Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3

rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Chapter 8
Metamorphism: A Process of Change
©2008 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Portrait of a Planet
Third Edition
earth
LECTURE OUTLINE
Metamorphism: A Process of Change
Prepared by
Ron Parker
Earlham College Department of Geosciences
Richmond, Indiana
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Introduction
 Metamorphic – Changed from an original “parent.”
 Meta = Change.
 Morph = Form or shape.
 Parent rocks are called “protoliths.”
 Metamorphism can
occur to any protolith.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Introduction
 Protoliths undergo pronounced changes in…
 Texture.
 Mineralogy.
 Due to change in physical or chemical conditions.
 Burial.
 Tectonic stresses.
 Heating by magma.
 Fluid alteration.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphism
 Metamorphism occurs in the solid state.
 It doesn’t include weathering, diagenesis, melting.
 Metamorphics often look totally unlike protoliths.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Character
 Metamorphic rocks have distinctive properties.
 Unique texture – Intergrown and interlocking grains.
 Unique minerals – Some that are only metamorphic.
Staurolite, Kyanite, Sillimanite, etc.
 Unique foliation – A planar fabric from aligned minerals.
 These transformations can change the rock utterly.
Red mudstone
Garnet gneiss
Fossiliferous limestone
Marble
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Processes
 Metamorphic change is slow and in the solid state.
 Several processes are at work.
 Recrystallization – Minerals change size and shape.





 Phase change – New minerals form with…
Same chemical formula.
Different crystal structure.
Kyanite
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Processes
 Several processes may operate at the same time.
 Neocrystallization – New minerals with P-T changes.
Initial minerals become unstable; change to new minerals.
Decomposition of the original minerals in the protolith.
Chemical reaction of the elements to form new minerals.
In this way, a shale can transform into a garnet mica schist.




Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Processes
 Several processes may operate at the same time.
 Pressure solution – Mineral grains partially dissolve.





 Plastic deformation – Mineral grains soften and deform.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Causes of Metamorphism
 The agents of metamorphism are…
 Heat (Temperature – T).
 Pressure (P).
 Differential stress.
 Hydrothermal fluids.
 Not all agents are required; they often do co-occur.
 Rocks may be overprinted by multiple events.

Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Heat (Temperature)
 Metamorphism occurs as the result of heat.
 Temperature (T) ranges between 200
o
C and 850
o
C.
 The upper T limit is…melting. It varies based upon
rock mineral composition and water content.
 Heat energy breaks and reforms atomic bonds.
 Sources of heat.
 The geothermal gradient.
 Magmatic intrusions.
 Compression.

Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Pressure (P)
 P increases with depth in the crust.
 270 to 300 bars per km (1 bar is almost 1 atm = 14.7 psi).
 Metamorphism occurs mostly in 2 to 12 kbar range.
 T and P both change with depth.
 Mineral stability is highly dependent upon T and P.
 This stability can be graphed on a “phase diagram.”
 Changes in T and P lead
to changes in minerals.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
 Pressure that is greater in one orientation.
 A commonplace result of tectonic forces.
 Two kinds of differential stress: Normal and shear.
 Normal stress – Operates perpendicular to a surface.
Tension – Pull-apart normal stress.
Compression – Push-together normal stress.




