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# Algorithmic Graph Theory 1

## Algorithmic Graph Theory

and its Applications
Martin Charles Golumbic
Algorithmic Graph Theory 2
Introduction
Intersection Graphs
Interval Graphs
Greedy Coloring
The Berge Mystery Story
Other Structure Families of Graphs
Graph Sandwich Problems
Probe Graphs and Tolerance Graphs
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The
concept of an
intersection graph
applications in computation
operations research
molecular biology
scheduling
designing circuits
rich mathematical problems
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Defining some terms
graph: a collection of vertices and edges
coloring a graph:
assigning a color to every vertex,
such that
adjacent vertices have different colors

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independent set: a collection of vertices
NO two of which are connected
Example: { d, e, f } or the green set

clique (or complete set):
EVERY two of which are connected
Example: { a, b, d } or { c, e }
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complement of a graph:
interchanging the edges and the non-edges
The complement G The original graph G
__
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directed graph: edges have directions
(possibly both directions)

orientation: exactly ONE direction per edge

cyclic orientation acyclic orientation
Interval Graphs
The intersection graphs of intervals on a line:
- create a vertex for each interval
- connect vertices when their intervals intersect
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Sep Oct Nov Dec
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
Task 4
Task 5
1 2 3
4 5
The interval graph G
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History of Interval Graphs
Hajos 1957: Combinatorics (scheduling)
Benzer 1959: Biology (genetics)
Gilmore & Hoffman 1964: Characterization
Booth & Lueker 1976: First linear time
recognition algorithm

Many other applications:
mobile radio frequency assignment
VLSI design
temporal reasoning in AI
computer storage allocation
Scheduling Example
Lectures need to be assigned classrooms at
the University.
Lecture #a: 9:00-10:15
Lecture #b: 10:00-12:00
etc.
Conflicting lectures Different rooms
How many rooms?
Scheduling Example (cont.)
Scheduling Example (graphs)
(a) The interval graph
(b) Its complement (disjointness)
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Coloring Interval Graphs
interval graphs have special properties
used to color them efficiently
coloring algorithm sweeps across from
left to right assigning colors
in a ``greedy manner
This is optimal !

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Coloring Interval Graphs
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Coloring Intervals (greedy)
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Is greedy the best we can do?
Can we prove optimality?
Yes: It uses the smallest # colors.
Proof: Let k be the number of colors used.
Look at the point P, when color k was used first.
At P all the colors 1 to k-1 were busy!
We are forced to use k colors at P.
And, they form a clique of size k in the interval graph.
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Coloring Intervals (greedy)
P (needs 4 colors)
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Coloring Interval Graphs
The clique
at point P
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Greedy the best we can do !
Formally,
(1) at least k colors are required
(because of the clique)
(2) greedy succeeded using k colors.
Therefore,
the solution is optimal. Q.E.D.
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Characterizing Interval Graphs
Properties of interval graphs
How to recognize them
Their mathematical structure
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Characterizing Interval Graphs
Properties of interval graphs
How to recognize them
Their mathematical structure
Two properties characterize interval graphs:
- The Chordal Graph Property
- The co-TRO Property
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The Chordal Graph Property
chordal graph:
every cycle of length > 4 has a chord
(connecting two vertices that are not consecutive)

i.e., they may not contain chordless cycles!

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Interval Graphs are Chordal
Interval graphs may not contain chordless cycles!

- i.e., they are chordal. Why?
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Interval Graphs are Chordal
Interval graphs may not contain chordless cycles!

- i.e., they are chordal. Why?
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The co-TRO Property
The transitive orientation (TRO) of the complement

i.e., the complement must have a TRO
Not transitive ! Transitive !
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Interval Graphs are co-TRO
The complement of an Interval graph has a
transitive orientation!

- Why?

The complement is the disjointness graph.
So, orient from the earlier interval
to the later interval.
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Gilmore and Hoffman (1964)
Theorem:
A graph G is an interval graph
if and only if G Is chordal and
its complement G is transitively orientable.
__
This provides the basis for the first set of recognition
algorithms in the early 1970s.
A Mystery in the Library
The Berge Mystery Story:
Six professors had been to the library on the
day that the rare tractate was stolen.
Each had entered once, stayed for some time
and then left.
If two were in the library at the same time, then
at least one of them saw the other.

Detectives questioned the professors and
gathered the following testimony:
Abe said that he saw Burt and Eddie
Burt reported that he saw Abe and Ida
Charlotte claimed to have seen
Desmond and Ida
Desmond said that he saw Abe and Ida
Eddie testified to seeing Burt and Charlotte
Ida said that she saw Charlotte and Eddie
One of the Professor LIED !! Who was it?
The Facts:

Solving the Mystery
The Testimony Graph
Clue #1:
Double arrows imply TRUTH
Solving the Mystery
Undirected Testimony Graph
We know there is a lie, since {A, B, I, D} is a chordless 4-cycle.
cycle
Intersecting Intervals cannot
form Chordless Cycles
Burt Desmond
Abe
No place for Idas interval:
It must hit both B and D but cannot hit A.
Impossible!
Solving the Mystery
There are three chordless 4-cycles:
{A, B, I, D} {A, D, I, E} {A, E, C, D}

Burt is NOT a liar: He is missing from the second cycle.
Ida is NOT a liar: She is missing from the third cycle.
Charlotte is NOT a liar: She is missing from the second.
Eddie is NOT a liar: He is missing from the first cycle.

