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AERSP 301

Structural Idealization
Jose Palacios

July 2008
Todays Lecture
Completed
Bending of beams
Shear of beams
Torsion of beams

Today
A
R
definition
Combined opened & closed c/s
Structural Idealization
*note: add general aerospace structures topic
Combined C/Ss
We looked at open and closed sections separately.

For combined open and closed sections we can use everything we
learned so far, with one exception.

Bending the direct stress calculations and bending deflections do not
depend on the c/s type

Shear solve problems in the same manner.
Shear diagram

Torsion torisonal stiffness for closed c/s is much greater than that of
an open c/s, therefore we can ignore the open c/s in the calculation of
torsional stiffness.
Structural Idealization
Consider the two-spar wing
section shown. The stringers and
spar carry most of the direct
stresses while the skin carries the
shear stresses.

Since variation in stress over the
stringer or spar flange due to
bending of the wing would be
small, it can be assumed to be
constant.

Structural Idealization
Stingers and spar flanges can then be replaced by concentrations of
areas known as booms.

It can be assumed that all direct stresses are carried by booms
and the skin carries only shear.

Direct stress carrying capacity of the skin may be accounted for by
increasing the boom cross-section area.
Structural Idealization
If skin does carry direct stress, we idealize it as a section that carries
only shear stress, and add effective area to the booms.

EM @ Right Side

Similarly:
Effective boom area due
to skin carrying direct
boom areas of flanges,
strings, spars, etc..
Shear of open-section beams
In the expression for shear flow in the cross-section:

If we idealize skin as shown previously, then shear flow in the skin
due to bending of the skin = 0.

The above expression does not account for booms. How can we
deal with booms that cause discontinuity in the skin and therefore
interrupt the shear flow?
t
D
is the direct stress carrying thickness of the skin
t
D
= t, if the skin is fully effective in carrying direct stress
t
D
= 0, if the skin is assumed to carry only shear stress
Shear of open-section beams
Sx and Sy produce direct stresses due to bending in the booms (and
skin) and shear stresses in the skin

Shear of open-section beams
r
th
boom has a cross-sectional area B
r

Shear flows in skin adjacent to it are q
1
and q
2
.

Equilibrium in z direction of previous figure

This gives:
Shear of open-section beams
Recall:

Shear of open-section beams

This gives the change in shear flow induced by a boom.
Each time a boom is encountered, the shear flow is incremented by
this amount.
If at some distance s at the profile, if n booms have been passed:
Open C/S Sample Problem
Calculate the shear flow
distribution in channel due to a 4.8
through the shear center.

Booms carry all the direct stresses
(B
r
= 300 mm
2
)

=
=
n
r
r r
xx
y
s
y B
I
S
q
1
Open C/S Sample Problem
2 6 2 2
mm 10 48 200 300 4 = = =

xx
Calculate I
xx
: (Only consider direct stress carrying areas) I.e. Booms

= =

=
n
r
r r
n
r
r r s
y B y B q
1 1
4
6
3
10
10 48
10 8 . 4
At the outside of boom 1, q
s
= 0. As boom 1 is crossed, the shear flow changes to:
N/mm 6 200 300 10 0
4
12
= =

q
q
1

Open C/S Sample Problem
There will be no further changes in shear flow until the next boom (2) is crossed.
At the outside of boom 4, the shear flow is zero (q
s
= 0) as expected
N/mm 12 200 300 10 6
4
23
= =

q
q
2

( ) N/mm 6 200 300 10 12
4
34
= =

q
q
3

( ) N/mm 0 200 300 10 6
4
=

Open C/S Sample Problem
6 N/mm
12 N/mm
6 N/mm
N/mm 6
N/mm 12
N/mm 6
34
23
12
=
=
=
q
q
q
How come all the signs are negative?
S
1

S
2

S
3

Closed C/S Sample Problem
For the single cell beam, the booms
carry the direct stresses and the walls
carry only the shear stress. A vertical
shear load of 10 kN acts through the
vertical plane between booms 3 and 6.
Calculate the shear flow distribution
Closed C/S Sample Problem
Centroid on Horizontal Axis of Symmetry. I
xy
= 0
Also S
x
= 0, t
D
= 0

=
+ =
n
r
s r r
xx
y
s
q y B
I
S
q
1
0 ,
( )
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
50 100 100 30 2 + + + = B B B B I
xx
I
xx
can be calculated from the direct stress carrying area of the booms
Substituting B
1
,B
4
gives I
xx
= 13.86 x 10
6
mm
4

=

=
+ = +

=
n
r
s r r
n
r
s r r s
q y B q y B q
1
0 ,
4
1
0 ,
6
3
10 22 . 7
10 86 . 13
10 10
Closed C/S Sample Problem
Introduce a cut in the wall 23 and calculate the basic shear flow around the walls
( )
( ) N/mm 5 . 32 50 100 10 22 . 7 9 . 28 q
N/mm 9 . 28 100 400 10 22 . 7
0
4
b,45
4
34 ,
23 ,
= =
= =
=

b
b
q
q
B
3

y
3

Since the t
D
= 0
y
4
B
4

symmetry) (by 0
symmetry) (by N/mm 9 . 28
23 , 67 ,
34 , 56 ,
= =
= =
b b
b b
q q
q q
( )
( ) N/mm 4 . 22 30 200 10 22 . 7 1 . 18
N/mm 1 . 18 100 250 10 22 . 7
4
18 ,
4
21 ,
= =
= =

b
b
q
q
y
2
B
2

B
1
y
1

symmetry) (by N/mm 1 . 18
21 , 87 ,
= =
b b
q q
Closed C/S Sample Problem
Taking moments about the intersection of the line of action of shear load
and horizontal axis:

0 ,
2 0
s b
Aq ds pq + =
}
is broken up into segments where each q
b
is constant
}
Draw out the shear flow distribution to determine the sign of the moment generated
by the shear flow on each segment
Solve for q
s,0

Closed C/S Sample Problem
0 200 , 97 2 ] 100 120 100 120 2
240 100 2 170 240 2 60 480 [
0 , 54 , 43 ,
23 , 12 , 81 ,
= +
+ +
s b b
b b b
q q q
q q q
q p s
Substituting for the basic shear flow gives:
N/mm 4 . 5
0 ,
=
s
q
s,0
to the basic shear flow to get the total shear flow in every wall.
In any wall the final shear flow is given by q
s
=q
b
+ q
s,0
so that
N/mm 17
N/mm 9 . 37
N/mm 3 . 34
N/mm 4 . 5
N/mm 7 . 12 4 . 5 1 . 18
81
45
56 34
67 23
87 21
=
=
= =
= =
= = + =
q
q
q q
q q
q q
Enclosed Area, A