.1: If the homogeneous system has fewer equations
than variables, then it must have infinitely many solution.

m > n k
1
u
1
+k
2
u
2
++k
m
u
m
= 0 has nontrivial solution
S
1
is linearly dependent
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.5, p.225
58/107
Thm 4.11: (Number of vectors in a basis)
If a vector space V has one basis with n vectors, then every
basis for V has n vectors. (All bases for a finite-dimensional
vector space has the same number of vectors.)
Pf:
S ={v
1
, v
2
, , v
n
}
S'={u
1
, u
2
, , u
m
}
two bases for a vector space
m n
m n
S
S
m n
S
S
Thm
Thm
=

s
)
`

>
)
`

10 . 4 .
10 . 4 .
basis a is '
L.I. is
L.I. is '
basis a is
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.5, p.226
59/107
Finite dimensional:
A vector space V is called finite dimensional,
if it has a basis consisting of a finite number of elements.
Infinite dimensional:
If a vector space V is not finite dimensional,
then it is called infinite dimensional.
Dimension:
The dimension of a finite dimensional vector space V is
defined to be the number of vectors in a basis for V.
V: a vector space S: a basis for V
dim(V) = #(S) (the number of vectors in S)
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.5, p.227
60/107
Notes:
(1) dim({0}) = 0 = #()
(2) dim(V) = n , S_V
Sa generating set #(S) > n
Sa L.I. set #(S) s n
Sa basis #(S) = n
(3) dim(V) = n , W is a subspace of V dim(W) s n
Generating
Sets
Bases
Linearly
Independent
Sets
#(S) > n #(S) = n #(S) < n
dim(V) = n
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.5, Addition
61/107
Ex:
(1) Vector space R
n
basis {e
1
, e
2
, . , e
n
}
(2) Vector space M
mn
basis {E
ij
| 1sism , 1sjsn}
(3) Vector space P
n
(x) basis {1, x, x
2
, . , x
n
}
(4) Vector space P(x) basis {1, x, x
2
, .}
dim(R
n
) = n
dim(M
mn
)=mn
dim(P
n
(x)) = n+1
dim(P(x)) =
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.5, Addition
62/107
Ex 9: (Finding the dimension of a subspace)
(a) W={(d, cd, c): c and d are real numbers}
(b) W={(2b, b, 0): b is a real number}
Sol: (Note: Find a set of L.I. vectors that spans the subspace)
(a) (d, c d, c) = c(0, 1, 1) + d(1, 1, 0)
S = {(0, 1, 1) , (1, 1, 0)} (S is L.I. and S spans W)
S is a basis for W
dim(W) = #(S) = 2
S = {(2, 1, 0)} spans W and S is L.I.
S is a basis for W
dim(W) = #(S) = 1
( ) ( ) 0 , 1 , 2 0 , , 2 b b b = (b)
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.5, p.228
63/107
Ex 11: (Finding the dimension of a subspace)
Let W be the subspace of all symmetric matrices in M
22
.
What is the dimension of W?
Sol:

e
(

= R c b a
c b
b a
W , ,
(

+
(

+
(

=
(

1 0
0 0
0 1
1 0
0 0
0 1
c b a
c b
b a

)
`

=
1 0
0 0
,
0 1
1 0
,
0 0
0 1
S spans W and S is L.I.
S is a basis for W dim(W) = #(S) = 3
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.5, p.229
64/107
Thm 4.12: (Basis tests in an n-dimensional space)
Let V be a vector space of dimension n.
(1) If is a linearly independent set of
vectors in V, then S is a basis for V.
(2) If spans V, then S is a basis for V.
Generating
Sets
Bases
Linearly
Independent
Sets
dim(V) = n
#(S) > n
#(S) = n
#(S) < n
{ }
n 2 1
, , , S v v v =
{ }
n 2 1
, , , S v v v =
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.5, p.229
65/107
Keywords in Section 4.5:
basis
dimension
finite dimension
infinite dimension
66/107
Let A be an mn matrix.
Row space:
The row space of A is the subspace of R
n
spanned by
the row vectors of A.
} ,..., , | ... { ) (
2 1 ) ( ) 2 ( 2 ) 1 ( 1
R
A A A
A RS
m m m
e + + + =
o o o o o o
Column space:
The column space of A is the subspace of R
m
spanned by
the column vectors of A.
( ) } , , {
2 1
) ( (2)
2
(1)
1
R A A A A CS
n
n
n
e + + + = | | | | | |
} | { ) ( 0 x x = e = A
R
A NS
n
Null space:
The null space of A is the set of all solutions of Ax=0 and
it is a subspace of R
n
.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.233
67/107
4.6 Rank of a Matrix and Systems of Linear Equations

( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
m
mn m m
n
n
A
A
A
a a a
a a a
a a a
A

2
1
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
) (
(2)
(1)
] , , , [
] , , , [
] , , , [
n mn m2 m1
2n 22 21
1n 12 11
A a a a
A a a a
A a a a
=
=
=

Row vectors of A
row vectors:
( ) ( ) ( )
| |
n
mn m m
n
n
A A A
a a a
a a a
a a a
A

2 1
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
=
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

mn
n
n
m m
a
a
a

a
a
a

a
a
a


2
1
2
22
12
1
21
11
Column vectors of A column vectors:
|| || ||
A
(1)
A
(2)
A
(n)
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.232
68/107
Notes:
(1) The row space of a matrix is not changed by elementary
row operations.
RS(r(A)) = RS(A) r: elementary row operations
(2) Elementary row operations can change the column space.
Thm 4.13: (Row-equivalent matrices have the same row space)
If an mn matrix A is row equivalent to an mn matrix B,
then the row space of A is equal to the row space of B.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.233
69/107
Thm 4.14: (Basis for the row space of a matrix)
If a matrix A is row equivalent to a matrix B in row-echelon
form, then the nonzero row vectors of B form a basis for the
row space of A.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.234
70/107
Find a basis of row space of A =
(
(
(
(
(
(


2 4 0 2
1 2 4 3
1 6 0 3
0 1 1 0
3 1 3 1
Ex 2: ( Finding a basis for a row space)
Sol:
(
(
(
(
(
(


2 4 0 2
1 2 4 3
1 6 0 3
0 1 1 0
3 1 3 1
A=
(
(
(
(
(
(

0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
3 1 3 1
3
2
1
w
w
w
B =
. E . G
b b b b a a a a
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1


Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.234
71/107
Notes:
2 1 3 2 1 3
2 2 (1) a a a b b b + = + =
L.I. is } , , { L.I. is } , , { (2)
4 2 1 4 2 1
a a a b b b
a basis for RS(A) = {the nonzero row vectors of B} (Thm 4.14)
= {w
1
, w
2
, w
3
} = {(1, 3, 1, 3), (0, 1, 1, 0), (0, 0, 0, 1)}
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.234
72/107
Ex 3: (Finding a basis for a subspace)
Find a basis for the subspace of R
3
spanned by
} 8) 1, (5, , 3) 0, (3, , 5) 2, 1, ( {
3 2 1
v v v
= S
Sol:
a basis for span({v
1
, v
2
, v
3
})
= a basis for RS(A)
= {the nonzero row vectors of B} (Thm 4.14)
= {w
1
, w
2
}
= {(1, 2, 5) , (0, 1, 3)}
(
(
(

8 1 5
3 0 3
5 2 1
3
2
1
v
v
v

0 0 0
3 1 0
5 2 1
(
(
(


= B
A =
G.E.
2
1
w
w
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.235
73/107
Ex 4: (Finding a basis for the column space of a matrix)
Find a basis for the column space of the matrix A given in Ex 2.
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
2 4 0 2
1 2 4 3
1 6 0 3
0 1 1 0
3 1 3 1
A
Sol. 1:
3
2
1
. .
0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0
6 5 9 1 0
2 3 3 0 1

2 1 1 0 3
4 2 6 1 1
0 4 0 1 3
2 3 3 0 1
w
w
w
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

= B A
E G
T
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.236
74/107
CS(A)=RS(A
T
)
(a basis for the column space of A)
a basis for CS(A)
= a basis for RS(A
T
)
= {the nonzero vectors of B}
= {w
1
, w
2
, w
3
}

