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ENGINE PARTS

UNIT 2
Engine Parts
1. Inlet Duct
2. Compressor
3. Diffuser
4. Combustion Chamber
5. Turbines
6. Exhaust System

Compressor
Provides high pressure air to the combustion
chamber.
Energy released in the combustion chamber is
directly proportional to the mass of air
supplied.
Compression ratio 25:1 .
Efficiency 90%.
Air flow 160kg/s.
Types of compressors
Centrifugal flow
Axial flow
Axial Centrifugal flow

Centrifugal flow compressors
Centrifugal compressor flow, pressure and velocity changes.
a) Airflow through a typical centrifugal compressor.
b) Pressure and velocity changes through a centrifugal
compressor
Axial flow compressors
Compressor Assembly
Axial flow compressors
Comparison of centrifugal and axial flow compressor
efficiencies with increasing pressure ratios
Burners
Types of burners
1. Can type
2. Annular type
1. Through flow annular type
2. Side entry annular type
3. Reverse flow annular type
3. Can annular type

Can type burner
External view of a can type burner
Can type burner
Section view of a typical can type burner
Annular type burner
External view of the annular type burner
Annular type burner
Section view of a annular combustion chamber
Annular type burner
Annular combustion chamber using vaporizing tubes
Can annular type burner
Combination of can and annular type burner.
Makes good use of available space
Employs a number of individually replaceable
cylindrical inner liners that receive air through
a common annular housing.
Good control of fuel and airflow patterns.
Greater structural stability.
Lower pressure loss than that of the can type.
Can annular type burner

Can annular type burner

In order to assure ignition in the burner, the
mixture of fuel and air should be stoichiometric,
and not moving very fast.
The burner starts by separating out a small portion
of the air and decelerates it for combustion in the
``primary zone''.
The gases leaving this region are too hot to be
tolerated by turbines.
The remaining air (dilution air) is then mixed with
the hot gases from the primary zone to produce a
nearly uniform temperature stream entering the
turbine.
Influence of design factors on burner performance
1. Methods of air distribution.
2. Physical dimensions of burner.
3. Fuel air operating range(blow out limit).
4. Fuel nozzle design.


Combustion chamber
Combustion chamber air flow
Operating variables
1. Pressure
2. Inlet air temperature
3. Fuel air ratio
4. Flow velocity

Effect of operating variables on burner performance
1. Combustion efficiency.
2. Stable operating range.
3. Temperature distribution.
4. Starting.
5. Carbon deposits.
6. Temperature and cooling requirements.
Effect of operating variables on burner performance
1.Combustion efficiency:
The combustion efficiency increases with increase in
pressure of air.
At 1 atm pressure, the efficiency becomes stable.
The combustion efficiency increases with increase in
temperature of air.
The combustion efficiency increases with increase in fuel
air ratio and then becomes stable .
The combustion efficiency increases with increase in flow
velocity.
Increasing the flow velocity beyond a certain point reduces
combustion efficiency, since it reduces the time available
for mixing and burning.




Effect of operating variables on burner performance
2.Stable operating range:
As the pressure decreases, stable operating range
becomes narrower until a point is reached, below
which burning will not take place.
As the flow velocity increases, stable operating
range becomes narrower until a critical velocity is
reached, above which combustion will not take
place.
Increasing the temperature of the incoming
charge increases the fuel/air ratio range for stable
operation.
Effect of operating variables on burner performance
3. Temperature distribution:
Uniform temperature can be obtained by
creating better mixing of the hot and cold
gases at the cost of an increase in pressure
loss.
If fuel/air ratio and flow velocity are increased,
the exit temperatures tend to become less-
uniform because more heat is released and
there is less time for mixing.
Effect of operating variables on burner performance
4.Starting:
Starting is easier with high temperature, high
pressure and low velocity.
Optimum fuel/air ratio.
Effect of operating variables on burner performance
5.Carbon deposits:
Carbon deposit increases with increase in the
temperature and pressure.
Carbon deposit burn off at very high
temperature.
Carbon deposit increases with increase in the
fuel air ratio.
Changes in fuel air ratio may change the location
of carbon deposits within the burner.


Effect of operating variables on burner performance
6. Temperature and cooling requirements:
Increasing the pressure and temperature of
the incoming charge causes more heat
transfer from burning gases to the liner.
Increase in fuel air ratio increases the
temperature of combustion and liner.
Increase in flow velocity reduces the liner
temperature.
Effect of operating variables on burner performance
i) High combustion efficiency.
ii) Stable operation.
iii) Low pressure loss.
iv) Uniform temperature distribution
v) Easy starting.
vi) Small size.
vii) Low smoke burner.
viii)Low carbon formation
Performance requirements of combustion
chambers
High combustion efficiency: Necessary for long
range.
Stable Operation: freedom from blowout at
airflow ranging from idle to maximum power
and at pressures representing the aircrafts
entire altitude range is essential.
Low pressure loss: pressure loss reduce thrust
and increase specific fuel consumption.
Uniform temperature distribution: Temperature
of gases entering the turbine should be close
to the temperature limit of the burner
material.
Performance requirements of combustion
chambers
Temperature distribution
Performance requirements of combustion
chambers
Performance requirements of combustion
chambers
Easy starting: low pressure and high velocity in
the burner make starting difficult.
Poorly designed burner will start within only a
small range of flight speed and altitudes.
Well designed burner permit easier air restart.
Small size: large burner results in large frontal
area, increase in aerodynamic drag, decrease
in flight maximum speed, high engine weight,
low fuel capacity.

Performance requirements of combustion
chambers
Low smoke burner: smoke is annoying on the
ground. It allows easy tracking of high flying
military aircraft.
Low carbon formation: Carbon deposits block
critical air passages and disrupt air flow along
the liner walls, causing high metal
temperatures and low burner life.


Construction of nozzles
Nozzle vanes are cast or forged.
Nozzle vanes are made hollow to allow a degree
of cooling.
Nozzle is made of very high strength steel to
withstand the direct impact of the hot, high
pressure, high velocity gas flowing from the
combustion chamber.
Transpiration cooling

Impulse turbine and reaction turbine

Exhaust system

Sound suppression

Thrust reversal

Methods of thrust augmentation

Afterburner System