SUBMARINES

Overview (10.1)
• 200+ Years Old (Turtle (1775) and Hunley (1864))

• Navy mostly uses submarines (indefinite underwater
endurance)

• Commercial industry uses submersibles (limited
endurance)

• Expensive but stealthy!

• Share characteristics of both surface ships and aircraft
CSS Hunley
SUBMARINES
Submarine Structural Design (10.2)
• Longitudinal Bending - Hogging & sagging
causes large compressive and tensile stresses
away from neutral axis. A cylinder is a poor
bending element.

• Hydrostatic Pressure = Major load for subs.
Water pressure attempts to implode ship.
Transverse frames required to combat loading.
A cylinder is a good pressure vessel!

• Recall: hydrostatic pressure =
gh µ
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Submarine Inner Hull (10.2)
• Holds the pressure sensitive equipment
(including the crew!)

• Must withstand hydrostatic pressure at ops
depth.

• Transversely framed with thick plating.

• Strength l = $ l, A l, space ¹ , but depth l .

• Advanced materials needed due to high o.
SUBMARINES
Submarine Outer Hull (10.2)
• Smooth fairing over non-pressure sensitive
equipment such as ballast and trim tanks
and anchors to improve vessel
hydrodynamics.

• High strength not required so made of mild
steels and fiberglass.

• Anechoic (“free from echoes and
reverberation”) material on outer hull to
decrease sonar signature.
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Submarine General Arrangements (10.2)
• Main Ballast Tanks






• Variable Ballast Tanks
PRESSURE HULL
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Main Ballast Tanks (MBT) (10.2)
• Largest tanks.

• Alter A from positive buoyancy on surface
(empty) to near neutral buoyancy when
submerged (full).

• Main Ballast Tanks are “soft tanks”
because they do not need to withstand
submerged hydrostatic pressure.
(Located between inner & outer hulls.)
SUBMARINES
Variable Ballast Tanks (10.2)
• Depth Control Tank (DCT)

– Alter buoyancy once submerged with little or
no trim. Where is it located?
– Compensates for environmental factors (water
density changes). Rho*g*volume!
– „Hard tank‟ because it can be pressurized (has
access to outside of pressure hull).

• Trim Tanks (FTT/ATT)

– „Soft tanks‟ shift water to control trim (internal)
SUBMARINES
U.S. Submarine Types (10.2)
• Ohio Class
• Sub Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs) aft of
sail

• A greater than many surface ships (i.e. BIG)
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U.S. Submarine Types (10.2)
• Los Angeles Class (SSN688)
Fairwater planes
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U.S. Submarine Types (10.2)
Bow planes
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U.S. Submarine Types (10.2)
BEAT
ARMY!
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U.S. Submarine Types (10.2)
Virginia Class
Displacement: 7,800 tons

Length: 377 feet

Draft: 32 feet

Beam: 34 feet

Depth: 800+ feet
SUBMARINES
Submarine Hydrostatics (10.3)
USS Bremerton (SSN 698)
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Submarine Hydrostatics (10.3)
• Static equilibrium and Archimedes Principle apply
to subs as well.





• Unlike surface ships, subs must actively pursue
equilibrium when submerged due to changes
in density (µ) and volume (V).

• Depth Control Tanks & trim tanks are used.
0 0 F M
g µ
= =
A = V
¿ ¿
SUBMARINES
Hydrostatic Challenges (10.3)
• MAINTAIN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY

– Salinity Effects
– Water Temperature Effects
– Depth Effects


• MAINTAIN NEUTRAL TRIM AND LIST

– Transverse Weight Shifts
– Longitudinal Weight Shifts
SUBMARINES
Hydrostatics (Salinity Effects) (10.3)
• Decreased µ = less F
B

• sub weight > F
B
.
• Must pump water out of DCT

• Changes in salinity common near river
estuaries or polar ice.

• Mediterranean salinity is higher from
evaporation.

Water density (µ) + as salinity level +.
SUBMARINES
Hydrostatics (Temperature Effects) (10.3)
• Decreased µ = less F
B

• sub weight > F
B
.
• Must pump water out of DCT to
compensate.

