HACCP 2000

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e1Procedures Software House
HACCP
FOOD
HYGIENE
OVERVIEW
HACCP 2000
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Contents
1. Introduction
2. About Bacteria
3. Food Poisoning & It’s Prevention
4. Personal Hygiene
5. Food Premises
6. Cleaning & Disinfection
7. The Law & it’s Enforcement

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Why high Hygiene Standards ?.
1. Food Poisoning Outbreaks &
Sometimes Death
2. Customer Complaints
3. Pest Infestation
4. Wasted food (spoilage)
5. Closure of premises (loss of
jobs)
6. Fines and costs of legal actions
7. Civil action taken by food
poisoning victims
8. Loss of Profit
1. One Satisfied Customer Leads
to Another
2. A Good Reputation
3. Increased Business
4. Compliance with the Law
5. Longer Food shelf Life
6. Better Working environment
7. Higher Staff Morale
8. Increased Profits
COSTS of Poor Hygiene
BENEFITS of Good Hygiene
Introduction
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So, What is Food Poisoning ?
An unpleasant illness which normally happens
within 1 to 36 hours of eating contaminated or
poisonous food.
SYMPTOMS:
•Abdominal Pain
•Diarrhoea
•Vomiting
•Fever
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Main Causes of Food Poisoning
• Bacteria or their poisons
• Viruses
• Chemicals
• Metals
• Poisonous Plants
BACTERIAL FOOD POISONING CAN BE FATAL & IS
THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF FOOD POISONING
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Types of Bacteria
• FOOD POISONING BACTERIA
• Cause Illness
• Can not be detected by taste or smell
• Very Harmful due to difficulty to detect

• FOOD SPOILLAGE BACTERIA
– Can be detected (when in high numbers) by smell,
taste or even colour & texture of food
– Relatively Harmless because of ease of detection
MOST BACTERIA ARE HARMLESS, SOME ARE
USEFUL, ONLY A FEW ARE DANGEROUS
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How Bacteria Function
CELL WALL
CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE
NUCLEUS
FLAGELLAE
CYTOPLASM
SIZE = 1/1,000,000 m
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How Bacteria Grow
Bacteria reproduce by splitting in two
Under ideal conditions bacteria can divide in two
every :
10 minutes
One bacteria can become
1,000,000 in 3 hours & 20 minutes
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Growth of Bacteria
HOURS MINUTES No BACTERIA
0 0 1
10 2
20 4
30 8
40 16
50 32
1 60 64
70 128
80 256
90 512
100 1,024
110 2,048

HOURS MINUTES No BACTERIA
2 120 4,096
130 8,192
140 16,384
150 32,768
160 65,536
170 131,072
3 180 262,144
190 524,288
200 1,048,576
TOTAL 1,048,576
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Growth of Bacteria
GROWTH RATE OF BACTERIA
0
200,000
400,000
600,000
800,000
1,000,000
1,200,000
0
2
0
4
0
6
0
8
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
4
0
1
6
0
1
8
0
2
0
0
Time (Mins)
N
o

o
f

B
a
c
t
e
r
i
a
NUMBER OF BACTERIA
THIS IS CALLED EXPONENTIAL GROWTH
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Conditions for Bacterial Growth
• FOOD


• WARMTH


• TIME


• WATER
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The Temperature „DANGER ZONE‟ for Food
100oC + - Most SPORE FORMING BACTERIA DESTROYED
75oC - 100oC - Most BACTERIA DESTROYED
60oC - 75oC - BACTERIA GROWTH PREVENTED. Some may survive.
DANGER ZONE
BACTERIA GROW RAPIDLY
OVER THIS TEMPERATURE RANGE

5-63oC
0oC - 5oC - Some BACTERIA GROW SLOWLY
<-18oC - BACTERIAL GROWTH is STOPPED
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Destruction of Bacteria in Food
HEAT
– e.g Cooking, Pasteurisation (?),

IRRADIATION
– e.g X-Rays, Gamma Rays

CHEMICALS
– e.g. Preservatives, Salt, etc
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What is a Bacterial SPORE ?
A Dormant Resistant State which some
bacteria go into when conditions become
unfavourable to them.
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Where do Bacteria come From ?
• PEOPLE
• PESTS
• AIR
• WATER
• ANIMALS & BIRDS
• RAW FOOD
• SOIL & WASTE
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Food Poisoning Bacteria
Symptoms : Vomiting, Diarrhoea,
Abdominal Pains, Fever
Incubation Period : 12-36 hours
Duration of Illness : 1-8 days
Source : All raw foods of animal origin,
poultry in particular.
Humans can be carriers.
SALMONELLA
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Food Poisoning Bacteria
CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS
Symptoms : Diarrhoea, Abdominal Pains
Incubation Period : 8-22 hours
Duration of Illness : 12-24 hours
Source : Raw meat, Humans, Spores in soil and
therefore on vegetables,

