What are we going to discuss

• What is an effective presentation
• Stage Fright
• Voice as a Communication tool
• Logical structure of a presentation
• Delivery
• Power point esthetics


Where presentation skills are
required
• Departmental briefings
• Conferences and meetings
• Teaching
• Academic and other job interviews
• As part of your job
• Extracurricular activities

Why Is It Important?
Good ideas will not be
recognised unless they
are effectively
communicated to
others
Public speaking is one of the most
feared thing
Stage Fright
• fear of being judged
• inadequate preparation
• unfamiliarity with the audience or the
environment
• fear of the unknown
• negative past experiences
What Causes Stage Fright
I could make a fool of myself
It is normal
Almost everyone experiences
some nervousness about
speaking in
some situations.

Nervousness Is Normal
Your body is responding by
producing extra adrenaline,
a hormone released into the
bloodstream in response to
physical or mental stress
• Know your audience
• Re-create the speech environment
• Use visual aids
• Don’t expect perfection
• Know that most nervousness is not visible
• Rehearse Success

Reducing Speech Anxiety
Prepare, prepare, prepare
Preparation is the Key
Presenting is a Skill…
Developed through experience
and training.

Great speakers aren’t born
they are trained
UNCONSCIOUOS INCOMPETANCE
KNOWLEDGE
CONSCIOUS INCOMPETANCE
PRACTICE
CONSCIOUS COMPETANCE
EXPERIENCE
UNCONSCIOUS COMPETANCE
Transferable skills are always
necessary, regardless of the
career you choose.



Transferable Skills
Communication skills
Listening skills
Problem-solving skills
Adaptability skills
Teamwork skills
Organizing skills
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
Decision making
IT skills
Planning
Written communication
Managing one's own learning
Coping with multiple tasks
Presentation skills
Team work
Time management
Oral communication
Top 10 skills in order of importance

To Inform
To Persuade
To Instruct

Formal or informal
Why Presentation
You
Information
Visuals
You Visuals
Information
You
Information
Visuals
Information
Visuals
You
Components of Good Presentation
You
Information
Visuals
Components of Good Presentation
Theme
Tone
Support
Visuals Story Data
Point Point Point Point Point
Closing
Presentation Flow
Your purpose is to
tell an
interesting story of
your idea
1. Tell what you are going to tell

2. Tell it

3. Then, tell what you have told

John Kennedy


“Ask not what your country can do for you;

“ask what you can do for your country”.
Same message: many ways to deliver
Martin Luther King.


I have a dream
that one day
this nation will rise up;
live up to the true meaning to its creed:
We hold these truths to be self-evident
that all men are created equal.
Vocal Skills : Enthusiasm
Here are some of the things many listeners
want from a talk:
CONTENT
Conveys new information
Poses an interesting question
Conveys how people in other fields think
Describes important ideas
Novel discovery
CLARITY AND ORGANIZATION
Understandable
Avoids jargon
Uses clear and simple visual aids
Well organized
Enables me to catch up if I space out
Doesn’t run over time
STYLE AND DELIVERY
Keeps me awake
Varies voice
Conveys enthusiasm
Doesn’t stay in one place
Friendly and approachable
EXPERTISE
Credible
Inspires trust and confidence
Answers questions clearly
Change in Thinking
Higher level of understanding
Change in Performance
Change in Behavior
Learning
Audio Visual Media
Content of A Slide
• Purpose
–Complement speaker
–Talk ≠ technical report

• Density
–7 lines/page
–4 words/line
Slides Enhance Speaker
• Speaker dominates
–Faces audience
–Provides content

• Slides support speaker
–Reinforce message
–Orient listeners

Speaker Reads Slides
• A speaker may put his entire presentation on his
slides. He turns his back to the audience and
reads the slides aloud. Perhaps he feels this
approach guarantees all the information will get to
the audience.

• This may be the most annoying way to give a
presentation. Audience members feel insulted:
they already know how to read! They wonder why
the lecturer doesn’t simply hand out a copy of the
slides.

