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# INVERTERS

INTRODUCTION

Converts DC to AC power by switching the DC input voltage
(or current) in a pre-determined sequence so as to generate AC
voltage (or current) output.

Half-bridge Inverter
Consists of 2 choppers, 3-wire DC source
Transistors switched on and off alternately
Each provides opposite polarity of V
s
/2 across the load

Half-bridge Inverter
When Q1 ON When Q2 ON
When the load is highly inductive
Single-phase full-bridge inverter
Consists of 4 choppers and a 3-wire DC source
Q1-Q2 and Q3-Q4 switched on and off alternately
Need to isolate the gate signal for Q1 and Q3 (upper)
Each pair provide opposite polarity of Vs across the load

Single-phase full-bridge inverter
Load current for a highly inductive load
For resistive load
Three-phase inverter
Consists of 6 transistors and 6 diodes
Conducts for 120 or 180
A three-phase inverter with star connected load is shown

180 Conduction Mode
Mode 1 Operation
1
1
1
3
2 2
2
3
2 3
2
3
e q
s s
e q
s
a n c n
s
b n
R R
R R
V V
i
R R
V i R
v v
V
v i R
= + =
= =
= = =

= =
0
3
t
t
e s s
Q
1
, Q
5
, Q
6
conduct
Mode 2 Operation
2
2
2
3
2 2
2
3
2
3
2 3
eq
s s
eq
s
an
s
bn cn
R R
R R
V V
i
R R
V
v i R
V i R
v v
= + =
= =
= =

= = =
2
3 3
t
t t
e s s
Q
1
, Q
2
, Q
6
conduct
Mode 3 Operation
2
3
t
t
e t s s
3
3
3
3
2 2
2
3
2
2
3
e q
s s
e q
a n b n
s
c n
R R
R R
V V
i
R R
i
v v
V
v i R
= + =
= =
= =

= =
Q
1
, Q
2
, Q
3
conduct
Waveforms for 180 Conduction
Phase Voltages for 180 Conduction
Fourier Series for Line-to-Line Voltages
1
5 5
6 6
5
6 6
1,3,5,...
( cos( ) sin( ))
2
1
( ) ( )
4
sin( )sin( )
2 3
4
sin sin ( )
3 6
o
ab n n
n
n s s
s
n
s
ab
n
a
v a n t b n t
b Vd t Vd t
V n n
b
n
V n
v n t
n
t t
t t
e e
e e
t
t t
t
t t
e
t

=
= + +
(
(
= +
(
(

=
= +

} }

1,3,5,...
1,3,5,...
4
sin sin( )
3 2
4 7
sin sin( )
3 6
s
bc
n
s
ca
n
V n
v nt
n
V n
v nt
n
t t
e
t
t t
e
t

=
=
=

## Line-to-Line rms Voltage

1
2
2
3
2
0
2
( )
2
2
0.8165
3
L s
L s s
V V d t
V V V
t
e
t
(
(
=
(
(

= =
}
Phase Voltages (Y-connected load)
1,3,5,..
1,3,5,..
1,3,5,..
4
sin( )sin( )
3
3
4 2
sin( )sin( )
3 3
3
4 4
sin( )sin( )
3 3
3
s
aN
n
s
bN
n
s
cN
n
V n
v nt
n
V n
v n t
n
V n
v n t
n
t
e
t
t t
e
t
t t
e
t

=
=
=
=

## 180 Conduction Mode

Phase
voltages
Line voltages
Voltage control of single phase inverters

External control of ac output voltage
External control of dc input voltage
Internal control of inverter

External control of ac output voltage
AC voltage control
Series inverter control

External control of dc input voltage
Controlled using fully controlled rectifiers, uncontrolled
rectifiers, choppers, inverters and filters

Internal control of inverters
Pulse width modulation control
Pulse Width Modulation
Single pulse width modulation
Multiple pulse width modulation
Sinusiodal pulse width modulation
Modified-Sinusoidal-Pulse-Width Modulation
Phase-Displacement Control

Single pulse width modulation

One Pulse per Half-Cycle
Pulse Width Controls the Output Voltage
Carrier and Reference Signals
Compare the Reference Signal with the Carrier
Frequency of the Reference Signal determines the
frequency of the Output Voltage
Modulation Index = M = A
r
/A
c
Gate Pulse
Gate Pulse
Gate Signals and Output
RMS value of the Output Voltage
1
2
2
2
2
2
( )
2
0 180
0
o s
o s
o s
V V d t
V V
V V
t o
t o
e
t
o
t
o
+

(
(
=
(
(

=
s s
s s
}
Fourier Series for the Output Voltage
1,3,5,...
4
() sinsin
2
s
o
n
Vn
vt nt
n
o
e
t

=
=

## Times and angles of the intersections

1
1
2
2
(1 )
2
(1 )
2
S
S
T
t M
T
t M
o
e
o
e
= =
= = +
Pulse width d (or pulse angle )

2 1 S
d t t MT
o
e
===
T
S
= T/2
Harmonic Profile
Multiple-Pulse-Width-Modulation
Multiple Pulses per Half-Cycle
of Output Voltage
Gate Signal Generation
Compare the Reference Signal with the Carrier
Frequency of the Reference Signal determines the Output
Voltage Frequency
Frequency of the Carrier determines the number of pulses per
half-cycle
Modulation Index controls the Output Voltage
Gate Signals and Output Voltage
Number of pulses per half cycle = p = f
c
/2f
o
= m
f
/2
where m
f
= frequency modulation ratio
RMS Value of the Output Voltage
1
2
( ) / 2
2
( ) / 2
2
( )
2
0 1
0
2
0
0
p
o s
p
o s
o s
p
V V d t
p
V V
M
T
p
p
V V
t
o
t
o
e
t
o
t
o
t
o
+

