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You are on page 1of 65

and its Applications

Martin Charles Golumbic

Algorithmic Graph Theory 2

Introduction

Intersection Graphs

Interval Graphs

Greedy Coloring

The Berge Mystery Story

Other Structure Families of Graphs

Graph Sandwich Problems

Probe Graphs and Tolerance Graphs

Algorithmic Graph Theory 3

The

concept of an

intersection graph

applications in computation

operations research

molecular biology

scheduling

designing circuits

rich mathematical problems

Algorithmic Graph Theory 4

Defining some terms

graph: a collection of vertices and edges

coloring a graph:

assigning a color to every vertex,

such that

adjacent vertices have different colors

Algorithmic Graph Theory 5

independent set: a collection of vertices

NO two of which are connected

Example: { d, e, f } or the green set

clique (or complete set):

EVERY two of which are connected

Example: { a, b, d } or { c, e }

Algorithmic Graph Theory 6

complement of a graph:

interchanging the edges and the non-edges

The complement G The original graph G

__

Algorithmic Graph Theory 7

directed graph: edges have directions

(possibly both directions)

orientation: exactly ONE direction per edge

cyclic orientation acyclic orientation

Interval Graphs

The intersection graphs of intervals on a line:

- create a vertex for each interval

- connect vertices when their intervals intersect

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Sep Oct Nov Dec

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Task 4

Task 5

1 2 3

4 5

The interval graph G

Algorithmic Graph Theory 9

History of Interval Graphs

Hajos 1957: Combinatorics (scheduling)

Benzer 1959: Biology (genetics)

Gilmore & Hoffman 1964: Characterization

Booth & Lueker 1976: First linear time

recognition algorithm

Many other applications:

mobile radio frequency assignment

VLSI design

temporal reasoning in AI

computer storage allocation

Scheduling Example

Lectures need to be assigned classrooms at

the University.

Lecture #a: 9:00-10:15

Lecture #b: 10:00-12:00

etc.

Conflicting lectures Different rooms

How many rooms?

Scheduling Example (cont.)

Scheduling Example (graphs)

(a) The interval graph

(b) Its complement (disjointness)

Algorithmic Graph Theory 13

Coloring Interval Graphs

interval graphs have special properties

used to color them efficiently

coloring algorithm sweeps across from

left to right assigning colors

in a ``greedy manner

This is optimal !

Algorithmic Graph Theory 14

Coloring Interval Graphs

Algorithmic Graph Theory 15

Coloring Intervals (greedy)

Algorithmic Graph Theory 16

Is greedy the best we can do?

Can we prove optimality?

Yes: It uses the smallest # colors.

Proof: Let k be the number of colors used.

Look at the point P, when color k was used first.

At P all the colors 1 to k-1 were busy!

We are forced to use k colors at P.

And, they form a clique of size k in the interval graph.

Algorithmic Graph Theory 17

Coloring Intervals (greedy)

P (needs 4 colors)

Algorithmic Graph Theory 18

Coloring Interval Graphs

The clique

at point P

Algorithmic Graph Theory 19

Greedy the best we can do !

Formally,

(1) at least k colors are required

(because of the clique)

(2) greedy succeeded using k colors.

Therefore,

the solution is optimal. Q.E.D.

Algorithmic Graph Theory 20

Characterizing Interval Graphs

Properties of interval graphs

How to recognize them

Their mathematical structure

Algorithmic Graph Theory 21

Characterizing Interval Graphs

Properties of interval graphs

How to recognize them

Their mathematical structure

Two properties characterize interval graphs:

- The Chordal Graph Property

- The co-TRO Property

Algorithmic Graph Theory 22

The Chordal Graph Property

chordal graph:

every cycle of length > 4 has a chord

(connecting two vertices that are not consecutive)

i.e., they may not contain chordless cycles!

Algorithmic Graph Theory 23

Interval Graphs are Chordal

Interval graphs may not contain chordless cycles!

- i.e., they are chordal. Why?

Algorithmic Graph Theory 24

Interval Graphs are Chordal

Interval graphs may not contain chordless cycles!

- i.e., they are chordal. Why?

Algorithmic Graph Theory 25

The co-TRO Property

The transitive orientation (TRO) of the complement

i.e., the complement must have a TRO

Not transitive ! Transitive !