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Food Poisoning Bacteria
STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
Symptoms : Vomiting, Abdominal Pains
Incubation Period : 1-7 hours
Duration of Illness : 6-24 hours
Source : Human Nose, throat, skin, hair, boils, styes,
septic cuts

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Food Poisoning Bacteria
BACILLUS CEREUS
Symptoms : Vomiting, Abdominal Pains
Incubation Period : 1-5 hours
Duration of Illness : 6-24 hours
Source : Soil, dust. Cereals, especially rice.
Almost always associated with re-heated
rice.

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Food Poisoning Bacteria
CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM
Symptoms : Double Vision, Headache, Nausea,
Vomiting Central nervous system is affected
and paralysis of the respiratory tract is the
usual cause of death.
Incubation Period : 2 hours to 8 days
Duration of Illness : Frequently Fatal
Source : Spores in soil and therefore
vegetables. Fish. Normally associated with
canned foods.

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Food Borne Infections
An illness which is TRANSMI TTED by FOOD or WATER which may be
bacterial or viral.
The Food or Water is only the VEHI CLE and normally plays no part in
the MULTI PI CATI ON of the organism
EXAMPLES :
CAMPYLOBACTER - Bird infected Milk
LISTERIA - Once in the human body actually multiplies in tissues & blood
TYPHOID / PARATYPHOID - Caused by Salmonella typhi / paratyphi, usually from
sewage contaminated water supplies or from food handlers who are carriers.
DYSENTERY - Caused by Shigella flexneri. Commoner in children.
WI TH FOOD BOURNE I NFECTI ONS THE NUMBERS OF
ORGANI SMS REQUI RED TO CAUSE I LLNESS I S NORMALLY
VERY SMALL
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Food Borne Infections
Route of Infection
BACTERIA or
ORGANISM in
FAECES
TRANSFERED VIA
HANDS OR
SEWAGE
ONTO FOOD
FOOD IS
CONSUMED
ILLNESS IN MAN
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Food Hygiene is....
PROTECTION of food from risk of contamination by
bacteria, poisons, viruses & foreign bodies.
PREVENTION of bacteria present in food multiplying
to numbers that would result in illness of people or
result in premature spoilage of food.
DESTROYING any harmful bacteria in the food by
proper cooking or processing
CONTAMINATION is the presence of any OBJ ECTIONABLE
MATTER in food. This may be bacterial or physical, e.g. glass,
wood, metal, etc.
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Food Contamination
PHYSICAL
Examples :
Dead Insects (sometimes live)
Paper & Cardboard
Plastic, Metal, Plasters,
Cleaning Materials, String,
Rodent hair & droppings,
Sweet Papers, Pen Tops, Grease,
Glass, Cigarette Ends, and so on...
BACTERIAL
Examples :
Salmonella,
Clostridia,
Listeria,
Staphylococcus,
Bacillus,
and more.....

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High Risk Foods
Some foods are higher risk than others
because they present a better growth
opportunity for Food Poisoning bacteria (and
viruses) than others.
EXAMPLES :
ALL COOKED FOODS - Already cooked, will not be
cooked again, also free from competition,
FOODS CONTAINING RAW INGREDIENTS (or
FOODS normally eaten RAW or PART COOKED) - E.g
Mayonnaise, Rare Steak, Shell Fish.
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High Risk Foods
FOOD HIGH RISK ?
COOKED MEAT YES
APPLE NO
COOKED RICE YES
MILK, CREAM etc.,
YES
FRESH MEAT NO
A HIGH RISK FOOD is one which SUPPORTS THE GROWTH OF
BACTERIA and is INTENDED FOR CONSUMPTION WITHOUT FURTHER
TREATMENT THAT WOULD DESTROY SUCH BACTERIA, e.g. Cooking.
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How Can We Protect Food From Contamination ?
THE FOOD ITSELF
–Keep it COVERED
–Separate RAW & COOKED
–COOK it properly
–Use the FRIDGE properly
–Minimum TIME OUT of FRIDGE
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How Can We Protect Food From Contamination ?
THE FOOD HANDLER
–Good PERSONAL HYGIENE
–Wear PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
–Good FOOD HANDLING PRACTISES
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How Can We Protect Food From Contamination ?
PREMESIS & EQUIPMENT
–Clean EQUIPMENT & UTENSILS
–Use TRAYS, CONVEYORS
–Use CLEAN DISPOSABLE CLOTHS
–Use SEPARATE SINKS for HAND &
EQUIPMENT
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How Can We Protect Food From Contamination ?
PESTS
– Store Food in PEST PROOF
CONTAINERS
– Prevent PEST ACCESS
– Trap & Kill INVADERS
– Monitor for SIGNS
– REMOVE PEST FOOD SOURCE
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How Can We Protect Food From Contamination ?
CLEANING & DISINFECTION
– Use the correct CLEANING PROCEDURE