(
(
=
(
(

=
s s
s s
s s
s s
}
Fourier Series of the Output Voltage
1,3,5,...
2
1
() sin
4 3
sin sin( )sin(
4 4 4
o n
n
p
s
n m m
m
vt Bnt
Vn
B n n
n
e
o o o
o to
t

=
=
=
(
= + ++
(

## The times and angles of the intersections

( )
2
( 1 )
2
m s
m
m S
m
T
t m M
T
t m M
o
e
o
e
= =
= = +
The pulse width d (or pulse angle )
1 m m S
d t t MT
o
e
+
== =
T
S
= T/2p
Harmonic Profile
Sinusiodal pulse width modulation
Modulating Waveform Carrier waveform
1
M
1 +
1
0
2
dc
V
2
dc
V

0
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
Amplitudes of the triangular wave (carrier) and sine wave
(modulating) are compared to obtain PWM waveform.
Simple analogue comparator can be used.

Sinusiodal pulse width modulation
waveform modulating the of Frequency
veform carrier wa the of Frequency
M
) ( M Ratio) (Frequency Ratio Modulation
veform carrier wa the of Amplitude
waveform modulating the of Amplitude
M
: M Depth) n (Modulatio Index Modulation
R
R
I
I
= =
= =
=
=
p
p
Bipolar Switching

Modulating Waveform Carrier waveform
1
M
1 +
1
0
2
dc
V
2
dc
V

0
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
SPWM With Bipolar Switching
In this scheme the diagonally opposite transistors S1
,
S2

and S3
,
S4

are turned on or turned off at the same time.
The output of leg A is equal and opposite to the output of
leg B. The output voltage is determined by comparing
the control signal, and the triangular signaltching pattern
is as follows.
In the bipolar PWM switching scheme there is only one
modulation signal and the switches are turned on or
turned off according to the pattern.
Unipolar switching

1
Unipolar switching scheme
A
B Carrier waveform
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1 S
3 S
pwm
V
SPWM With Unipolar Switching
In this scheme, the devices in one leg are turned on or
off based on the comparison of the modulation signal Vr
with a high frequency triangular wave.

The devices in the other leg are turned on or off by the
comparison of the modulation signal -Vr with the same
high frequency triangular wave.
Harmonic Reduction in Inverters
Harmonic reduction by PWM
Harmonic reduction by transformer connections
Harmonic reduction by stepped wave inverters

Current Source Inverters
Input current is constant, but adjustable.
Converts input dc current to an ac current at its output
terminals.
Does not require any feedback diodes.
For ripple free current input L-filter is used before CSI.

Single phase Capacitor Commutated CSI
with R load
Voltage and current waveforms for single phase CSI with R load
Single phase Auto-sequential Commutated
Inverters (ASCI)
Voltage and current waveforms of single phase ASCI
Modes of single phase ASCI
Mode I
Mode II
Equivalent circuit
of Mode II
Resonant Converters
Resonant converters are used to convert dc-to-dc through an
additional conversion stage: the resonant stage. Resonant power
converters contain resonant L-C networks whose voltage and current
waveforms vary sinusoidally during one or more subintervals of
each switching period.
Advantages
natural commutation of power switches
low switching power dissipation
reduced component stresses, which in turn results in an increased
power efficiency and an increased switching frequency
higher operating frequencies result in reduced size and weight of
equipment and results in faster responses; hence, a possible
reduction in EMI problems

Contd
Fig 1 Typical block diagram of
soft-switching dc-to-dc converter
Classification of Resonant Converters
Quasi-resonant converters (single-ended)
Zero-current switching (ZCS)
Zero-voltage switching (ZVS)

Full-resonance converters (conventional)
Series resonant converter (SRC)
Parallel resonant converter (PRC)

Series-Resonant Circuit

Fig 2 .Series-Resonant Circuit a) circuit b) waveforms
Parallel-Resonant Circuit
Excited by a current source

Fig 3. Parallel-Resonant Circuit
ZCS Resonant-Switch Converter
Fig 4. ZCS Resonant-Switch Converter
ZCS Resonant-Switch
Converter

Fig 5 V
oi
waveforms of ZCS Resonant-Switch Converter

Waveforms; voltage is regulated by varying the switching
frequency

ZVS-CV DC-DC Converter

Fig 6. ZVS-CV DC-DC Converter
The inductor current must reverse direction during each
switching cycle
Advantages and Disadvantages of ZCS
and ZVS
Power switch is turned ON and OFF at Zero-Voltage and Zero-Current
In ZCS topologies, the rectifying diode has ZVS
ZVS topologies, the rectifying diode has ZCS
Both the ZVS and the ZCS utilize transformer leakage inductances and
diode junction capacitors and the output parasitic capacitor of the power
switch.
Major disadvantage of the ZVS and ZCS techniques is that they require
variable-frequency control to regulate the output
In ZCS, the power switch turns-OFF at zero current but at turn-ON, the
converter still suffers from the capacitor turn-ON loss caused by the output
capacitor of the power switch.