• Changes in temperature near river
estuaries or ocean currents (Gulf Stream,
Kuroshio, etc.)
Water density (µ) + as temperature |.
SUBMARINES
Hydrostatics (Depth Effects) (10.3)
• As depth increases, sub is “squeezed”
and volume (V) decreases. The string
demonstration!


• Decreased V = less F
B

• sub weight > F
B
.
• Must pump water out of DCT

• Anechoic tiles cause additional volume
loss as they compress more.
SUBMARINES
Neutral Trim - General (10.3)
• When surfaced, geometric relationships similar
except that “G” must be below “B” for sub
stability.


• Neutral trim on sub becomes extremely critical
when submerged. Small changes to buoyancy
can be mitigated with diving planes

• Note the positions of “G”, “B”, “M
T
”, and
“M
L
” in the following figures!
SUBMARINES
Neutral Trim - General (10.3)
• Recall: these relationships can be used in
transverse or longitudinal directions to find
KM
T
or KM
L
for a surface ship.
SUBMARINES
Neutral Trim - General (10.3)
• Surfaced submarine similar to surface ship except
G is below B.

– For clarity, M
T
is shown above B although distance is very
small in reality.
SUBMARINES
Neutral Trim - General (10.3)
• When submerging, waterplane disappears, so no
second moment of area (I), and therefore no
metacentric radius (BM
L
or BM
T
)! Equation?

• “B”, “M
T
” and “M
L
” are coincident and located at
the centroid of the underwater volume -the half
diameter point (if a cylinder).

• Very sensitive to trim since longitudinal and
transverse initial stability are the same.
SUBMARINES
Neutral Trim - General (10.3)
• When completely submerged, the positions of B,
M
T
and M
L
are in the same place.
SUBMARINES
Trim & Transverse Weight Shifts (10.3)
• Recall In Surface Ship Analysis:

– GM
T
is found by equation (& Incline
Experiment) to calculate the vertical center of
gravity, KG.

– Equation was only good for small angles (|)
since the metacenter is not stationary at larger
angles.

– Large | only available from analysis of Curve
of Statical Intact Stability.
Submarines
Recall for a Surface Vessel:
• From the geometry, we got:
Z
e
r
o
p
t.
tan
tan
O F O
G G G M
GM w t
|
|
=
A =
W
t
G
M
|
B
SUBMARINES
Trim & Transverse Weight Shifts (10.3)
• In Submarine Analysis:

– The calculation of heeling angle is simplified
by the identical location of Center of Buoyancy
(B) and Metacenter (M) (BM=0).

– Since GM=KB+BM-KG, then GM=KB-KG=BG
– This equation is good for all angles:
tan BG w t | A =
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Trim & Transverse Weight Shifts (10.3)
• Surface Ship analysis complicated because
vessel trims about the center of floatation (F)
(which is seldom at amidships).

• Sub longitudinal analysis is exactly the same as
transverse case since BM=0 for both
longitudinal and transverse. For all angles of trim:



• Moment arm l > > t, so trim tanks to compensate.
tan BG w l | A =
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Submarine Stability (10.4)
USS Seawolf
SSN-21
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Submarine Submerged Intact Stability (10.4)
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Submarine Intact Stability (10.4)
• Initial stability simplified for subs.

• The distance BG is constant (=GM) Righting Arm
(GZ) is purely a function of heel angle.




• EQUATION IS TRUE FOR ALL SUBMERGED SUBS
IN ALL CONDITIONS!
sin RA GZ BG | = =
SUBMARINES
Submarine Intact Stability (10.4)
• Since righting arm equation good for all |, curve
of intact statical stability always a sine curve
with a peak value equal to BG.
SUBMARINES
Submerged Stability Characteristics (10.4)
• Range of Stability: 0-180°

• Angle of Max Righting Arm: 90°

• Max Righting Arm: Distance BG

• Dynamic Stability: 2A
S
BG

• STABILITY CURVE HAS THE SAME
CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL SUBS!
SUBMARINES
Submarine Resistance (10.5)
• Recall Coefficient of Total Hull Resistance



– C
V
= viscous component, depends on Rn.



