What is a centrifugal pump?

Three basic
components:
 Volute, casing, body
– or Diffuser
 Impeller
– or impellers
 Driver (motor)
Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Impeller
Vanes
Direction of
rotation
Centrifugal Pumps
Typical single suction impeller
Centrifugal Pumps
Single suction impeller
Centrifugal Pumps
Impeller Types
• Open
• Semi-open
• Closed
- Single suction
- Double suction
• Non-clogging
• Axial flow
• Mixed flow
Centrifugal Pumps
Full Diameter Impeller
Rotation
Impeller
Blades
V
t

V
r

V
s

V
r
= Radial Velocity
V
t
= Tangential Velocity
V
s
= Vector Sum Velocity
Centrifugal Pumps
Impeller and volute
Suction Eye
Cutwater
Arrows represent the
direction of water flow
Discharge
Nozzle
Centrifugal Pumps
End Suction Pump
Series 1510
• 26 sizes
– To 4400 gpm
– To 520 ft TDH
– To 150 HP To 8”x10”
– General Purpose
Motor
Centrifugal Pumps
Section View
Bell & Gossett
Series 1510
Standard Construction
Gauge
Taps
Centrifugal Pumps
Close-Coupled Pump
Series 1531 Pump

– 20 sizes
– To 2600 gpm
– To 520 ft TDH
– To 60 HP
– To 6”x8”
– Special Purpose
Motor
Centrifugal Pumps
Large, Line Mounted Pump
Series 80
– Close coupled
– 18 sizes
– To 2600 gpm
– To 410 ft TDH
– To 60 HP
– To 8”x8”
– Special Purpose
Motor
Centrifugal Pumps
Multi-stage pumps
Bell & Gossett
Series 3550
•Multi-stage, diffuser
design
•8 sizes, stainless steel
•to 600 gpm
•to 1200 ft
•to 75 hp, 3500 rpm
•many options for suction
and discharge nozzles
Centrifugal Pumps
Multi-stage pump
Bell & Gossett
Series 3550
“Diffusers”
Centrifugal Pumps
Vertical Turbine
• Submersible
– 48 Models
– 5 - 14 bowls
– 40 - 2000 gpm
– 25 - 300 feet head
• Lineshaft
– 88 Models
– 5-20” bowls
– 4 Styles
– 20 - 10,000 gpm
– 7 - 200 feet head
Centrifugal Pumps
Double Suction Pump
Bell & Gossett
Series HSC

– 37 sizes
– To 12500 gpm
– To 840 ft TDH
– To 1000 HP
– To 14”x18”
– General Purpose Motor
Centrifugal Pumps
Typical Split Case Pump- Section View
Centrifugal Pumps
Double Suction Pump
Series VSCS
Series VSC

– 17 sizes
– To 8000 gpm
– To 400 ft TDH
– To 600 HP
– To 12”x14”
– General Purpose Motor
Centrifugal Pumps
VSC Pump- Section View
Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Construction
Standard construction, any impeller
– Mechanical seal
– Internally flushed, seal cavity
– Variety of seal materials
Stuffing box construction, any impeller
– External flush lines
– Compression packing rings
– Single flushed mechanical seal
Centrifugal Pumps
Standard construction
Bell & Gossett
Series 1510
Standard
Construction
Centrifugal Pumps
Seals
Shaft
Process
Fluid
Leakage
Environment
Vessel
Wall
Centrifugal Pumps
B&G Pump Construction
 Standard construction, any impeller
– Mechanical seal
– Internally flushed, seal cavity
– Variety of seal materials
Centrifugal Pumps
Ceramic Seal Insert
Graphite Seal Ring
Compression Ring
Impeller
Retainer (Sec Seal)
Gasket
Mechanical Seal
Rotary Assy
Stationary Assembly
Secondary Seal (Seal Bellows)
Centrifugal Pumps
Seal Cavity
Centrifugal Pumps
Standard construction
Bell & Gossett
Series 1510
Standard
Construction
Centrifugal Pumps
Limits On Seal Performance
 Temperature of the flushing water.
– 225ºF to 250ºF
 System pH.
– 7 to 9 for ceramic seals
– up to 11 for tungsten carbide seals
 Concentration of dissolved solids.
– TDS less than 1000 ppm
 Concentration of suspended solids.
– Less than 20 ppm
– Silica, less than 10 ppm
Centrifugal Pumps
Internally Flushed Mechanical Seals

Bell & Gossett
Series HSC
3

Standard
Construction
Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Construction
 Stuffing box construction, any impeller
– External flush lines
» Internal or External Fluid
– Compression packing rings
– Single flushed mechanical seal
Centrifugal Pumps
Packing
Shaft
Process
Fluid
Leakage
Environment
Vessel
Wall
Centrifugal Pumps
Stuffing box with packing
Centrifugal Pumps
Packing Installation
Centrifugal Pumps
Bypass Flush Line
Bell & Gossett
Series HSC-S
Centrifugal Pumps
Liquid-Abrasives Separator
Centrifugal Pumps
What’s “suitable”…?
Impeller
– Single suction or double suction.
Volutes
– Base mounted or in-line.
Internally flushed or stuffing box.
Single stage or multi stage.
Packing, seal or wet rotor.
Centrifugal Pumps
Angular Misalignment
Centrifugal Pumps
Parallel or Offset Misalignment
Centrifugal Pumps
Suction Piping Detail
5 dia.
1. Pipe supported
2. Length of suction
piping allows even
impeller loading
RIGHT WRONG
1. Pipe weight hangs
on pump flange.
2. Short suction pipe
results in uneven
impeller loading.
Centrifugal Pumps
Why 5 diameters?
Single Suction
Impeller
Centrifugal Pumps
Installation
Typical installation
Elbow Support
(Anchor to Base)
Solid Base Foundation
Flow
Pump Motor Hoist Beam
Trolley with Manual
Hook-Type Hoist
Triple Duty Valve
Suction Diffuser
Centrifugal Pumps
Vertical Turbine Pump
Driver
Discharge
Head
Column
Bowl
Assembly
Comments?
Questions?
Observations?