Review Stress Response

 Life- stressor
 Perceive as a threat
 ALARM—Hippocampus (leads to an emotion)
 SEAT OF EMOTIONS- Limbic System (…physical response)
 SUPERVISOR- Hypothalamus (endocrine and autonomic)
 Endocrine—Hormones (cortisol and vasopressin)
 Autonomic- Sympathetic =ON, Parasympathetic =OFF
Hot Reactors
 People who react to stress with an all-out physiological

 This type of person tends to:
 Become angry easily
 Be anxious or depressed
 Urinate frequently
 Nausea and vomiting
 Experience gastrointestinal problems

Psychosomatic Disease
Not “all in the mind” involves both mind
and the body.
Psychosomatic disease may be:
At least 75%, if not more, of doctor visits
are believed to have a stress component

 Psychogenic-A physical disease caused by emotional
stress without a microorganism involved.
 The mind changes the body’s physiology so that body part
breaks down.
 Ulcers
 Asthma

 Somatogenic-A disease that results from the mind
increasing the body’s susceptibility to:
 Disease causing organisms (germs)
 Natural degenerative processes
 Cancer
 Arthritis

Stress and Immunology
 Stress can decrease your white blood cell count
which will lead to poor health.
 Immunological system includes the following white
blood cell groups which identify and destroy foreign
 Phagocytes-destroyers
 Lymphocytes
 T cells
 B cells

Stress and Serum Cholesterol
 Significantly increases during stress.
 Accumulates on the walls of your blood vessels
blocking the flow of oxygenated blood to the
heart and brain.
 Studies show that one’s perception of a stressful
situation can increase serum cholesterol levels.
 Final Exams
 Tax Accountants (April 15

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
 Excessive pressure of blood against the walls of arteries
 Ruptured arteries to the heart can result in a Myocardial
Infarction (Heart Attack)
 Ruptured arteries to the brain can cause a cerebral
hemorrhage (Stroke)
 41% of Americans age 20-74 are Hypertensive
 16% of Americans age 20-24 are Hypertensive
 Most don’t know it because it occurs without S/S.

20% of America has hypertension
Systolic-force against the arterial walls when
the heart contracts and blood is pumped out.
Diastolic-force against the arterial walls
when the heart is relaxed.
Normal: 120/80
High: 140/90
High blood pressure

Hypertension: Causes

 High sodium intake
 Kidney disease
 Cushing's syndrome
 Oral contraceptives
 Narrow heart/blood
 Smoking
 Sedentariness
 Obesity
 Stress
 Personality traits
10% Known 90% Speculation-
essential hypertension
Hypertension: Personality Traits
Upset by criticism
Upset by imperfection
Pent up anger, bitterness
Low self-confidence

Migraine Headaches
Constriction and dilation of the carotid
arteries on one side of the head.

Prodrome- “preattack” or constriction
phase of a migraine headache.
Coronary Heart Disease
 Heart attacks kill more Americans than any other single
cause of death. (Myocardial Infarction)
 Major risk factors associated with CHD:
 High serum cholesterol
 Hypertension
 Smoking
 Obesity
 Stress and a Type A behavior linked to CHD
 Aggressive
 Competitive
 Time urgent
 Multitasking

Coronary Heart Disease
 Other Risks
 Genetics
 Sedentariness
 High fat intake
 Personality traits:
 anger / hostile / resentful / bitter
 Occupation:
 the more stressful the job, the more
prevalent is heart disease
 Day of the week
 Monday vs. Friday
Prevention of CHD
 Reduce Fat Intake
 Move Daily
 Stop Smoking
 Life style (Stress Management)
 “Heart Transplant”
 Forgive others
 Forgive yourself
 “Mend fences” in relationships

Life may begin at forty, but heart
disease can begin at four.
Stress Flow Chart….
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7. .
8. .

If four jumbo jets crashed every
day of the year in America, how
anxious would you be to get on a
That’s how many people die of
cancer every day in America…it’s
the second leading cause of
death, behind heart disease.
(1500 people)
 Definition: Unbridled multiplication of cells
that leads to tumors, organ damage, and
eventual death.
 Metastisis: 4-part cycle of malignant tumor
 Shed
 Spread
 Colonize
 Grow
 The marvel of your immune system is its ability to
distinguish between what’s ‘you’ and belongs from
what’s ‘new’ and doesn’t belong.
 Antigen
 Any ‘new’ substance that triggers your immune
 Cancer Fighters
 Interpheron, Interlucken2, Lymphotoxin,
Chronic stress may disable the
immune system in some people with
some types of tumors

(Not stating stress causes cancer!)
Seven Danger Signs of Cancer
 Sores that don’t heal
 Lump or thickening
 Unusual bleeding / discharge
 Persistent cough / hoarseness
 Persistent indigestion
 Change in wart or mole
 Change in normal bowel / bladder habits

 Inability to forgive
 Use of self-pity
 Difficulty developing / maintaining personal
 Poor self-image
of people prone to cancer
Bernie Seigal

cancer surgeon
“Importance of Perception”
Reducing Cancer Risk
 Dietary Intake (35% of
 Lower fat intake to 20%
 Increase fiber, whole
 Increase fruits, vegetables
 Moderate alcohol
 Avoid salt and nitrate
cured foods
 Avoid smoked foods
 Stress Management
 Maintain healthy coping
 Limit unnecessary
 Strengthen relationships
 Exercise
 Down time
• Stop smoking (30% of cancers)
Reduced or Fat Free Alternatives
 Fruit
 Vegetables
 Skim milk
 Nonfat sour cream
 Fat free cream cheese
 Fat free mayonnaise
 Water based soup
 Rice
 Tomato based sauces
 Turkey
 Cereal/oatmeal/cream of
 Tuna
 Pretzels
 Low fat cottage cheese
 Low fat yogurt
 Graham crackers
 Baked fish
 Chicken (skinless and
 Low fat bisquick
 Low fat muffin mix
 Noodles
 Bread
 Potatoes
Top Five Nutritious Fruits
 Watermelon
 Vitamin C, carotenoids, good fiber, low in calories
 Papaya
 Vitamin C, carotenoids, lots of potassium and fiber
 Orange
 Vitamin C, folate, lots of fiber
 Grapefruit
 Vitamin C, cholesterol lowering, pectin
 Apricots
 Beta-carotene, potassium and fiber
Top Five Vegetables
 Spinach
 Beta-carotene, vitamin C, folate, iron potassium,
 Sweet Potatoes
 Potassium, vitamin C, beta-carotene, fiber
 Collard greens
 Beta-carotene, cancer prevention power, vitamin C,
folate, calcium, fiber
 Carrots
 Beta-carotene and fiber
 Sweet Red Pepper
 Vitamin C, beta-carotene, fiber