Algorithmic Graph Theory 26

Interval Graphs are co-TRO

The complement of an Interval graph has a

transitive orientation!

- Why?

The complement is the disjointness graph.

So, orient from the earlier interval

to the later interval.

Algorithmic Graph Theory 27

Gilmore and Hoffman (1964)

Theorem:

A graph G is an interval graph

if and only if G Is chordal and

its complement G is transitively orientable.

__

This provides the basis for the first set of recognition

algorithms in the early 1970s.

A Mystery in the Library

The Berge Mystery Story:

Six professors had been to the library on the

day that the rare tractate was stolen.

Each had entered once, stayed for some time

and then left.

If two were in the library at the same time, then

at least one of them saw the other.

Detectives questioned the professors and

gathered the following testimony:

Abe said that he saw Burt and Eddie

Burt reported that he saw Abe and Ida

Charlotte claimed to have seen

Desmond and Ida

Desmond said that he saw Abe and Ida

Eddie testified to seeing Burt and Charlotte

Ida said that she saw Charlotte and Eddie

One of the Professor LIED !! Who was it?

The Facts:

Solving the Mystery

The Testimony Graph

Clue #1:

Double arrows imply TRUTH

Solving the Mystery

Undirected Testimony Graph

We know there is a lie, since {A, B, I, D} is a chordless 4-cycle.

cycle

Intersecting Intervals cannot

form Chordless Cycles

Burt Desmond

Abe

No place for Idas interval:

It must hit both B and D but cannot hit A.

Impossible!

Solving the Mystery

There are three chordless 4-cycles:

{A, B, I, D} {A, D, I, E} {A, E, C, D}

Burt is NOT a liar: He is missing from the second cycle.

Ida is NOT a liar: She is missing from the third cycle.

Charlotte is NOT a liar: She is missing from the second.

Eddie is NOT a liar: He is missing from the first cycle.

WHO IS THE LIAR? Abe or Desmond ?

One professor from the chordless 4-cycle must be a liar.

Solving the Mystery (cont.)

WHO IS THE LIAR? Abe or Desmond ?

If Abe were the liar and Desmond truthful,

then {A, B, I, D} would remain a chordless 4-cycle,

since B and I are truthful.

Therefore:

Desmond is the liar.

Algorithmic Graph Theory 35

Was Desmond Stupid or

Just Ignorant?

If Desmond had studied algorithmic graph theory,

he would have known that his testimony to the

police would not hold up.

Algorithmic Graph Theory 36

Many other Families of

Intersection Graphs

Victor Klee, in a paper in 1969:

``What are the intersection graphs of arcs

in a circle?

Algorithmic Graph Theory 37

Many other Families of

Intersection Graphs

Victor Klee, in a paper in 1969:

``What are the intersection graphs of arcs

in a circle?

Algorithmic Graph Theory 38

Many other Families of

Intersection Graphs

Victor Klee, in a paper in 1969:

``What are the intersection graphs of arcs

in a circle?

Klees paper was an implicit challenge

- consider a whole variety of problems

- on many kinds of intersection graphs.

Algorithmic Graph Theory 39

Families of Intersection Graphs

boxes in the plane

paths in a tree

chords of a circle

spheres in 3-space

trapezoids, parallelograms, curves of functions

many other geometrical and topological bodies

Algorithmic Graph Theory 40

Families of Intersection Graphs

boxes in the plane

paths in a tree

chords of a circle

spheres in 3-space

trapezoids, parallelograms, curves of functions

many other geometrical and topological bodies

The Algorithmic Problems:

recognize them

color them

find maximum cliques

find maximum independent sets

Algorithmic Graph Theory 41

A small hierarchy

Algorithmic Graph Theory 42

Bell Labs in New Jersey (Spring 1981)

John Klincewicz: Suppose you are routing phone calls in a tree network.

Two calls interfere if they share an edge of the tree. How can you

optimally schedule the calls?

The Story Begins

Algorithmic Graph Theory 43

Bell Labs in New Jersey (Spring 1981)

John Klincewicz: Suppose you are routing phone calls in a tree network.

Two calls interfere if they share an edge of the tree. How can you

optimally schedule the calls?

The Story Begins

Algorithmic Graph Theory 44

Bell Labs in New Jersey (Spring 1981)

John Klincewicz: Suppose you are routing phone calls in a

tree network. Two calls interfere if they share an edge of the

tree. How can you optimally schedule the calls?

