# Prasad Positional Number System 1

VEDIC MATHEMATICS :
Positional Number System
Symbols for numbers:
Hindu Arabic System
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
1 ·
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
2 ·

1 · ·
1 · 1
1 · 2
1 · 3
1 · 4
1 · 5
1 · 6
1 · 7
1 · 8
1 · 9
1 1 ·

Need care
when writing
(aligning)
numbers
with blanks.
1
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
2

1
1 1
1 2
1 3
1 4
1 5
1 6
1 7
1 8
1 9
1 1

Invention of Zero
• 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
• 1 ,11,12,…
• ..
• 1 , 1 1, 1 2, …

• 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
• 10,11,12,…
• ..
• 100, 101, 102, …

Attributed to Indian Mathematicians.
In fact, zero thrust itself upon us in the context
of positional number system!
Names of Zero
Hindu Sunya (“void”/“empty”)
Arabic Sifir (“vacant”)
Roman Cifra
Latin Zephirum or Zephyrum
English Zero, Cipher
Vedic Mathematics
• Vedas: Texts from Ancient India in Sanskrit
• Mathematics: Study of quantity (how
much?), change (how fast? ), space
(shapes), …
• Vedic Mathematics is the mathematical
knowledge of ancient Hindus passed down
through generations (initially verbally and
later codified) as slokas (verses) in Sanskrit.
Invention vs Discovery
• Discovery is finding out
what exists but previously
unknown
– Discovery of America by
Christopher Columbus (of
Spain) in October 1492
– Discovery of Helium by Sir
William Ramsay
• Ref: Sun, Balloon
– Discovery of Galaxies by
Edwin P. Hubble
Number zero was discovered.
• Invention is something
you create out of
imagination
– Invention of Car
– Invention of Wheel
– Invention of
Computers
– Invention of Television

Symbol zero was invented.
Why base 10?
• 10 fingers, 10 toes, …?
• Alternatives
– Base 60 (Babylonian Cunieform)
• Upto 59 by crescent (weight 10) and wedge (weight 1)
• "<< VVV" = 2*10 + 3*1 = 23
• "< VV << VVV" = 12*60 + 23*1 = 743
• => 1 hour = 60 minutes, 1 minute = 60 seconds,
• => 1 year ~ 360 days, 1 day = 24 hours
• 24 = 1 x 2 x 3 x 4; 60 = 1 x 2 x 3 x 2 x 5
– Base 2 (Modern)
• Two eyes, two ears, two hands, two legs, …?
• Digital Computers based on “switches” {0, 1}
Dashavtar
1. Matsya (fish),
2. Kurma (tortoise),
3. Varaha (boar),
4. Narasimha (man-lion),
5. Vamana (dwarf man),
6. Parashuram
7. Ram (moral man),
8. Krishna (philosophical /
practical man)
9. Balaram
10. Kalki
Symbols for numbers :
Hindi (Devanagari) Numerals
Representing Numbers :
Positional System
• 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
• For larger numbers:
– Problem: cannot keep inventing new symbols
– Solution: use finite number of symbols with
Position-based Weighting
• 52 = 5 * 10 + 2
• 743 = 7 * 100 + 4 * 10 + 3
Positions and Weights
TEN-
THOUSANDS
THOUSANDS HUNDREDS TENS UNITS
43210
=
4 * 10,000
+ 3 * 1,000
+ 2 * 100
+ 1 * 10
+ 0
Exercises
• 1a) Local Values
• 1b-e) Verbalizing Numbers