Differential Stress
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Differential Stress
 Two kinds of differential stress: Normal and shear.
 Shear stress – Operates sideways across a surface.
Causes material to be “smeared out.”
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
 At higher T and P, differential stress deforms rock.
 Rocks change shape slowly without breaking.
Differential Stress
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Differential Stress
 Deformation acts on minerals with specific shapes.
 Equant – Roughly equal in all dimensions.
 Inequant – Dimensions not the same.
Platy (pancake-like) – 1 dimension shorter.
Elongate (cigar-shaped) – 1 dimension longer.
 Differential stress causes these minerals to align.
 Alignment fabric records stress trajectory.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Differential Stress
 Preferred platy mineral alignment is called foliation.
 Foliation imparts a layered or banded appearance.
 Rocks commonly break parallel to foliation planes.
 Foliation develops perpendicular to compression.
 Minerals flatten, recrystallize, and rotate.
 Inequant grains align by rotation and new growth.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Hydrothermal Fluids
 Hot water with dissolved ions and volatiles.
 Hydrothermal fluids facilitate metamorphism.
 Accelerate chemical reactions.
 Alter rocks by adding or subtracting elements.
 Hydrothermal alteration is called metasomatism.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Rock Types
 Two major subdivisions of metamorphic rocks.
 Foliated – Has a through-going planar fabric.
Subjected to differential stress.
Has a significant component of platy minerals.
Classified by composition, grain size, and foliation type.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Rock Types
 Two major subdivisions of metamorphic rocks.
 Non-foliated – No planar fabric evident.
Crystallized without differential stress.
Comprised of equant minerals only.
Classified by mineral composition.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Rocks
 Slate – Fine clay, low-grade metamorphic shale.
 Has a distinct foliation called slaty cleavage.
Develops by parallel alignment of platy clay minerals.
Slaty cleavage oriented perpendicular to compression.
Slate breaks along this foliation creating flat sheets.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Rocks
 Phyllite - Fine mica-rich rock.
 Formed by low – medium grade alteration of slate.
 Clay minerals neocrystallize into tiny micas.
 Micas reflect a satiny luster.
 Phyllite is between slate and schist.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
 Schist – Fine - coarse rock with larger micas.
 Medium-to-high-grade metamorphism.
 Has a distinct foliation called schistosity.
Parallel alignment of large mica crystals.
Micas are visible because they have grown at higher T.
 Schist often has other minerals due to neocrystallization.
Quartz.
Feldspars.
Kyanite.
Garnet.
Staurolite.
Sillimanite.
 Large non-mica minerals are called porphyroblasts.
Metamorphic Rocks
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Rocks
 Gneiss – Has a distinct banded foliation.
 Light bands of felsic minerals (quartz and feldspars).
 Dark bands of mafic minerals (biotite or amphibole).
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Rocks
 Compositional banding develops in several ways.
 Original layering in the protolith.
 Extensive high T shearing.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Rocks
 Compositional banding




 Solid-state chemical differentiation.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Migmatite
 Migmatite is a partially melted gneiss.
 It has features of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
 Mineralogy controls behavior.
 Light-colored (felsic) minerals melt at lower T.
 Dark-colored (mafic) minerals melt a higher T.
 Felsics melt first; mafics remain metamorphic.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Rocks
 Non-foliated rocks lack a planar fabric.
 Absence of foliation possible for several reasons.
Rock not subjected to differential stress.
Dominance of equant minerals.
Absence of platy minerals.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Rocks
 Amphibolite – Dominated by amphibole minerals.
 Basalt or gabbro protolith.
 Usually not well foliated.
 Hornfels – Alteration by heating.
 Associated with plutonic intrusions.
 Finely crystalline.

Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Rocks
 Quartzite – Almost pure quartz in composition.
 Forms by alteration of quartz sandstone.
 Sand grains in the protolith recrystallize and fuse.
 Like quartz, it is hard, glassy, and resistant.
Metamorphic Alteration
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Rocks
 Marble - Coarsely crystalline calcite or dolomite.
 Forms from a limestone or dolostone protolith.
 Extensive recrystallization completely changes the rock.
 Original textures and fossils in the parent are obliterated.
 Used as a decorative and monument stone.
 Exhibits a variety of colors.

Metamorphic Alteration
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Rocks
 Type depends on protolith.
 Minerals contribute elements.
 Some protoliths yield specific rocks.
 Broad compositional classes.
 Pelitic.
 Basic (or Mafic).
 Calcareous.
 Quartzo-feldspathic.

Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Classes
 Pelitic – Shale protoliths.
 Al-rich clay minerals yield micas.
 Rock type depends on grade.
Slate.
Phyllite.
Schist.
Gneiss.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Classes
 Mafic – Basalt or gabbro protolith.
 Rich in Fe and Mg and poor in Si, Al, Na, and K.
 Turn into biotite- and amphibole-dominated rocks.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Classes
 Calcareous – Carbonate protolith.
 Rich in Ca (limestones) and Ca and Mg (dolostones).
 Recrystallize into calcite and dolomite marbles.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Classes
 Quartzo-feldspathic – Granitic protolith.
 Quartz + feldspar in granites stable under metamorphism.
 Recrystallize and become foliated into granitic gneisses.

Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Intensity
 Different minerals are stable as T and P changes.
 Grade is a measure of metamorphic intensity.
 Low grade – Slight.
 High grade – Intense.


Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Intensity
 Specific minerals typify particular grades.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Grade
 Prograde – Metamorphism via increasing T and P.
 Common in rocks that are buried in orogenic belts.
 Progressive changes.
Recrystallization causes mineral growth.
Neocrystallization results in new mineral assemblages.
Mineral changes release water.



Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Grade
 Example: Prograde metamorphism of a pelitic rock.
 Low grade – Shale protolith.
Clays recrystallize into larger, aligned clays to yield a slate.
Clays neocrystallize into tiny, aligned micas in a phyllite.
 Intermediate grade –
Micas recrystallize and grow large to form a schist.
New minerals grow in the schist.
 High grade –
Micas decompose; elements recombine into new minerals.
Neocrystallization yields quartz and feldspars in a gneiss.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Grade
 Retrograde – Metamorphism via decreasing T and P
 Common in rocks that are brought from depth by erosion.
 Accompanied by addition of H
2
O by hydrothermal fluids.
 Many prograde rocks aren’t “retrograded.”
 Rocks at the surface can preserve prograde conditions.

Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Contact Metamorphism
 Certain minerals have a limited P-T range.
 These “index minerals” record metamorphic grade.
 Index mineral maps.
 Define metamorphic zones.
 Grade boundaries called
isograds.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Facies
 Metamorphic facies – Mineral assemblage from a
specific protolith at specific P-T conditions.
 The same minerals result from the same…
 Protoliths.
 T and P conditions.
 Named for dominant
mineral.


Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Environments
 Metamorphism occurs in different settings.
 Different settings yield different effects via…
 Geothermal gradient.
 Differential stresses.
 Hydrothermal fluids.
 These characteristics are governed by tectonics.


Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Metamorphic Environments
 The types (and settings) of metamorphism are...
 Thermal – Heating by a plutonic intrusion.
 Burial – Increases in P and T by deep burial in a basin.
 Dynamic – Shearing in a fault zone.
 Regional – P and T alteration due to orogenesis.
 Hydrothermal – Alteration by hot water leaching.
 Subduction – High P–Low T alteration.
 Shock – Extreme high P attending a bolide impact.
 Mantle – Extreme high mantle P causes phase changes.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Contact Metamorphism
 Due to heat from magma invading host rock.
 Creates zoned bands of alteration in host rock.
 Called a contact (or metamorphic) aureole.
 The aureole surrounds the plutonic intrusion.
Zoned from high (near pluton) to low grade (far from pluton).
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Contact Metamorphism
 Grades of alteration form bands around the pluton.
 Bands range from highly altered to slightly altered.
 Analogous to changes in pottery with increased heating.
 The width of each aureole zone is due to…
 The size of the plutonic intrusion.
 The degree of metasomatism.
 The dominant rock is hornfels.

Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Burial Metamorphism
 As sediments are buried in a sedimentary basin…
 P increases because of the weight of the overburden.
 T increases because of the geothermal gradient.
 Requires burial below diagenetic effects.
 This is ~ 8–15 km depending on the geothermal gradient.

Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Dynamic Metamorphism
 Breakage of rock by shearing at a fault zone.
 Fault location determines type of alteration.
 Shallow crust – Upper 10-15 km.
Rocks behave in a brittle fashion.
Mineral grains crush and pulverize forming fault breccia.
 Deeper crust – Below 10-15 km.
Rocks behave in a ductile manner.
Minerals smear like taffy to form mylonite.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Regional Metamorphism
 Tectonic collisions deform huge “mobile belts.”
 Directed compression thickens mountains.
 Rocks caught up in mountain building are…
Heated via the geothermal gradient and plutonic intrusions.
Squeezed and heated by deep burial.
Smashed and sheared by differential stresses.

Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Regional Metamorphism
 Regional metamorphism creates foliated rocks.
 This type of metamorphism is, by far, the most
important in terms of the amount of rock altered.
 Collisional belts are often…
1000s of km long.
100s of km wide.


Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Hydrothermal Metamorphism
 Alteration by hot, chemically aggressive water.
 A dominant process near mid-ocean ridge magma.
 Cold ocean water seeps into fractured crust.
 Heated by magma, this water then reacts with mafic rock.
 The hot water rises and is ejected via black smokers.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Subduction Metamorphism
 Subduction creates the unique blueschist facies.
 Trenches and accretionary prisms have…
 A low geothermal gradient – low temperature.
 High pressures.
 High P – Low T favor
glaucophane, a blue
amphibole mineral.


Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Shock Metamorphism
 Rarely, Earth is struck by a comet or asteroid.
 Impacts generate a compressional shock wave.
 Extremely high pressure.
 Heat that vaporizes or melts large masses of rock.
 These conditions generate high-pressure minerals.
 Coesite.
 Stishovite.


Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Exhumation
 How do metamorphic rocks return to the surface?
 Exhumation is due to...
 Uplift – Compression squeezes deep rocks upward.
 Extensional collapse – Uplifted range spreads outward.
 Erosional unroofing – Weathering and erosion removes
vast amounts of rock.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Finding Metamorphics
 Large regions of ancient high-grade rocks – called
shields – are exposed in continental interiors.
 Shields are eroded remnants of orogenic belts.
 Shield rocks form the basement under sedimentary cover.
Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3
rd
edition, by Stephen Marshak
Chapter 8
Metamorphism: A Process of Change
©2008 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Portrait of a Planet
Third Edition
earth
LECTURE OUTLINE
This concludes the