You are on page 1of 19

INTRODUCTION

Marijuana is a green, brown,


or gray mixture of dried
shredded leaves, stems and
seed and flower of the plant
Cannabis sativa.
Cannabis has been in use for
about 12,000 years in china.
Early uses include cure for
rheumatic pain, constipation,
malaria, absentmindedness,
and menstrual cramps.

INTRODUCTION CONTD.
Medical marijuana was bottled
and legally sold in pharmacies
between 1842 to 1890 in US,
before the government prohibited
its usage due to increased abuse.
The use resurfaced in the early
1960s when researchers began to
explore into the medical benefit
of the plant.
Many states in the world have
legalised the use of cannabis.
INTRODUCTION CONTD.

INTRODUCTION CONTD.
In January 2014,Marijuana was noted by the National
Institute on Drug Abuse as being the most widely used
drug in the U.S.

Globally about 2.9-3.4% of the world population was
said to have at least one time tasted marijuana in 2008.

In Africa, Papua New Guinea is the largest consumer
not only in the continent but in the world at large.

In Nigeria, about 33.66% of the nations population
takes marijuana. Northwest geopolitical zone and
Katsina state in particular has the highest number of
consumers as reported by NDLEA.

MODES OF INTAKE
It is smoked in a pipe like
cigarette also called joint.

Typical joint weights 0.5-1.0 g
and contains 20+mg of THC.

About 50-129 ng/ml of THC is
recorded in the blood plasma
immediately after it is smoked
(Huestis.1992)

They could also be mixed with
food and taken together.

They can even be brewed with
tea i.e in coffee and beverages.



Medical Marijuana as it is now medically called have
been found to contain about 600 chemical
compound.

Among the natural cannabinoids , the most well
known are tetrahydrocannabinoid ( 9-THC)

Cannabidol (CBD) which is devoid of any psycho-
activity and is the compound responsible for the
medical benefits.

Other synthetic cannabinoids includes; Nabilone ,
cesamet , dronabinoid , levanatrodol
MECHANISM OF ACTION OF
CANNABINOID
When marijuana is inhaled , the compounds rapidly pass
from the lungs into the bloodstream and is carried to the
brain and other organs throughout the body.

It is absorbed more slowly when ingested in food or
drink.

The chemical compound from marijuana acts upon
specific molecular targets in the brain called
cannabinoids receptors (CB receptors).

The binding starts off a chain of cellular reaction that
leads to many reactions including the euphoria or high
experienced by the users.
Localization of CB Receptors
The main cannabis receptors are located in:
Olfactory areas
Basal ganglia
Cerebellum
Spinal cord
CB1 Receptorpresent throughout CNS
Hippocampus
Cortex

CB2 receptor located peripherally,
linked with immune system
Spleen
-- Macrophages


HEALTH BENEFITS
PREVENTS THE SPREAD OF CANCER CELL
Cannabinoids in cannabis plant prevents the cancer cells from
spreading and they contribute to cancer cell death by heating
some receptors that are generally up-regulated in cancer cells
(Bifulco, 2006).
Researchers found that a marijuana compound can stop the
metastasis in some aggressive cancers.
Last year , a similar study found that non-psychoactive
cannabinoids resulted in dramatic reductions in cell viability and
caused a simultaneous arrest at all phases of the cell cycle in
leukemia patients.

CHRONIC PAIN KILLER
Marijuana works in the same mechanism as the opiate
in acute pain relieve (Noyes, 1975).
They attach to the target proteins in the brain and
peripheral neurons system that are related to pain.
The binding results in the blockage of transmission of
pain message to the brain.
The binding of marijuana to receptor in CNS causes
some adverse effect like

TREATMENT FOR EPILEPSY
Since they are classified as schedule drugs by the
Drug Enforcement agency(DEA) it is difficult to
conduct epilepsy research using these agents.
Researchers investigated the effect on voltage-gated
Na+(NaV) channels which is common antiepileptic
drug target.
Cannabidiol (CBD) at small quantity in human
blocks the NaV channels and murine neurons and
recombinant cells.
TREATMENT FOR GLAUCOMA
THC and CBD has been established to be neuro-protective and
antioxidants (Galve 2008).
Glaucoma represents a progressive vascular retinopathy that
requires a neuro-protectant like THC and CBD to preserve
vision.
Resultant optic nerve damage results from hyperexcitability, an
effect that THC and CBD can counter also as a neuro-
protective antioxidant.
The primary benefit of glaucoma patient is its decreasing effect
on intra-ocular pressure.
TREATMENT FOR NAUSEA AND
APPETITE
Cancer society in U.K declared that cancer patient in
chemotherapy use cannabis to regain their appetite.
CB1 receptors that associates with cannabinoids are
responsible for the stimulation of eating behavior
including; The section of the hypothalamus and hind
brain that regulate food intake.
The reward centre of brain-helping food makes us feel
better.
From within stomach and intestinal tissue helping us
know when we are hungry.
The limbic forebrain helping food seem more
palatable(Jesudason.2008).
PREVENT OPIATE ADDICTION.
Medical marijuana have also been found to reduce opiate
addiction because it acts as such effective medication
(Calignano, 1998).

Though marijuana and opiate have almost the same
mechanism of action in pain relieving.

Opiate has been realized to have more addictive qualities.

Replacing opiate with medical marijuana can help reduce
the dependence on opiate based medication.
CONCLUSION
Marijuana is a popular drug, it is estimated that
one third of the worlds population uses it.

Marijuana is a drug with exceptional medical
possibilities, though we do not have to smoke or
eat it to derive the benefit.

A distinction must be made between raw or crude
marijuana and marijuana component.
REFERENCES
Adams IB, Martin BR: Cannabis: pharmacology and
toxicology in animals and humans. Addiction 91 (11): 1585-
614, 1996.[PUBMED Abstract]

Bifulco M, Laezza C, Pisanti S, et al.: Cannabinoids and
cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy. Br J
Pharmacol 148 (2): 123-35, 2006

Calignamo et al (1998), Control of Pain by Endogenous
Cannabis: ds, notore 394: 277-281.

Galve-Roperh et al (2008) four current Pharmacological
design;Vol 14.


Jesudason D, Wittert G. Endocannabinoid
system in food intake and metabolic
regulation.Curr Opin Lipidol2008;19: 344348.
|Article|PubMed|ChemPort

Mackie K. Distribution of cannabinoid receptors
in the central and peripheral nervous
system.Handb Exp Pharmacol2005;168: 299325.
|PubMed|ChemPort|

Noyes B, S.F frank, D.H harvey, ande Canter A.
(1975) The Analgesic Effect of tetracannabidol.
Journal of clinical pharmacology.