(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(

=
1
1
1
0
0
,
6
5
9
1
0
,
2
3
3
0
1

Note: This basis is not a subset of {c


1
, c
2
, c
3
, c
4
}.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.236
75/107
Notes:
(1) This basis is a subset of {c
1
, c
2
, c
3
, c
4
}.
(2) v
3
= 2v
1
+ v
2
, thus c
3
= 2c
1
+ c
2
.
Sol. 2:
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
3 1 3 1
2 4 0 2
1 2 4 3
1 6 0 3
0 1 1 0
3 1 3 1
. .
B A
E G
Leading 1 => {v
1
, v
2
, v
4
} is a basis for CS(B)
{c
1
, c
2
, c
4
} is a basis for CS(A)
v v v v c c c c
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1


Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.236
76/107
Thm 4.16: (Solutions of a homogeneous system)
If A is an mn matrix, then the set of all solutions of the
homogeneous system of linear equations Ax = 0 is a subspace
of R
n
called the nullspace of A.
n
n
R A NS
c A c c A
A A A
A A A NS
A A NS
R A NS
of subspace a is ) ( Thus
tion multiplica Scalar ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 (
Addition ) ( ) 1 ( Then
) , i.e. ( ) ( , Let
) ( ) (
) (
1 1
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
0 0 x x
0 0 0 x x x x
0 x 0 x x x
0 0
= = =
= + = + = +
= = e
= =
e
|
Pf:
Notes: The nullspace of A is also called the solution space of
the homogeneous system Ax = 0.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.239
} 0 | { ) ( = e = Ax R x A NS
n
77/107
Ex 6: (Finding the solution space of a homogeneous system)
Find the nullspace of the matrix A.
Sol: The nullspace of A is the solution space of Ax = 0.
(
(
(

=
3 0 2 1
4 5 6 3
1 2 2 1
A
(
(
(


(
(
(

=
0 0 0 0
1 1 0 0
3 0 2 1
3 0 2 1
4 5 6 3
1 2 2 1
. . E J G
A
x
1
= 2s 3t, x
2
= s, x
3
= t, x
4
= t
2 1
v v x t s t s
t
t
s
t s
x
x
x
x
+ =
(
(
(
(

+
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(


=
(
(
(
(

=
1
1
0
3
0
0
1
2 3 2
4
3
2
1
} , | { ) (
2 1
R t s t s A NS e + = v v
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.240
78/107
Thm 4.15: (Row and column space have equal dimensions)
If A is an mn matrix, then the row space and the column
space of A have the same dimension.
dim(RS(A)) = dim(CS(A))
Rank:
The dimension of the row (or column) space of a matrix A
is called the rank of A and is denoted by rank(A).
rank(A) = dim(RS(A)) = dim(CS(A))
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, pp.237-238
79/107
Note: rank(A
T
) = rank(A)
Pf: rank(A
T
) = dim(RS(A
T
)) = dim(CS(A)) = rank(A)
Nullity:
The dimension of the nullspace of A is called the nullity of A.
nullity(A) = dim(NS(A))
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.238
80/107
Thm 4.17: (Dimension of the solution space)
If A is an mn matrix of rank r, then the dimension of
the solution space of Ax = 0 is n r. That is
n = rank(A) + nullity(A)
Notes:
(1) rank(A): The number of leading variables in the solution of Ax=0.
(The number of nonzero rows in the row-echelon form of A)
(2) nullity (A): The number of free variables in the solution of Ax = 0.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.241
81/107
Fundamental Space Dimension
RS(A)=CS(A
T
) r
CS(A)=RS(A
T
) r
NS(A) n r
NS(A
T
) m r
Notes:
If A is an mn matrix and rank(A) = r, then
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, Addition
82/107
Ex 7: (Rank and nullity of a matrix)
Let the column vectors of the matrix A be denoted by a
1
, a
2
,
a
3
, a
4
, and a
5
.
(
(
(
(




=
12 0 9 3 0
3 1 1 1 2
3 1 3 1 0
0 1 2 0 1
A
a
1
a
2
a
3
a
4
a
5

(a) Find the rank and nullity of A.
(b) Find a subset of the column vectors of A that forms a basis for
the column space of A .
(c) If possible, write the third column of A as a linear combination
of the first two columns.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.242
83/107
Sol: Let B be the reduced row-echelon form of A.
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(