– CLEAN AS YOU GO

– INSPECT REGULARLY

– Monitor results by taking SWABS
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How Can We Prevent Bacteria From Multiplying?
• Store food out of the DANGER ZONE
• Keep TIME in DANGER ZONE to a minimum
• Use PRESERVATIVES
• Keep DRY FOODS DRY
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How Can We Destroy Bacteria In The Food?
• High Temperatures, i.e. COOKING
• Chemicals, e.g Nitrites in hams,
• Irradiation, GAMMA or X-RAYS

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Why Personal Hygiene?
Bacteria may be introduced into food directly
from the person e.g. :

From the Hands & Skin By Coughing/Sneezing
From the Intestine
From Boils,Cuts, Spots,
From Clothing,
From J ewellery,
From Hair, Smoking.
No
Smoking
No Eating,
No Drinking
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Hand Washing
When must you wash your hands ?

After Eating, Smoking,
Touching Face,
After the Toilet,
Entry to Food Rooms
After Touching Waste
Between Raw Cooked
After Sneezing, Coughing
After Cleaning
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Hand Washing
How must you wash your hands ?
• Wet the hands
• Apply Liquid Bactericidal Hand Soap
• Scrub as required, include the backs of hand
and in between fingers as well as behind
fingernails
• Rinse off and dry hands with clean disposable
towel
• Apply ALCOHOL HAND SANITISER
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Cleaning & Disinfection
What is cleaning?
Cleaning is the removal of dirt and soil which
would provide food for the growth of
bacteria. Cleaning does not kill bacteria, it
only removes them

How do we clean ?
By use of WATER, DETERGENT & ‘ELBOW GREASE’
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How Detergents Work
Detergent Molecule
Water hating end
Water loving end
Water loving ends in
contact with the water
molecules
Electric Charge
-ve
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How Detergents Work
Add detergent to water
Introduce Fat / Protein
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How Detergents Work
Detergent „tail ends‟
embed in soil
Fat lifting from surface
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How Disinfectants Work
BURST CELL WALL
BLOCK FOOD INTAKE
DESTROY DNA
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COLOUR CODE HAZCHEM
• Neutral

• Alkaline

• Caustic

• Chlorinated

• Acidic

• Disinfectant
Detergent Types & Colour Code
NEUTRAL
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Tools Required for Cleaning
The correct tools must be identified for each task
FLOORBRUSH
SQUEEGEE MOP
SCRUBBER
DRYER
CLOTH & BUCKET SCOURER & BUCKET
BRUSH & BUCKET
HOSE
PRESSURE GUN
INJECTOR
& LANCE
JETSTREAM
FOAMER
TRIGGER SPRAY
SPRAYER
FOGGER SCRAPER
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Safety Equipment Required
The correct Personal Protective Equipment
must be identified for each task
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Cleaning & Disinfection
What is disinfection?
Disinfection is the reduction of the numbers
of bacteria present on food surfaces to an
acceptable level

How do we disinfect ?
By use of a Chemical Disinfectant or....
by use of Heat or...
BOTH
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Cleaning & Disinfection
Stages of the clean

 GROSS CLEAN
 APPLY DETERGENT (HOT), CONTACT
TIME & ‘ELBOW GREASE’
 RINSE DETERGENT & DEBRIS
 DISINFECT
 RINSE (where appropriate)
 ALLOW TO DRY

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Cleaning & Disinfection
Cleaning may remove large numbers of bacteria

