Addition of oxygen/removal of
hydrogen/removal of electron is
called oxidation.
• Mg + O
2 MgO

2H2S + O2 2S + 2H2O3

Addition of hydrogen/removal of
oxygen/addition of electron is called

Reaction in !hich oxidation and
reduction ta"es #lace simultaneously
is called redox reaction.
• 2$a + %l
2 2$a
Oxidation half reaction $a  $a++ e
Reduction half reaction %l + e%l
Oxidation $um&er

O.$ is the charge assigned to an
atom in com#ound or ion !hen all
elements are removed under certain
rules is called oxidation num&er.
Rules for assigning Oxidation $um&er

O$ of an element is 'ero.

O$ of monoatomic ion is e(ual to its
+ +, O2 2

O$ of oxygen is 2 &ut in #eroxide it is + and in su#er oxide it is

O$ of Hydrogen is ++ &ut in -iH, $aH, .H, %aH
2 it is +.

O$ of /uorine is al!ays +. O$ of %l,0r,1 ) + &ut in 123 it is +3.

Alge&raic sum of oxidation num&er of elements in com#ound is 4.

O$ of #olyatomic ion is e(ual to its charge5 $O3
) +
2ractional Oxidation $um&er
• 1n %
3O2 oxidation no of %) 6/3, in $a2S2O7 oxidation num&er
of S)8/2 !hich is not #ossi&le. e
never transfer in fraction &ut
ex#lain as %

1t is used to oxidise and it itself
reduces i.e. gain electron.

1t is used to reduce and it itself
oxidises i.e. lose electron.
Redox reactions and its

Only those reactions in !hich oxidation
num&er of element change is called redox
reactions unless it is not redox reaction.
• %om&ination reaction5 % + O
2  %O2 , Mg + $2 

9ecom#osition reaction5 2.%lO3 2.%l + 3O2 :O$ of %l and O change;

Metal dis#lacement reaction 5 %uSO6 + <n  <nSO6 + %u:O$ of %u, <n

$on metal dis#lacement reaction5 $a + H2O  $aOH + H2

9is#ro#ortionation reaction 5 reaction in !hich same element oxidise as
!ell as reduce =have 3 O$> H2O2  2H24 + O2
0alancing of redox reactions

0y oxidation no method =ii> 0y e
reaction method

O$ method =i> Assign O$ to all elements to O
2 and H2 ?O2 and
H2 also if O$ change@

=ii> 0alance all atom exce#t O2 and H2?O2 and H2 also if their
O$ change@

=iii> 2ind total decrease in Oxidation $um&er and total increase in
O$ &alance change in O$ &y multi#lying &y suita&le integer.

=iv> 0alance charge H+ in acidic medium and OH in &asic

=v> 0alance O atom &y adding H2O in deAcient side

Redox reaction is &ase of titration5 Bhe
#rocess in !hich t!o solution are
allo!ed to react is called titration. Bhe
Anal result =molarity of un"no!n
solution> is calculated &y using volume
of t!o solutions consumed and molarity
of one solution. Redox reactions ta"e
#lace during titration
• *g 5 2MnO
+ 8%
2 + +7H+  2Mn2+ + +4%O
2 + CH2O
Half cell

Dhen metal rod di##ed in metal salt
solution is called half cell.

Dhen metal converted into metal ion
oxidation half cell <n  <n
2+ + 2e

Dhen metal ion converted into metal E Reduction half cell %u2+
+ 2e  %u
*lectrochemical cell/ Falvanic cell/
9ancill cell

%hemical energy converted into
electrical energy . B!o half cell
connected to salt &ridge then current
/o! from <n to %u5 <n act as anode and
%u act as cathode.

Reaction at anode <n E <n
2+ + 2e

Reaction at cathode %u2+ + 2e %u

$et reaction <n + %u2+  <n2+ + %u


Re#resentation of cell 5 <n/<n2+ HH %u2+/%u
Salt 0ridge

1t is I sha#ed glass tu&e contain
aga'aga' di##ed in .$O
3=a(> 2unction E
=i> 2lo! of current &y com#leting circuit.

Maintain electrical neutrality

*lectromotive force =e.m.f> of cell )
cathode *anode

Standard e.m.f of cell ) *
4cell ) *4cathode E *4anode
*lectrode #otential

Dhen metal rod di##ed in its salt solution
• *g. <n in <nSO
6 =a(>, %u in %uSO6 E Bhere are three

=i> Metal ion colloid !ith metallic rod and &ounce &ac" *
4 ) 4

=ii> Metal ion colloid !ith metallic rod and converted in metal %u2+ J %u
*4 ) ve

=iii> Metal collide !ith metallic rod K converted into metal ion <nJ <n2+

A #otential setu# &/! metal and its ion are called half cell.
*lectrode #otential is either oxidation or reduction #otential. 0oth are
e(ual &ut in o##osite sign. %onventionally called reduction #otential
Standard reduction #otential

Lotential setu# &et!een metals and its ion
!hen conc. Of solution =metal salt solution>
at 2MC.N +M. 1t can &e measured against
some reference electrode !hose electrode
#otential is 'ero ?$H*/SH*@

*lectrode #otential #redict reactivity of metal

Metal !hose *
4 reduc. E -ess than $H* E more reactive / has more
reducing #o!er.

<n is more reactive than H
2/%u. Since *
<n2+ N H2 or %u

%u is less reactive than H2/<n. Since *
4 %u2+/%u J H
2 or <n