=
0 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0
4 0 3 1 0
1 0 2 0 1
12 0 9 3 0
3 1 1 1 2
3 1 3 1 0
0 1 2 0 1
B A
a
1
a
2
a
3
a
4
a
5
b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5

2 3 5 ) ( rank ) ( nuillity = = = A n A
(a) rank(A) = 3 (the number of nonzero rows in B)
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.242
84/107
(b) Leading 1
,
0
1
1
1
and ,
3
1
1
0
,
0
2
0
1
4 2 1
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

= a a a
) ( for basis a is } , , {
) ( for basis a is } , , {
4 2 1
4 2 1
A CS
B CS
a a a
b b b

2 1 3
3 2 a a a + =
+ =
2 1 3
3 2 b b b (c)
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.243
85/107
Thm 4.18: (Solutions of a nonhomogeneous linear system)
If x
p
is a particular solution of the nonhomogeneous system
Ax = b, then every solution of this system can be written in
the form x = x
p
+ x
h
, wher x
h
is a solution of the corresponding
homogeneous system Ax = 0.
Pf:
. ) ( 0 b b x x x x = = =
p p
A A A
h p
x x x + =
p h
x x x = Let
Let x be any solution of Ax = b.
) (
p
x x is a solution of Ax = 0
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.243
86/107
Ex 8: (Finding the solution set of a nonhomogeneous system)
Find the set of all solution vectors of the system of linear equations.



Sol:
9 5 2
8 5 3
5 2
4 2 1
3 2 1
4 3 1
= +
= +
= +
x x x
x x x
x x x
(
(
(


(
(
(

0 0 0 0 0
7 3 1 1 0
5 1 2 0 1
9 5 0 2 1
8 0 5 1 3
5 1 2 0 1
. . E J G
s t
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.243
87/107
(
(
(
(

+
(
(
(
(

+
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

+ +
+ +
+
+
=
(
(
(
(

=
0
0
7
5
1
0
3
1
0
1
1
2
0 0
0 0
7 3
5 2
4
3
2
1
t s
t s
t s
t s
t s
x
x
x
x
x
p
t s x u u + + =
2 1
i.e.
(
(
(
(

=
0
0
7
5
p
x
x
h
= su
1
+ tu
2
is a solution of Ax = 0
is a particular solution vector of Ax=b.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.244
88/107
Thm 4.19: (Solution of a system of linear equations)
The system of linear equations Ax = b is consistent if and only
if b is in the column space of A.
Pf:
Let
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
m n mn m m
n
n
b
b
b
x
x
x
a a a
a a a
a a a
A

2
1
2
1
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
and , , b x
be the coefficient matrix, the column matrix of unknowns,
and the right-hand side, respectively, of the system Ax = b.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, pp.244-245
89/107
Then
.

2
1
2
22
12
2
1
21
11
1
2 2 1 1
2 2 22 1 21
1 2 12 1 11
2
1
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
(
(
(
(

+ +
(
(
(
(

+
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
=
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

=
mn
n
n
n
m m
n mn m m
n n
n n
n mn m m
n
n
a
a
a
x
a
a
a
x
a
a
a
x
x a x a x a
x a x a x a
x a x a x a
x
x
x
a a a
a a a
a a a
A

x
Hence, Ax = b is consistent if and only if b is a linear combination
of the columns of A. That is, the system is consistent if and only if
b is in the subspace of R
m
spanned by the columns of A.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.245
90/107
Ex 9: (Consistency of a system of linear equations)
1 2 3
3
1
3 2 1
3 1
3 2 1
= +
= +
= +
x x x
x x
x x x
(
(
(


(
(
(

=
0 0 0
2 1 0
1 0 1
1 2 3
1 0 1
1 1 1
. . . E J G
A
Sol:
Note:
If rank([A|b])=rank(A)
Then the system Ax=b is consistent.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.245
91/107
(
(
(


(
(
(


=
0 0 0 0
4 2 1 0
3 1 0 1
1 1 2 3
3 1 0 1
1 1 1 1
] [
. . . E J G
A b
c
1
c
2
c
3
b w
1
w
2
w
3
v
(b is in the column space of A)
3 2 1
2 1
0 4 3
4 3
c c c b
w w v
+ =
=

The system of linear equations is consistent.


