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- Network Security and Cryptography
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Techniques

Hector M Lugo-Cordero

CIS 4361

Secure Operating System Administration

1

2

Resources Used

• Lecture slides from Dr Ratan Guha CNT

6519 Wireless Security Forensics

• Cryptography and Network Security,

Fourth Edition, by William Stallings

• Lecture slides for the textbook by Lawrie

Brown

• Lecture slides by Henric Johnson,Blekinge

Institute of Technology, Sweden

3

Outline

• Some Basic Terminology

• Conventional Encryption Principles

• Characteristics of Cryptographic

Techniques

• Symmetric Encryption

• Classical Symmetric Encryption

Algorithms

• Modern Symmetric Encryption

Techniques

4

Some Basic Terminology

• plaintext - original message

• ciphertext - coded message

• cipher - algorithm for transforming plaintext to ciphertext

• key - info used in cipher known only to sender/receiver

• encipher (encrypt) - converting plaintext to ciphertext

• decipher (decrypt) - recovering ciphertext from plaintext

• cryptography - study of encryption principles/methods

• cryptanalysis (codebreaking) - study of principles/

methods of deciphering ciphertext without knowing key

• cryptology - field of both cryptography and cryptanalysis

5

Conventional Encryption

Principles

• An encryption scheme has five ingredients:

– Plaintext

– Encryption algorithm

– Secret Key

– Ciphertext

– Decryption algorithm

• Security depends on the secrecy of the key, not

the secrecy of the algorithm

6

Characteristics of Cryptographic

Techniques

• Classified along three independent dimensions:

– The type of operations used for transforming plaintext

to ciphertext

– The number of keys used

• symmetric (single key)

• asymmetric (two-keys, or public-key encryption)

– The way in which the plaintext is processed

7

Symmetric Encryption

• or conventional / private-key / single-key

• sender and recipient share a common key

• all classical encryption algorithms are

private-key

• was only type prior to invention of public-

key in 1970’s

• and by far most widely used

8

Symmetric Cipher Model

9

Requirements

• two requirements for secure use of

symmetric encryption:

– a strong encryption algorithm

– a secret key known only to sender / receiver

• mathematically have:

Y = E

K

(X) [= E(K, X) ]

X = D

K

(Y) [= D(K, Y) ]

• assume encryption algorithm is known

• implies a secure channel to distribute key

10

Brute Force Search

• always possible to simply try every key

• most basic attack, proportional to key size

• assume either know / recognize plaintext

Key Size (bits) Number of Alternative

Keys

Time required at 1

decryption/µs

Time required at 10

6

decryptions/µs

32 2

32

= 4.3 10

9

2

31

µs = 35.8 minutes 2.15 milliseconds

56 2

56

= 7.2 10

16

2

55

µs = 1142 years 10.01 hours

128 2

128

= 3.4 10

38

2

127

µs = 5.4 10

24

years 5.4 10

18

years

168 2

168

= 3.7 10

50

2

167

µs = 5.9 10

36

years 5.9 10

30

years

26 characters

(permutation)

26! = 4 10

26

2 10

26

µs = 6.4 10

12

years 6.4 10

6

years

11

Classical Substitution Ciphers

• where letters of plaintext are replaced by

other letters or by numbers or symbols

• or if plaintext is viewed as a sequence of

bits, then substitution involves replacing

plaintext bit patterns with ciphertext bit

patterns

12

Caesar Cipher

• earliest known substitution cipher

• by Julius Caesar

• first attested use in military affairs

• replaces each letter by 3rd letter after

• example:

meet me after the toga party

PHHW PH DIWHU WKH WRJD SDUWB

13

Caesar Cipher

• can define transformation as:

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C

• mathematically give each letter a number

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

• then have Caesar cipher as:

c = E(p) = (p + k) mod (26)

p = D(c) = (c – k) mod (26)

14

Monoalphabetic Cipher

• rather than just shifting the alphabet

• could shuffle (jumble) the letters arbitrarily

• each plaintext letter maps to a different random

ciphertext letter

• hence key is 26 letters long

Plain: abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

Cipher: DKVQFIBJWPESCXHTMYAUOLRGZN

Plaintext: ifwewishtoreplaceletters

Ciphertext: WIRFRWAJUHYFTSDVFSFUUFYA

15

Playfair Cipher

• not even the large number of keys in a

monoalphabetic cipher provides security

• one approach to improving security was to

encrypt multiple letters

• the Playfair Cipher is an example

• invented by Charles Wheatstone in 1854,

but named after his friend Baron Playfair

16

Playfair Key Matrix

• a 5X5 matrix of letters based on a keyword

• fill in letters of keyword (minus duplicates)