WHO IS THE LIAR? Abe or Desmond ?
One professor from the chordless 4-cycle must be a liar.
Solving the Mystery (cont.)
WHO IS THE LIAR? Abe or Desmond ?
If Abe were the liar and Desmond truthful,
then {A, B, I, D} would remain a chordless 4-cycle,
since B and I are truthful.

Therefore:

Desmond is the liar.
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Was Desmond Stupid or
Just Ignorant?
If Desmond had studied algorithmic graph theory,
he would have known that his testimony to the
police would not hold up.
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Many other Families of
Intersection Graphs
Victor Klee, in a paper in 1969:

``What are the intersection graphs of arcs
in a circle?

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Many other Families of
Intersection Graphs
Victor Klee, in a paper in 1969:

``What are the intersection graphs of arcs
in a circle?

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Many other Families of
Intersection Graphs
Victor Klee, in a paper in 1969:

``What are the intersection graphs of arcs
in a circle?

Klees paper was an implicit challenge
- consider a whole variety of problems
- on many kinds of intersection graphs.

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Families of Intersection Graphs
boxes in the plane
paths in a tree
chords of a circle
spheres in 3-space
trapezoids, parallelograms, curves of functions
many other geometrical and topological bodies
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Families of Intersection Graphs
boxes in the plane
paths in a tree
chords of a circle
spheres in 3-space
trapezoids, parallelograms, curves of functions
many other geometrical and topological bodies
The Algorithmic Problems:
recognize them
color them
find maximum cliques
find maximum independent sets

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A small hierarchy
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Bell Labs in New Jersey (Spring 1981)

John Klincewicz: Suppose you are routing phone calls in a tree network.
Two calls interfere if they share an edge of the tree. How can you
optimally schedule the calls?

The Story Begins
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Bell Labs in New Jersey (Spring 1981)

John Klincewicz: Suppose you are routing phone calls in a tree network.
Two calls interfere if they share an edge of the tree. How can you
optimally schedule the calls?

The Story Begins
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Bell Labs in New Jersey (Spring 1981)

John Klincewicz: Suppose you are routing phone calls in a
tree network. Two calls interfere if they share an edge of the
tree. How can you optimally schedule the calls?

The Story Begins
A call is a path between a
pair of nodes.
A typical example of a type
of intersection graph.
Intersection here means
share an edge.
Coloring this intersection
graph is scheduling the calls.
An Olive Tree Network
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Edge Intersection Graphs of
Paths in a Tree (EPT graphs)
tree communication network
connecting different places

if two of these paths overlap,
they conflict and cannot use the
same resource at the same time.

Two types of intersections share an edge vs share a node
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EPT graphs
EPT graph
share an edge
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VPT graphs
VPT graph
share a node
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Some Interesting Theorems
VPT graphs are chordal
EPT graphs are NOT chordal
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Some Interesting Theorems
VPT graphs are chordal

Buneman, Gavril, Wallace (early 1970's)
G is the vertex intersection graph of subtrees
of a tree if and only if it is a chordal graph.

McMorris & Shier (1983)
A graph G is a vertex intersection graph of
distinct subtrees of a star if and only if both G
and its complement are chordal.

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Some Interesting Theorems
EPT graphs are NOT chordal
An EPT representation of C
6

called a 6-pie.
6
3
2
1
4
5
Chordless cycles have a unique EPT representation.
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Algorithmic Complexity Results
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Some Interesting Theorems

Folklore (1970s)
Every graph G is the edge intersection
graph of distinct subtrees of a star.

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Degree 3 host trees (continued)
Theorem (1985): All four classes are equivalent:
chordal EPT deg3 EPT
VPT EPT deg3 VPT
What about degree 4?
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Degree 3 host trees (continued)
Theorem (1985): All four classes are equivalent:
chordal EPT deg3 EPT
VPT EPT deg3 VPT
Theorem (2005) [Golumbic, Lipshteyn, Stern]:
weakly chordal EPT deg4
EPT
Degree 4 host trees
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Definition Weakly Chordal Graph
No induced C
m
for m 5,
and
no induced C
m
for m 5.

Weakly Chordal Graphs
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The Story Continues
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The Interval Graph
Sandwich Problem
Interval problems with missing edges
Benzers original problem
partial intersection data
Is it consistent ?
Complete data would be recognition
interval graphs (polynomial)
Partial data needs a different model and
is NP-complete

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Interval Graph Sandwich Problem
given a partially specified graph
E
1
required edges
E
2
optional edges
E
3
forbidden edges
Can you fill-in some of the optional edges,
so that the result will be an interval graph?
Golumbic & Shamir (1993): NP-Complete

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Interval Probe Graphs
A special tractable case of interval sandwich
Computational biology motivated

Interval probe graph: vertices are partitioned
P probes & N non-probes (independent set)
can fill-in some of the N x N edges,
so that the result will be an interval graph

Motivation
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Example: Interval Probe Graphs
Non-Probes are white
Probe graph NOT a Probe graph
no matter how you
partition vertices!
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Tolerance Graphs
What if you only have 3 classrooms?
Cancel a Lecture? or show Tolerance?
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Tolerance Graphs
Measured intersection:
small, or ``tolerable amount of overlap, may be
ignored does NOT produce an edge
at least one of them has to be ``bothered
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Tolerance Graphs
Assignment of positive numbers
{t
v
} (v V) such that
vw E if and only if | I
v
I
w
| min {t
v
, t
w
}

Measured intersection:
small, or ``tolerable amount of overlap, may be
ignored does NOT produce an edge
at least one of them has to be ``bothered
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Tolerance Graphs: Example
c and f will no longer conflict
| I
c
I
f
| < 60 = min {t
c
, t
f
}
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