Check:
2 ]) ([ rank ) ( rank = = b A A
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.245
92/107
Summary of equivalent conditions for square matrices:
If A is an nn matrix, then the following conditions are equivalent.
(1) A is invertible
(2) Ax = b has a unique solution for any n1 matrix b.
(3) Ax = 0 has only the trivial solution
(4) A is row-equivalent to I
n

0 | | = A
(5)
(6) rank(A) = n
(7) The n row vectors of A are linearly independent.
(8) The n column vectors of A are linearly independent.
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.6, p.246
93/107
Keywords in Section 4.6:
row space :
column space :
null space:
solution space :
rank:
nullity :
94/107
4.7 Coordinates and Change of Basis
Coordinate representation relative to a basis
Let B = {v
1
, v
2
, , v
n
} be an ordered basis for a vector space V
and let x be a vector in V such that
.
2 2 1 1 n n
c c c v v v x + + + =
The scalars c
1
, c
2
, , c
n
are called the coordinates of x relative
to the basis B. The coordinate matrix (or coordinate vector)
of x relative to B is the column matrix in R
n
whose components
are the coordinates of x.
| |
(
(
(
(

=
n
B
c
c
c

2
1
x
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.7, p.249
95/107
Ex 1: (Coordinates and components in R
n
)
Find the coordinate matrix of x = (2, 1, 3) in R
3
relative to the standard basis
S = {(1, 0, 0), ( 0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1)}
Sol:
), 1 , 0 , 0 ( 3 ) 0 , 1 , 0 ( 1 ) 0 , 0 , 1 ( 2 ) 3 , 1 , 2 ( + + = = x
.
3
1
2
] [
(
(
(

=
S
x
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.7, p.250
96/107
Ex 3: (Finding a coordinate matrix relative to a nonstandard basis)
Find the coordinate matrix of x=(1, 2, 1) in R
3
relative to the (nonstandard) basis
B ' = {u
1
, u
2
, u
3
}={(1, 0, 1), (0, 1, 2), (2, 3, 5)}
Sol:
) 5 , 3 , 2 ( ) 2 , 1 , 0 ( ) 1 , 0 , 1 ( ) 1 , 2 , 1 (
3 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
+ + = + + = c c c c c c u u u x
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

(
(
(

= +
= +
= +

1
2
1
5 2 1
3 1 0
2 0 1
i.e.
1 5 2
2 3
1 2

3
2
1
3 2 1
3 2
3 1
c
c
c
c c c
c c
c c
(
(
(

=
'
2
8
5
] [
B
x
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.7, p.251

2 1 0 0
8 0 1 0
5 0 0 1

1 5 2 1
2 3 1 0
1 2 0 1

E. G. J.
(
(
(


(
(
(



97/107
Change of basis problem:
You were given the coordinates of a vector relative to one
basis B and were asked to find the coordinates relative to
another basis B'.
} , { }, , {
2 1 2 1
u u u u
' '
=
'
= B B
(

=
'
(

=
'
d
c
b
a
B B
] [ , ] [ f I
2 1
u u
2 1 2 2 1 1
, .e., i u u u u u u d c b a + =
'
+ =
'
Ex: (Change of basis)
Consider two bases for a vector space V
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.7, p.253
98/107
(

= e
'
2
1
] [ ,
k
k
V
B
v v Let
2 2 1 1 2 1
2 1 2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
u u
u u u u
u u v
d k b k c k a k
d c k b a k
k k
+ + + =
+ + + =
'
+
'
=
| | | | | | | |
B
B B
B
k
k
d b
c a
d k b k
c k a k
'
' '
=
(

