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The Nature and Scope of

Organizational Behavior
Fundamentals of
Organizational Behavior 2e

Andrew J. DuBrin
PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook
Chapter
1
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 12
Learning Objectives
1. Explain what organizational behavior means.
2. Summarize the research methods of
organizational behavior.
3. Identify the potential advantages of organizational
behavior knowledge.
4. Explain key events in the history of organizational
behavior.
5. Describe how focusing on the human element can
contribute to organizational and managerial
effectiveness.
6. Understand how a person develops organizational
skills.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 13
The Meaning of Organizational Behavior
Organizational behavior (OB) is
the study of human behavior in the workplace,
the interaction between people and the organization,
and the organization itself.
Organizational behaviors major goals are to
explain, predict, and control behavior.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 14
OB Data Collection and Research Methods
Data collection methods
Survey questionnaires
Interviews
Direct observation
Systematic observation
Participant observation
Researcher methods
Case studies
Laboratory experiments
Field experiments (or studies)
Meta-analysis
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 15
Benefits of Studying Organizational Behavior
Develop skills to function effectively in the workplace.
Grow personally through insight into human behavior.
Enhance overall organizational effectiveness
Sharpen and refine
common sense.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 16
Key Developments in OB History
The Hawthorne Studies at Western Electric
Originally intended as a study of the effects of
environmental changes on productivity.
The Hawthorne Effect the tendency of people to behave
differently (perform better) when they receive attention.
Key Findings
1. Economic incentives are less potent than generally believed.
2. Dealing with human problems is complicated and challenging.
3. Leadership practices and work-group pressures strongly
influence productivity, satisfaction, and performance.
4. Personal problems influence worker productivity.
5. Effective communication is critical to success.
6. Factors embedded in the social system influence behavior.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 17
Key Developments in OB History
The Human Relations Movement
Based on belief that managerial practices, morale, and
productivity are strongly linked and that the proper working
environment enhances worker capabilities.
Douglas McGregor
Theory X
Managers assume people dislike work,
avoid responsibility, lack ambition,
and need close supervision.
Theory Y
Managers assume people enjoy
work, accept responsibility,
are innovative, and are
self-controlling.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 18
Key Developments in OB History
The Contingency Approach
Emphasizes that there is no one best way to manage
people. Different situations require managers to make
decisions about which managerial methods and approaches
to use in a specific instance.
Knowledge of organizational behavior and management is
essential to the examination of individual
and situational differences before
deciding a course of action.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 19
Key Managerial Practices of Successful
Organizations
1. Employment security.
2. High standards in
selecting personnel.
3. Extensive use of self-
managed teams and
decentralized decision
making.
4. Comparatively high
compensation based on
performance.
5. Extensive employee
training.
6. Reduction of status
differences between
higher management and
other employees.
7. Information sharing
among managers and
other workers.
8. Promotion from within.
Source: Jeffery Pfeffer, The Human Equation (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1998),
pp. 6498; Joanne Cole, Interview with Jeffery Pfeffer: Putting People First, HRFOCUS, April 1998,
pp. 1112; Pfeffer, Producing Sustainable Competitive Advantage through the Effective
Management of People, Academy of Management Executive, February 1995, pp. 6465.
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A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 110
Skill Development in Organizational
Behavior
General learning model
1. Conceptual information and behavioral
guidelines.
2. Conceptual information demonstrated by
example and brief descriptions.
3. Experiential exercises in the form of practice
cases and self-assessment exercises.
4. Feedback on skill utilization, or performance,
from others.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 111
A Model for Developing
Organizational Behavior Skills
Skill Development
in Organizational
Behavior
Learner Uses
1. Conceptual knowledge
and behavior guidelines
2. Conceptual information and
examples
3. Experiential exercises
4. Feedback on skill
utilization
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A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 112
A Framework for Studying Organizational Behavior
The Organizational System
and the Global Environment
Organizational structure and design
Organizational culture and change
The learning organization and
knowledge management
Cultural diversity and international
organizational behavior
Individual Level
Individual differences, mental
ability, and personality
Learning, perception, attitudes,
values, and ethics
Individual decision making
and creativity
Foundation concepts of motivation
Conflict, stress, and well-being
Groups and Interpersonal
Relations
Interpersonal communication
Group dynamics and teamwork
Leadership
Power, politics, and influence
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