– C
W
= wave making resistance, depends on Fn.

– C
A
= correlation allowance, surface
roughness and “fudge factor”.
T V W A
C C C C = + +
(1 )
V F
C K C = +
SUBMARINES
Submarine Resistance (10.5)
• On the surface (acts like a surface ship but with bigger
wakes):

– C
V
dominates at low speed, C
W
as speed increases
(due to bigger bow and stern waves and wake
turbulence).

• Submerged (acts like an aircraft):

– Skin friction (C
F
C
V
) dominates. (Rn is the
important factor when no fluid (air/water) interface).
– C
W
tends toward zero at depth.
– Since C
T
is smaller when submerged, higher
speeds are possible.
Components of Total Hull Resistance
• Total Resistance and Relative Magnitude of Components
Viscous
Air Resistance
Wave-making
Speed (kts)
- Low speed : Viscous R dominates
- Higher speed : Wave-making R dominates
- Hump (Hollow) : location is function of ship length and speed.
Hump
Hollow
SUBMARINES
Submarine Propellers - Odd # of Blades (10.5)
Stern planes could
be rotated 45
o
and
called “X” or
dihedrals
SUBMARINES
Skewed Propellers (10.5)
• Advantages:

– Reduced Vibration (eases into flow).
– Reduced Cavitation as tip vortex is smaller.

• Disadvantages:

– Inefficient backing.
– Expensive & difficult to make.
– Reduced strength.

• Operational need outweighs disadvantages!
SUBMARINES
Submarine Seakeeping (10.6)
• Subjected to same as surface ships

– 3 translation (surge, sway, heave) and 3
rotational (roll, pitch, yaw).
– Recall heave, pitch, and roll are simple
harmonic motions because of linear restoring
force.
• If e
e
= resonant freq, amplitudes maximized
(particularly roll which is sharply tuned).
• Roll motion accentuated by round shape. Why?
SUBMARINES
Submarine Seakeeping - Suction Force (10.6)
• Water Surface Effect

– Submarine near surface (e.g. periscope depth) has low
pressure on top surface of hull causing net upward
force. This is similar to squatting, but opposite!
– Magnitude depends on speed, depth, and hull shape.
– Minimize by reducing speed and having bow down trim.

• Wave Action
– Top of sub has faster velocity due to similar lower
pressure effect as above.
– Minimize by going deeper or beam on to waves.
SUBMARINES
Submarine Maneuvering and Control (10.7)
• Lateral motion is controlled with rudder, engines,
and props. Note that in a fast turn the sail may
create lift, heeling the boat outward in to a “snap
roll”, particularly if the sail is forward of Cp.

• Depth control accomplished by:
– Making the buoyant force equal the submarine
displacement.
– Finer and more positive control achieved by
plane (control) surfaces.
SUBMARINES
Fair-Water Planes (10.7)
• Primarily to maintain an ordered depth.
– Positioning the planes to the "up" position
causes an upward lift force to be generated.

– Since forward of the center of gravity, a
moment (M) is also produced which causes
some slight pitch.

• The dominant effect is the lift generated by the
control surface.
SUBMARINES
Fair-Water Planes (10.7)
• Primarily DEPTH CONTROL
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Stern and Bow Planes (10.7)
• Primarily to maintain pitch because of the
distance from the center of gravity.

– Positioning the planes to creates a lift force in
the downward direction creates a moment (M)
which causes the submarine to pitch up.
– Once the submarine has an up angle, the hull
produces an upward lift force.

• The net effect is that the submarine rises at an
upward angle.
SUBMARINES
Stern and Bow Planes (10.7)
• Maintain Pitch
•(better control than with fairwater planes)
SUBMARINES
FINAL THOUGHT...
There are times when accurate control is nice!
Principles of Ship Performance
Good Luck and Good “Boating”!