The Story Begins

A call is a path between a

pair of nodes.

A typical example of a type

of intersection graph.

Intersection here means

share an edge.

Coloring this intersection

graph is scheduling the calls.

An Olive Tree Network

Algorithmic Graph Theory 45

Edge Intersection Graphs of

Paths in a Tree (EPT graphs)

tree communication network

connecting different places

if two of these paths overlap,

they conflict and cannot use the

same resource at the same time.

Two types of intersections share an edge vs share a node

Algorithmic Graph Theory 46

EPT graphs

EPT graph

share an edge

Algorithmic Graph Theory 47

VPT graphs

VPT graph

share a node

Algorithmic Graph Theory 48

Some Interesting Theorems

VPT graphs are chordal

EPT graphs are NOT chordal

Algorithmic Graph Theory 49

Some Interesting Theorems

VPT graphs are chordal

Buneman, Gavril, Wallace (early 1970's)

G is the vertex intersection graph of subtrees

of a tree if and only if it is a chordal graph.

McMorris & Shier (1983)

A graph G is a vertex intersection graph of

distinct subtrees of a star if and only if both G

and its complement are chordal.

Algorithmic Graph Theory 50

Some Interesting Theorems

EPT graphs are NOT chordal

An EPT representation of C

6

called a 6-pie.

6

3

2

1

4

5

Chordless cycles have a unique EPT representation.

Algorithmic Graph Theory 51

Algorithmic Complexity Results

Algorithmic Graph Theory 52

Some Interesting Theorems

Folklore (1970s)

Every graph G is the edge intersection

graph of distinct subtrees of a star.

Algorithmic Graph Theory 53

Degree 3 host trees (continued)

Theorem (1985): All four classes are equivalent:

chordal EPT deg3 EPT

VPT EPT deg3 VPT

What about degree 4?

Algorithmic Graph Theory 54

Degree 3 host trees (continued)

Theorem (1985): All four classes are equivalent:

chordal EPT deg3 EPT

VPT EPT deg3 VPT

Theorem (2005) [Golumbic, Lipshteyn, Stern]:

weakly chordal EPT deg4

EPT

Degree 4 host trees

Algorithmic Graph Theory 55

Definition Weakly Chordal Graph

No induced C

m

for m 5,

and

no induced C

m

for m 5.

Weakly Chordal Graphs

Algorithmic Graph Theory 56

The Story Continues

Algorithmic Graph Theory 57

The Interval Graph

Sandwich Problem

Interval problems with missing edges

Benzers original problem

partial intersection data

Is it consistent ?

Complete data would be recognition

interval graphs (polynomial)

Partial data needs a different model and

is NP-complete

Algorithmic Graph Theory 58

Interval Graph Sandwich Problem

given a partially specified graph

E

1

required edges

E

2

optional edges

E

3

forbidden edges

Can you fill-in some of the optional edges,

so that the result will be an interval graph?

Golumbic & Shamir (1993): NP-Complete

Algorithmic Graph Theory 59

Interval Probe Graphs

A special tractable case of interval sandwich

Computational biology motivated

Interval probe graph: vertices are partitioned

P probes & N non-probes (independent set)

can fill-in some of the N x N edges,

so that the result will be an interval graph

Motivation

Algorithmic Graph Theory 60

Example: Interval Probe Graphs

Non-Probes are white

Probe graph NOT a Probe graph

no matter how you

partition vertices!

Algorithmic Graph Theory 61

Tolerance Graphs

What if you only have 3 classrooms?

Cancel a Lecture? or show Tolerance?

Algorithmic Graph Theory 62

Tolerance Graphs

Measured intersection:

small, or ``tolerable amount of overlap, may be

ignored does NOT produce an edge

at least one of them has to be ``bothered

Algorithmic Graph Theory 63

Tolerance Graphs

Assignment of positive numbers

{t

v

} (v V) such that

vw E if and only if | I

v

I

w

| min {t

v

, t

w

}

Measured intersection:

small, or ``tolerable amount of overlap, may be

ignored does NOT produce an edge

at least one of them has to be ``bothered

Algorithmic Graph Theory 64

Tolerance Graphs: Example

c and f will no longer conflict

| I

c

I

f

| < 60 = min {t

c

, t

f

}

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