=
(

+
+
=
v u u
v

] [
2 1
2
1
2 1
2 1
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.7, p.253
99/107
Transition matrix from B' to B:
V
B B
n n
space vector a for
bases two be } ..., , { nd a } ,..., , { et L
2 1 2 1
u u u u u u
' ' '
=
'
=
B B
P
'
= ] [ ] [ hen t v v
| | | | | | | | | |
B
B
n B B
v ,..., ,
'
' ' '
=
1
u u u
2
| | | | | | | |
B
n B B
P u u u
2
' ' '
= ..., , ,
1
where
is called the transition matrix from B' to B
If [v]
B
is the coordinate matrix of v relative to B
[v]
B
is the coordinate matrix of v relative to B'
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.7, p.255
100/107
Thm 4.20: (The inverse of a transition matrix)
If P is the transition matrix from a basis B' to a basis B in R
n
,
then
(1) P is invertible
(2) The transition matrix from B to B' is P
1
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
B B B n B B B
B B B n B B B
n n
P
P
B B
v v u u u v
v v u u u v
u u u u u u
1
1
] [ ..., , ] [ , ] [
] [ ..., , ] [ , ] [
} ..., , , { ' , } ..., , , {
1
2 1
2
2 2 1

' ' ' '


' '
= =
=
' ' '
=
' ' '
= =
Notes:
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.7, p.253
101/107
Thm 4.21: (Transition matrix from B to B')
Let B={v
1
, v
2
, , v
n
} and B' ={u
1
, u
2
,

, u
n
} be two bases
for R
n
. Then the transition matrix P
1
from B to B' can be found
by using Gauss-Jordan elimination on the n2n matrix
as follows.

| | B B
'
| | B B
' | |
1
P I
n

Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.7, p.255


102/107
Ex 5: (Finding a transition matrix)
B={(3, 2), (4,2)} and B' ={(1, 2), (2,2)} are two bases for R
2

(a) Find the transition matrix from B' to B.
(b)
(c) Find the transition matrix from B to B' .
B B
] [ find ,
2
1
] [ Let
'
v v
(

=
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.7, p.257
103/107
Sol:
(a)







(

2 2
2 1
2 2
4 3

) 2 , 3 ( ) 2 , 4 )( 0 ( ) 2 , 3 )( 1 (
0
1
] [
) 2 , 3 ( ) 2 , 2 )( 2 ( ) 2 , 1 )( 1 (
2
1
] [
: Check
= + =
(

=
= + =
(

=
'
v v
v v
B
B
(

=
(

= =
(

=
' '
0
1
2
1
1 2
2 3
] [ ] [
2
1
] [
B B B
P v v v
(b)
(

1 2
2 3
1 0
0 1

G.J.E.
B B' I P

(

=
1 2
2 3
P (the transition matrix from B' to B)
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.7, p.258
104/107
(c)
(the transition matrix from B to B')
(

=

3 2
2 1
1
P
(

2 2
4 3
2 2
2 1

3 2
2 1
1 0
0 1

G.J.E.
B' B I P
-1
Check:
2
1
1 0
0 1
3 2
2 1
1 2
2 3
I PP =
(

=
(

Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.7, p.259


105/107
Ex 6: (Coordinate representation in P
3
(x))
(a) Find the coordinate matrix of p = 3x
3
-2x
2
+4 relative to the
standard basis S = {1, x, x
2
, x
3
} in P
3
(x).
(b) Find the coordinate matrix of p = 3x
3
-2x
2
+4 relative to the
basis S = {1, 1+x, 1+ x
2
, 1+ x
3
} in P
3
(x).
Sol:

(
(
(
(

= + + + + + + =
3
2
0
3
] [ ) (3)(1 ) (-2)(1 ) 0)(1 ( (3)(1) (b)
3 2
B
p x x x p
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 4.7, p.259
(
(
(
(

= + + + =
3
2
0
4
] [ ) (3)( ) (-2)( ) 0)( ( (4)(1) (a)
3 2
B
p x x x p
106/107
Ex: (Coordinate representation in M
2x2
)
Find the coordinate matrix of x = relative to
the standard basis in M
2x2
.
B =
Sol:
(

8 7
6 5
)
`

1 0
0 0
,
0 1
0 0
,
0 0
1 0
,
0 0
0 1
| |
(
(
(
(

=
(

+
(

+
(

+
(

=
(

=
8
7
6
5
1 0
0 0
8
0 1
0 0
7
0 0
1 0
6
0 0
0 1
5
8 7
6 5
B
x
x
Elementary Linear Algebra: Section 5.7, Addition
107/107
Keywords in Section 4.7:
coordinates of x relative to BxB
coordinate matrix
coordinate vector
change of basis problem
transition matrix from B' to B B' B