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OUTLINES

1.INTRODUCTION



1.INTRODUCTION

2.NANOPARTICLES USED FOR SOLAR CELL

3.PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR
CELL

4.APPLICATION OF SOLAR CELL

5.ADVANTAGES



INTRODUCTION



1.Solar Energy is the energy receive from the sun that
sustains life on the Earth

2.Solar Energy has been considered as huge source of energy
&also an economical because it is freely available.

3.Used in cooking , heating, automobile ,electronics , space
technology for communication.

4.Represent the entire electromagnetic radiation.
5.Solar Energy has increases its importance to industries &
homes



Nanotechnology is a specific
demonstration & compilation of a product
or manipulation of object by learning of
nanoscience & researching the ability to
control or manipulate matter reliability & a
pathway to manufacturing on the atomic &
molecular scale to obtain product is lighter
, stronger , smarter , cheaper, cleaner &
more precise.

NANOTECHNOLOGY USED FOR SOLAR
CELLS


1.Nanotechnology in hybrid solar cells design could further improve the
performance and reduce the cost of PV cells &modules.

2.Basics principles, mechanism& challenges within three key areas of
nanotechnology have been discussed from a clean energy prospective.

3. Nanotechnology might be able to increase the efficiency of solar cells, but
the most promising application of nanotechnology is the reduction of
manufacturing cost.

4.The nanorods behave as wire because when they absorb light of a specific
wavelength they generate electrons.

5.These electrons flow through the nanorods until they reach the aluminum
electrodes where they are combined to from a current and are used as
electricity.


PHOTOVOLTIC CELLS





Traditional
photovoltaic cells
1.Mono or multi crystalline silicon
solar cells

2.Multi junction concentrator solar
cells

3.Amorphous silicon/silicon hetero
junction cells

4.Thin film solar cells

Nanotechnology based
photovoltaic cells
1.Nanotubes


2.Quantum dots


3.Hot carrier solar cells


4.Nanotech photovoltaic solar cell



TRADITIONAL PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL



Extensive research has been performed with
crystalline , multicrystalline , thin film
polycrystalline & amorphous solar cells to
maximize cell efficiency as well as to reduce
material size & cost.
Thin film CIGS technology is very promising for
high efficiency at economic price
Nanopraticles of Cu, ln & Ga oxide is coated on
a Mo foil or a non conducting substrate,
improving cell efficiency to8.9%on polyimide
13.0% on Mo foil &13.%on glass substrate
Mono or Multi crystalline silicon solar cells have
three wafer properties- 1)lifetime
2)thickness
3)Resistivity


Nanotech based photovoltaic
cells

The nanotech based solar cell is
known as third generation photovoltaic
cells is directed towards absorbing
more sunlight by the use of
nanotechnology e.g. Nanotubes ,
quantum dots and hot carrier solar cell

Implementation of these
nanotechnologies in the solar cell
design is a real challenge.




Dye sensitized photovoltaic cells

Nanotubes


Nanotubes are basically known as carbon cathode
In the photovoltaic cells technology , the nanometer scale tubes
coated by the special p-type & n-type semiconductor junction
material , can generate electric current which would we increase
the surface area available to produce electricity.

Quantum dots


Quantum dots are semi-conducting crystals of
nanometer dimension modeling into a variety of different
forms with a tunable band gap energy levels that behaves
as a special class of semiconductors.



A solar cell with the generator bond gap of
semiconductor absorbs more energetic photons causing
the greater output voltage.

Hot Carrier Solar cells

The most challenging approach of generating
electricity from sunlight is hot carrier solar cells.

The hot carrier solar cells, which utilize selective
energy contacts to extra light generated hot carriers
from semiconductor regions.
Hot carrier solar cell convert their excess energy to
heat into
semiconductor lattice.

The optimizing both extraction energy & bond gap of
the absorber.

The hot carrier solar cell achieves very high
efficiency.

The chemical potential of a excited & is negative
which reduces radiation losses ,and permits a low
threshold energy


Nano Solar cell


Photovoltaic cells are capable
of directly converting sunlight into
electricity.

A simple wafer of silicon with
wires attached to the layers.
Current is produced based on
types of silicon (p-type & n-
type)used for layers. Each cell
=0.5V.

Battery needed as storage.

No moving part , do no wear
out, but because they are
exposed to the weather , their life
span is about 20 years.

APPLICATION
COMMON APPLICATION

Heating of water
Cooling
Automobile
Communication
Energy
Environment

SOME PROFESSIONAL APPLICATION

Ocean navigation aids : many light house
& most buoys are now powered by solar
cells
Telecommunication system : radio
receivers on mountain tops, or telephone
boxes in the country can often be solar
powered.
Remote monitoring & control:
Scientific research stations, seismic
recording, weather station etc






ADVANTAGES

The power source of the sun is absolutely free.

The production of solar energy produces no energy.

The technology advancements in solar energy
systems have made them extremely cost effective.

System do not require any maintenance during their
life span ,which means you never have to put money
into them.

Nano solar energy can be fed back to the utilities to
eliminate the need for a storage system as well as
eliminating or dramatically reducing your electric bills.

Solar energy system are now designed for particular
needs.


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