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DIESEL COMMON RAIL

SYSTEM

GROUP PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION
ABSTRACT: In the common rail system, fuel is distributed to the
injectors from a high pressure accumulator, called the rail. The
rail is fed by a high pressure fuel pump. The pressure in the rail,
as well as the start and end of the signal that activates the
injector for each cylinder are electronically controlled.
Advantages of the common rail system include flexibility in
controlling both the injection timing and injection rate.
FUNCTION OF EACH COMPONENT
TANK Restores the fuel .
ELECTRIC FUEL PUMP Supplies fuel to the high pressure pump .
FILTER It is vital that this is replaced in line with manufacturers
recommendations to ensure system cleanliness and lifespan .
FUEL RAIL PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE Enables excess fuel to
overflow back into the fuel tank .
RETURN MANIFOLD Controls the return of fuel back to the fuel
tank .
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP the high pressure pump is the heart of the
fuel system. This is where diesel fuel has its pressure increased it is
engine driven, system dependent and can generate in excess of 2,000
BAR to put this pressure into perspective a common car tyre
pressure would be around 2.5 to 3.5 BAR .


RAIL PRESSURE SENSOR Monitors system pressure
COMMON RAIL Where fuel is stored and passed into the injectors
for injection
FUEL METERING CONTROL VALVE Control the fuel intake volume to
the pump.
INJECTORS The injectors in the common rail system are controlled
and operated by the ECM after taking into consideration multiple
sensor and signal inputs.
ECM CONTROL UNIT Engine Control Module (ECM) which receives
feedback from the various sensors in the system and adjusts the
pressure and fuel injection accordingly

COMPONENTS OF COMMON RAIL
Advantage of common rail system

Fuel pressure available on demand
Higher injection pressure and finer atomization of fuel
Injection pressure created independent of engine speed
Multiple injection per cylinder combustion are possible


Benefit of common rail

Reduction of overall exhaust emission
Reduction of particulate emission
Reduction of noise emission
Improved fuel efficiency
Higher performance


Disadvantages Of Common rail System
High-cost maintenance
Expensive spare-parts
Specialist technician@mechanics needed
Not economical engines (fuel) than conventional diesel
engine
Difficult to diagnose@special tools must be use for any
troubleshooting