– A dirty surface may have 10,000,000 bacteria per sq... cm

– A cleaned surface may have 10,000 bacteria per sq.. cm

– A disinfected surface may have 10 living bacteria per sq.. cm

A cleaning and disinfection routine does not necessarily kill
all micro-organisms but reduces their numbers to an
acceptable level


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The Law & it‟s Enforcement
The main pieces of UK legislation :

 FOOD SAFETY ACT 1990
 FOOD HYGIENE REGULATIONS (1958-1978)
 FOOD SAFETY (GENERAL FOOD HYGIENE)
REGULATIONS 1995

The FOOD SAFETY ACT 1990 is the main piece of
legislation which governs FOOD HYGIENE
REGULATIONS
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The Law & it‟s Enforcement
FOOD SAFETY ACT (FSA) 1990
Offences under FSA 1990….
To sell or offer for sale food...
…which has been MADE HARMFUL,
…which is UNFIT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION,
…which is CONTAMINATED,
…which is NOT OF THE QUALITY EXPECTED.
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The Law & it‟s Enforcement
FOOD SAFETY ACT (FSA) 1990
Environmental Health Officers are ‘The Enforcer’s’ of
ALL FOOD SAFETY LEGISLATION

AN EHO can :
• Enter, inspect, detain and seize food,
• Issue an IMPROVEMENT NOTICE,
• Issue an EMERGENCY PROHIBITION NOTICE,
• Issue a EMERGENCY PROHIBITION ORDER.
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The Law & it‟s Enforcement
FOOD SAFETY ACT (FSA) 1990
Penalties under the Food Safety Act 1990:
Persons found GUILTY may face….
Fines of up to £20,000 and / or
up to Six Months in PRISON

However, in serious cases…
Unlimited Fines and
Up to Two Years in PRISON may be handed
down


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The Law & it‟s Enforcement
FOOD SAFETY ACT (FSA) 1990
It is a Defence under the Food Safety Act 1990
to…

PROVE ‘DUE DILIGENCE’

i.e. a defendant can be acquitted if they prove that they
“took all reasonable precautions and exercised
all due diligence to avoid committing the
offence”
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The Law & it‟s Enforcement
FOOD SAFETY ACT (FSA) 1990
In Practice „Due Diligence‟ means:
Q.A. Monitoring & Record Keeping,
e.g. Temperatures, Bug Records, Medical Certificates
Training,
e.g. Hygiene, HACCP,
Preventative Systems,
HACCP, Pest Control, Hygiene Manuals,
Company Policies,
Hygiene, Training, Supplier.
Safety Training
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The Law & it‟s Enforcement
FOOD SAFETY (GENERAL FOOD HYGIENE) REGS 1995
MAIN REQURIEMENTS:
 FOOD BUSINESS PROPRIETORS MUST
– OPERATE HYGIENICALLY
– ANALYSE FOOD HAZARDS
– IDENTIFY CRITICAL POINTS IN PROCESSES

 FOOD HANDLERS MUST
– KEEP THEMSELVES CLEAN & WEAR CLEAN PROTECTIVE
CLOTHING
– REPORT NOTIFIABLE ILLNESS
– BE SUPERVISED & INSTRUCTED &/OR TRAINED IN FOOD HYGIENE
MATTERS COMENSURATE WITH WORK ACTIVITY
Safety Training
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STANDS FOR…
H - HAZARD
A - ANALYSIS
C - CRITICAL
C - CONTROL
P - POINTS
HACCP
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HACCP Now
Designed to make understanding and
working with HACCP easy for everyone
involved.
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HACCP Now
HACCP Now uses:
– GRAPHICS & COLOURS
– EASY TO UNDERSTAND LANGUAGE
– SIMPLIFIED FLOW DIAGRAMS

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HACCP Now
HACCP Now Helps Easily Identify :

– Food Safety Hazards,
– People Involved at Each Step,
– What Training & Procedures are Required,
– Which Steps have CCP‟s,
– Who has been Trained

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HACCP Now
HACCP Now - How to use it :

– View the Process Flow Diagram, See where you
fit in.
– Read the HACCP Instruction Card for your
Process Step.
– Read the identified Hazard list and see which
are CCP’s.
– Read the Control Measures, Critical Limits,
Monitoring Procedures & Corrective Actions
and see where YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE.
– Write in your HACCP INDUCTION BOOKLET
what you are responsible for & sign the Training
Log section in the HACCP system.
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