• fill rest of matrix with other letters

• eg. using the keyword MONARCHY

M O N A R

C H Y B D

E F G I/J K

L P Q S T

U V W X Z

17

Encrypting and Decrypting

• plaintext is encrypted two letters at a time

1. if a pair is a repeated letter, insert filler like 'X’

(low probability of appearance in language)

2. if both letters fall in the same row, replace

each with letter to right (wrapping back to start

from end)

3. if both letters fall in the same column, replace

each with the letter below it (again wrapping to

top from bottom)

4. otherwise each letter is replaced by the letter

in the same row and in the column of the other

letter of the pair

Wireless Wi re le sx sz XG MK UL XA XT

18

Polyalphabetic Ciphers

• polyalphabetic substitution ciphers

• A set of related monoalphabetic substitution rules is

used

• use a key to select which alphabet is used for each

letter of the message

• use each alphabet in turn

• repeat from start after end of key is reached

• make cryptanalysis harder with more alphabets to

guess and flatter frequency distribution

Key: deceptive 3 4 2 4 15 19 8 21 4

plaintext: wireless 22 8 17 4 11 4 18 18

ciphertext: zmtiaxao 25 12 19 8 26 23 26 39

19

Vigenère Cipher

• simplest polyalphabetic substitution cipher

• effectively multiple caesar ciphers

• key is multiple letters long K = k

1

k

2

... k

d

• i

th

letter specifies i

th

alphabet to use

• use each alphabet in turn

• repeat from start after d letters in message

• decryption simply works in reverse

20

Example of Vigenère Cipher

• write the plaintext out

• write the keyword repeated above it

• use each key letter as a caesar cipher key

• encrypt the corresponding plaintext letter

• eg using keyword deceptive

key: deceptivedeceptivedeceptive

plaintext: wearediscoveredsaveyourself

ciphertext:ZICVTWQNGRZGVTWAVZHCQYGLMGJ

Vernam Cipher and One-time

Pad

• Keyword is as long as the plaintext and

has no statistical relationship to it.

• Vernam system works on binary data with

ith bit of text exclusive ored with ith bit of

key to produce ith bit of cipher

• In one one-time pad key is used only once

• This scheme is unbreakable

21

Transposition Cipher

• Mapping is performed by some sort of

permutation on the plaintext letters.

• Example: Rail fence of depth 2

text : meet me after the toga party

m e m a t r h t g p r y

e t e f e t e o a a t

cipher:

MEMATRHTGPRYETEFETEOAAT

Rail fence of depth 2

22

Classical Ciphers

• Caesar Cipher

• Monoalphabetic Cipher

• Playfair Cipher

• Polyphabetic Cipher

• Vigenère Cipher

• Vernam Cipher and One-time Pad

• Transposition Cipher

Cryptography -Part -I 23

Modern Block Ciphers

• now look at modern block ciphers

• one of the most widely used types of

cryptographic algorithms

• provide secrecy /authentication services

• focus on DES (Data Encryption Standard)

• to illustrate block cipher design principles

Block vs Stream Ciphers

• block ciphers process messages in blocks,

each of which is then en/decrypted

• like a substitution on very big characters

– 64-bits or more

• stream ciphers process messages a bit or

byte at a time when en/decrypting

• many current ciphers are block ciphers

• broader range of applications

Block Cipher Principles

• most symmetric block ciphers are based on a

Feistel Cipher Structure

• needed since must be able to decrypt ciphertext

to recover messages efficiently

• block ciphers look like an extremely large

substitution

• would need table of 2

64

entries for a 64-bit block

• instead create from smaller building blocks

• using idea of a product cipher

Ideal Block Cipher

Claude Shannon and Substitution-

Permutation Ciphers

• Claude Shannon introduced idea of substitution-

permutation (S-P) networks in 1949 paper

• form basis of modern block ciphers

• S-P nets are based on the two primitive

cryptographic operations seen before:

– substitution (S-box)

– permutation (P-box)

• provide confusion & diffusion of message & key

Confusion and Diffusion

• cipher needs to completely obscure

statistical properties of original message

• a one-time pad does this

• more practically Shannon suggested

combining S & P elements to obtain:

• diffusion – dissipates statistical structure

of plaintext over bulk of ciphertext

• confusion – makes relationship between

ciphertext and key as complex as possible

Feistel Cipher Structure

• Horst Feistel devised the feistel cipher

– based on concept of invertible product cipher

• partitions input block into two halves

– process through multiple rounds which

– perform a substitution on left data half

– based on round function of right half & subkey

– then have permutation swapping halves

• implements Shannon’s S-P net concept

Feistel Cipher Structure

Feistel Cipher Design Elements

• block size

• key size

• number of rounds

• subkey generation algorithm

• round function

• fast software en/decryption

• ease of analysis

Feistel Cipher Encryption & Decryption

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