Beyond Institutional Preparedness

Preparing for the Possible,
Not the Probable
Leslie A. Williams
Assistant Professor
Auraria Library
University of Colorado Denver
Annual Conference
International Foundation for Cultural Property Protection
Denver, Colorado
August 9-14, 2014
Beyond Institutional Preparedness: Overview
CHR Task
Response Phase
Putting It
Into Action
Rewind: County Response in Florida (2004)
Hurricane Charley
Hurricane Frances
Hurricane Ivan
Hurricane Jeanne
Tropical Storm Bonnie
Leslie’s Background
Rewind: National Response for Animals (2005-2008)
Hattiesburg, Mississippi
Hurricane Katrina
Tennessee Puppy Mill
Present Day:
Colorado Cultural & Historic Resources (CHR) Task Force
 Formed in January 2012

 Strong Partnership Between Collections,
Historic Preservation, & Emergency

 Local, State, & Federal Partners

 Network of 136+ Individuals Around
Colorado & Beyond

 Working together to improve mitigation,
preparedness, response and recovery
efforts for cultural and historic resources

 Responded to more than 20 wildland fires
and historic flooding in 2012 & 2013

 Leading the Nation
Lower North Fork Fire
Started: March 26, 2012
(Williams , 2013. Preparing.)
• Preparing for
the Probable
• Preparing for
the Possible
Incident Priorities CHR
Emergency management
establishes objectives
throughout the incident,
based on the following priorities:

#1: Life Safety
#2: Incident Stabilization
#3: Property Preservation
(Ex: Critical Infrastructure)

 To acknowledge cultural and historic
resources fall below these on the
priority list.
 To prepare for the possible incidents
that exceed institutional capabilities
and resources.
 To assist our institutions and the
greater CHR community by
leveraging all our capabilities and
 To collaborate with emergency
management officials to influence
mitigation, response, and recovery
Why go beyond institutional preparedness?
(Williams , et al, 2013. Colorado’s) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2010, IS 703.a)
Discussion: Beyond Institutional Preparedness
 Is there a task force in your state?

 Are you planning for the probable or the possible?

 What is the possible scenario where your institution would exceed its
resources? Hurricane? Fire?

 Do you have existing “phone call” relationships beyond your institution
within the CHR or EM communities?

 If not, who could you potentially establish a “phone call” relationship

The ability of the whole community
to interact and work well together.

“The ability of emergency management/response
personnel to interact and work well together.”

(Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2010, IS 700.A)
Whole Community Approach
 A government-centric approach to emergency
management is not enough to meet the challenges
posed by a catastrophic incident.
 Understand and meet the actual needs of the whole
 Engage and empower all parts of the community.
 Requires all members of the community to be
part of the emergency management team
 Empowered to identify its needs and the existing
resources that may be used to address them.
 Strengthen what works well in communities on a
daily basis.
 Strengthen the institutions, assets, and networks
that already work well in communities
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2014, Whole)
New Disaster Cycle
 Prevention. Prevent, avoid or stop an imminent,
threatened or actual act of terrorism.
 Protection. Protect our citizens, residents, visitors,
and assets against the greatest threats and hazards in
a manner that allows our interests, aspirations, and
way of life to thrive.
 Mitigation. Reduce the loss of life and property by
lessening the impact of future disasters.
 Response. Respond quickly to save lives, protect
property and the environment, and meet basic
human needs in the aftermath of a catastrophic
 Recovery. Recover through a focus on the timely
restoration, strengthening and revitalization of
infrastructure, housing and a sustainable economy,
as well as the health, social, cultural, historic and
environmental fabric of communities affected by a
catastrophic incident.
(Kilner, 2013, Integrating)
National Disaster Recovery Framework (NDRF)
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2011, National)
Discussion: Disaster Cycle
 Mitigation. What actions have been taken or could be taken at
cultural heritage institutions to lessen the impact of future disasters
and reduce the loss of life and property?

 Response. What actions have been taken or could be taken at cultural
heritage institutions to respond quickly to disasters?

 Recovery. What actions have been taken or could be taken at cultural
heritage institutions to be able to recover in a timely manner after
being affected by a catastrophic incident?

An incident is an occurrence
or event, natural or human-
caused, that requires a
response to protect life or

An incident is an occurrence
or event viewed as a separate

Oxford English Dictionary
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2010, ICS-0100b)
Command vs Coordination
The act of directing, ordering, or
controlling by virtue of explicit
statutory, regulatory,
or delegated authority.
Command Coordination
The process of providing support to
the command structure, and may
include incident prioritization,
critical resource allocation,
communications systems integration,
and information exchange.

(Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2010, IS-700.A)
Coordination: Systems & Structure
 Local & State Emergency Operations
Centers (EOCs) provide support for an
 Organized into Emergency Support
Functions (ESFs) with a designated lead
agency and supporting agencies
 Cultural & Historic Resources typically
fall under ESF #11 Agricultural & Natural
Resources with a department of
agriculture as the lead agency
 Policy document is a State Emergency
Operations Plan (EOP)
 Annexes Create sub ESFs such as ESF
#11d in Colorado for Cultural & Historic
Colorado State Emergency
Operations Center
ESF#11d: Colorado CHR Task Force

 State Emergency Operations
Center (EOC) Team

 Identifies cultural and historic
resources in jeopardy

 Communicates location to
Incident Command for
protective measures

 Coordinates assistance by
drawing upon institutional
resources and technical
expertise or by tapping into
resources available via state

(Williams, 2013. Preparing.)
ESF#11d: Rules of Engagement
 Monitor developing incidents and state
EOC activation levels.

