Management Information Systems

by Sahil Raj
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Chapter 6

Hardware and Software
Concepts Regarding
Information Systems
Management Information Systems
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After going through this chapter, you should be able to
understand:

• Importance of computer.
• Various computer generations.
• In depth knowledge of the various subparts of computer.
• Various input and output devices.
• Application of operating system.
• Need for programming languages.

Introduction
Management Information Systems
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The computer is an electronic device which helps in the
conversion of data into information. This conversion is
done by proper processing of data.
Computer
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• Speed
• Accurate
• Reliability
• Management of Information
• Artificial Intelligence
• Consistency
• Up gradation
• Cost Cutting

Characteristics of Computer
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• First Generation

• Second Generation

• Third Generation

• Fourth Generation

• Fifth Generation

Computer Generations
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• Hardware

• Software

Main Components of Computer
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• Input Unit

• CPU
o Memory Unit
o Control Unit
o ALU

• Output Unit
Structure of Computer
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Input Unit

Memory Unit

Control Unit

ALU
Output
Devices
Input
Data
Output
Information
CPU
Organization of Computer
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The memory unit plays very crucial role in processing of
the data. Memory unit stores the data which are then
accessed by ALU for processing.
Memory Unit
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The main memory of the computers can be divided into
two parts

1. Primary Memory Unit

2. Secondary Memory Unit

Types of Memory Unit
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The primary memory is further classified as follows:

• Random Access Memory (RAM): RAM is a
temporary memory used for storage of data.

• Read Only Memory (ROM): The contents or data
saved in the ROM are permanent.

Primary Memory
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The following are the types of secondary memory devices:

• Magnetic Tapes
• Magnetic Disks
• Floppy Disks
• Optical Disks
• Pen Drives

Secondary Memory
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• Punched Cards
• VDU
• Keyboard
• Mouse
• Joy Stick
• Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
• Optical Mark Reader (OMR)
• Optical Bar Reader (OBR)
• Optical Character Reader (OCR)
• Light Pen

Input Devices
Management Information Systems
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• Hard Copy Devices

• Soft Copy Devices




Output Devices
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Operating Systems
The operating systems are set of instructions that
manage the functions of a computer and all the
operations of the peripheral devices attached to the
computer.
Management Information Systems
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• Batch Operating Systems

• Interactive Operating Systems

• Multiprogramming Operating Systems and
Multiprocessing Operating Systems

• Multi-User Operating Systems

• Virtual Storage Operating Systems
Types of Operating Systems
Management Information Systems
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Processors
Processors are used for converting different
programming languages into the machine level
language.
Management Information Systems
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• Assembler

• Interpreters

• Compilers
Types of Processors
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Programming Languages
The programming languages are used to give
instructions to the computer.
Management Information Systems
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• Machine Level Language

• Assembly Language

• High Level Language

• Fourth Generation Language

Types of Programming Languages
Management Information Systems
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Thank You.