• The visual presentation dominates the presenter.
The presenter is not adding any value to what is
on the slides.
Color Wheel
Primary colors (outside)
Secondary colors (inside )

Readability
• Make sure people in the back can read it!
• High contrast between text and background
• Be careful with busy backgrounds

This is good

This is not good
This is good

This is not good
Contrast
White on yellow Yellow on white
Black on blue Blue on black
Choose Color Carefully



Similar intensities
draw attention but make
details hard to see.
Strong, clean contrast
draws attention, makes
details easy to see
Make It Clear
• Use contrasting colours
• Light on dark vs dark on light
• Use complementary colours
Types of Font
busy
Z
Z
clear
Sanserif Serif
Project a Clear Font


easy to read in printed document
Times New Roman
Palatino



Serif


easy to see projected in the room
Arial
Helvetica
Sans serif
• Serif fonts are difficult to read on screen
• Sanserif fonts are clearer
• Italics are difficult to read on screen
• Normal or bold fonts are clearer
• Underlines may signify hyperlinks
• Instead, use colours to emphasise
Fonts
Use sans serif fonts.
Sans serif
Arial, 24-pt
Involvement

The importance of a
topic to the speaker.
Serif
Bookman, 24-pt
Involvement

The importance of a
topic to the speaker.
Make It Clear
• CAPITAL LETTERS ARE DIFFICULT TO
READ
• Upper and lower case letters are
easier
• Our eyes need to capture the shapes
of the letters above and below the
line
• Words in all capital letters have
nearly the same visual shape
• Make limited use of all capital letters

Make It Big
Font Size
Make it Big (Text)
• This is Arial 12
• This is Arial 18
• This is Arial 24
• This is Arial 36
• This is Arial 40
• This is Arial 44
• This is Arial 48

How Big (How to Estimate)
Look at it from 2 metres away
2 m
Numbers
and
Bullets
Use numbers for lists with
sequence
How to put an elephant into a
fridge?

1. Open the door of the fridge
2. Put the elephant in
3. Close the door
How to put a giraffe into a fridge?

1. Open the door of the fridge
2. Take out the elephant
3. Put the giraffe in
4. Close the door
Bullets
Use bullets to show a list without
– Priority
– Sequence
– Hierarchy, …..
Typical Eye Movement
• Upper left
• Upper right
• Lower left
• Lower right
Eye Flow
The eye flows from top left to bottom right
and spends 60% of time on the top half of
leaflet


15%


25%

25%

35%
Mixing Important
Unimportant Words
• The isoefficiency and the scalability
metrics of a parallel algorithm are
crucial
• The typical parallel computers of the
future will have thousands of CPUs and
terabytes of RAM

Important Words Only
Crucial metrics
–Isoefficiency
–Scalability function
Future systems
–Thousands of CPUs
–Terabytes of RAM
Unbalanced Lists
Speedup
–Sequential time
–Parallel time
• Parallel computations
• Parallel overhead
Efficiency

Balanced Lists
Speedup
–Expresses time reduction
–Sequential time, parallel time,
overhead
Efficiency
–Expresses processor utilization
–Speedup, number of processors
Grammatical Parallelism
Not Parallel:
Criteria to Assess Alarm System
• Price
• Effectiveness
• How easily the alarm could be installed
Parallel:
Criteria to Assess Alarm System
• Price
• Effectiveness
• Ease of installation
Progressive Method
Complexity of Interactions
M
o
d
e

o
f

I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n

Individual Pair Group
Direct
Instruction
Guided
Inquiry
Discovery
Learning
Individual
Instructive
Tools
Individual
Constructive
Tools
Social
Constructive
Tools
Social
Communicative
Tools
Types of Instructional Tools
Individual
Constructive
Tools
Social
Constructive
Tools
Individual
Instructive
Tools
Individual
Constructive
Tools
Social
Constructive
Tools
Social
Communicative
Tools
Individual
Instructive
Tools
Individual
Constructive
Tools
Social
Constructive
Tools
Too many in one go!
Informational Tools
Complexity of Interactions
M
o
d
e

o
f

I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n

Individual
Pair Group
Direct
Instruction
Guided
Inquiry
Discovery
Learning
Informational Tools
Types of Instructional Tools
Social
Communicative
Tools
Individual
Instructive
Tools
Individual
Constructive
Tools
Social
Constructive
Tools
Progressive &
thus focused
Text Animation
“ Fly In ” Fails
• Could you read this?
• How about this one?
• Maybe the third time is the
charm!
“Wipe from Left” Works
• Less distracting
• Reduces eye movement
• Increases readability

Displaying Visuals
Graphics
Standard
Personalized
Graphics
Tired and
overworked
clipart
Fresh and
memorable
photo
Displaying Visuals
• Insert needed visuals
• Use color
• Resize appropriately
• Draw attention
That was purely
gratuitous!
Transition & Animation
DONTS
• Don’t include unnecessary
animated GIFs
• Don’t use complex
transitions between
elements.
• Don’t use animations
alone to convey meaning.
• And cool it with the sound
effects.

Use Surprise to Attract not to Distract
• Supplement presentation
• Simple and clear
• Outline of main points
• Serve audience’s needs not of
speaker’s
Visual Aids Should…
Thanks for Your Attention