 Decide when to activate CHR Task

 Maintain situational awareness by
monitoring situation reports, emergency
management social media sites, news
media, and attending state EOC
conference calls.

 Contribute to forming a common
operating picture by building and
communicating situational awareness of
CHR community.
Peter Brady
Salina, Colorado
September 2013
ESF#11d: Rules of Engagement (Cont.)
 Communicate through appropriate channels
(e.g. CHR situation reports)

 Engage when local capabilities and resources
are exceeded.

 Request resources only when absolutely

 Respect jurisdictional authority.

 Recognize priorities are life safety, incident
stabilization, and property protection.

 Serve as the subject matter expert s (SMEs)for
CHR. As SMEs, make decisions for your
community (ex: when should you evacuate a
collection, what is significant, etc)

Little Church in the Pines
Salina, Colorado
September 2013
Peter Brady
Incident Command System (ICS) Features
 Facilities and Resources
 Comprehensive resource
 Incident locations and
 Communications/Information
 Integrated communications
 Information and intelligence
 Professionalism
 Accountability
 Dispatch/Deployment
 Standardization
 Common terminology
 Command
 Establishment and transfer of
 Chain of command and unity
of command
 Planning/Organizational
 Management by objectives
 Incident Action Plan (IAP)
 Modular organization
 Manageable span of control
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2010, ICS-0100b)
Common Terminology. No Codes!
 EMT = Emergency Medical Treatment
 EMT = Emergency Medical Technician
 EMT = Emergency Management Team
 EMT = Eastern Mediterranean Time (GMT+0200)
 EMT = Effective Methods Team
 EMT = Effects Management Tool
 EMT = El Monte, CA (airport code)
 EMT = Electron Microscope Tomography
 EMT = Email Money Transfer

Why plain English?
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2010, ICS-0100b)
Chain of Command & Modular Organization
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2010, ICS-0200b)
Overall Priorities
West Fork Fire Complex

Throughout the incident,
objectives are established based
on the following priorities:

#1: Life Safety
#2: Incident Stabilization
#3: Property Preservation

 Operational Period:
6/24/13 - 0600 - 2100

 Objective #6: Minimize
suppression impacts to
cultural, historic and natural
resources through consultation
with Resource Advisors.

Command/ICS: Incident Action Plan (IAP)
(Gianettino, 2013, West)
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2010, IS 703.a)
Putting It All Together
(Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2010, IS 700.A)
Discussion: Response Phase
 What are some examples of lingo in the CHR community that could be
confusing? How can we explain these terms in plain language?

 What are some examples of strike teams, task forces, and single
resources in the CHR community?

 What capabilities and resources could your institution offer to other
CHR institutions?

 What capabilities and resource might you request from other CHR
institution during a catastrophic incident?

 Think beyond institutional preparedness
 Expand available capabilities and resources by
building relationships through collaboration
 Connect with or create a network in your state
 To find out if a network exists in your state or to
help create one, contact Lori Foley
( at Heritage
Preservation (
 Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2009. IS-700.A:National Incident Management System, An Introduction:
Instructor Guide. edited by U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
 Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2010. IS-703.A - NIMS Resource Management: Instructor Guide edited by
U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
 Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2011a. A Whole Community Approach to Emergency Management:
Principles, Themes, and Pathways for Action. edited by U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
 Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2011b. National Disaster Recovery Framework: Strengthening Disaster
Recovery for the Nation. edited by U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
 Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2013. ICS-0100b. - Introduction to the Incident Command System (ICS 100):
Instructor's Guide. edited by U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
 Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2014. "Whole Community." Accessed July 26.
 Kilner, Science. 2013. "Integrating Historic Preservation and Cultural Institutions into the Disaster Cycle. " Heritage
Preservation Forum, Portland, Oregon.
 Williams, Leslie A. 2013a. "Disaster Preparedness." Association of Northern Front Range Museums's Bi-Annual
Meeting, Denver, Colorado.
 Williams, Leslie A. 2013b. "Preparing Colorado's Cultural & Historic Resources for Disasters." Bi-Annual Meeting, State
Preservation Plan Advisory Committee, History Colorado, Denver, Colorado.
 Williams, Leslie A., and Scott Baldwin. 2013. "Preservation Emergencies: When to Speak Up and Who to Call." Saving
Places, Denver, Colorado.
 Williams, Leslie A., Scott Baldwin, Karen Larkin, Mary Rupp, and Carl Stewart. 2013. "Colorado's Cultural & Historic
Resources Under Fire: The Summer of 2012." Best Practices in Emergency Management Higher Education,
Chattanooga, Tennessee.


Les l i e A. Wi l l i ams
l es l i e. wi l l i ams @uc denver. edu

Pres ent at i on Avai l abl e At :
www. s c r i bd. c om/ wi l l i a l e

Thank You!