# INTRODUCTION TO

ENERGY SCIENCE
JULY - 2014

Ability to do work or cause
change

•Produces Warmth
•Produces Light
•Produces Sound
•Produces Movement
•Produces Growth
•Powers Technology
What is energy?
Courtesy of NEED
POTENTIAL
KINETIC
Stored energy
or energy of
position
Gravitational, Stored
Mechanical,
Nuclear, Chemical
Energy of
motion
Motion, Electrical,
Thermal
Classes of Energy
Courtesy of NEED
Gravitational Energy –
energy an object or substance
has because of its position
Anything “up high”
Potential Energy
Stored Mechanical
Energy – stored in an object
by the application of force
Must push or pull on an object
Potential Energy
Nuclear Energy –
energy stored in the
nucleus of an atom
Holds the atom together
Potential Energy
Chemical Energy –
energy stored in the bonds
between atoms

Holds molecules together
Potential Energy
Mechanical (Motion)
Energy – movement of
objects or substances from
one place to another
Kinetic Energy

Electrical Energy –
movement of electrons

NOT AN ELECTRON
Kinetic Energy
Sound Energy –
movement of energy
through substances in
the form of
longitudinal/compressi
on waves
Kinetic Energy
electromagnetic energy
that travels in transverse
waves
Kinetic Energy
Kinetic Energy
Thermal (Heat) Energy –
internal energy of a
substance due to the
vibration of atoms and
molecules making up the
substance
1 – Energy can not be created nor destroyed, only
changed.
Law of Conservation of Energy
First Law of Thermodynamics
2 – Energy will always transfer from high to low.
3 – No energy transfer is 100% efficient.
Energy Transfers
Conservation
of Energy
Units of Energy
Energy requires a force. Each form of energy
has it’s own force: gravity, strong & weak
nuclear forces, electrical, and kinetic forces.
 Kinetic Force = Mass x Acceleration
 Unit of force = 1 Newton = 1 Kilogram x 1 m/s
Energy is a measurement of work accomplished
by a force
 Energy = Force x Distance
 1 Joule = 1 Newton x 1 Meter
Energy and Power
 Energy is a quantity, like distance.
 1 kilowatt-hour = 1000 Watts x 1 hour
 1 kilowatt-hour = 3.6 x 10
6
Joules
 Power is a rate, like speed, it is the rate that
energy is converted from one form to another.
 1 Watt = 1 Joule / Second

The Difference Between Energy and Power

Energy

Power

Quantity

Rate

Unit

kWh

kWh

kW, MW*

kW, MW*

Water analogy

Gallons

Gal / Min

Car analogy-

- How far?
- Gallon of gas

Engine HP

Cost example

12 ¢/kWh

12 ¢/kWh

\$1,500,000/MW

\$1,500,000/MW

Grid

Consumption &
production

Installed
capacity

Laws of Thermodynamics
 First Law: In any transformation of energy from
one form to another, the total quantity of energy
remains unchanged. “Energy is neither created
nor destroyed, it only changes forms.”
 Second Law: In all energy changes, the
potential energy of the final state will be less
than that of the initial state – (useful energy is
always lost.)
 “Lost” energy is usually energy that has been
converted to heat, but it could be noise (kinetic energy
of air), or other forms of wasted energy.
Efficiency
 The ratio of the amount of useable energy
obtained to the amount of energy input is the
efficiency of a process.
 This is usually expressed as a percent and it is
always less than 100%.
Energy definitions
 Primary Energy – amount of energy
contained in the initial source of energy
 Delivered Energy – amount of useable
energy delivered to the customer
 Useful Energy – amount of energy attributed
to the amount of work accomplished
What is Electricity?
Electricity is energy transported by
the motion of electrons
**We do not make electricity, we CONVERT other
energy sources into electrical energy**
Conversion is the name of the game
Energy Conversion Options for Electricity
Non-Thermal Paths
• Source to Electrical

Source Converter
Sun Photovoltaic (photon to electron)
Chemical Fuel Cell

• Source to Potential/Kinetic to Mechanical to Electrical

Source Converter Kinetic to Mechanical Mech to Electrical
Dam Penstocks Turbine (water) Generator
Tides Machine Turbine (air or water) Generator
Wind N/A Turbine (air) Generator

Energy Conversion Options for Electricity
Thermal Paths
• Heat to Mechanical to Electrical

Source Heat to Mechanical Mech to Electrical
Geothermal Turbine (vapor) Generator
OTEC Turbine (vapor) Generator

• Stored Energy to Heat to Mechanical to Electrical

Source Reactor Heat to Mechanical Mech to Electrical
Fuel Combustor Turbine (gas or vapor) Generator
U, Pu Reactor Turbine (gas or vapor) Generator
Sun Collector* Turbine (gas or vapor) Generator
H, H
2
, H
3
Reactor Turbine (gas or vapor) Generator

* More a modifier or concentrator than a reactor

• Basic Concepts
• Voltage – V – Potential to Move Charge (volts)
• Current – I – Charge Movement (amperes or amps)
• Resistance – R – V = IxR (R in =ohms)
• Power – P = IxV = I
2
xR (watts)
Electric Motor
M
Electrical
Energy
Mechanical
Energy
DC Motor
Model Electric Motor
Beakman Motor
What do you need?
1. Electric Energy
2. Coil
3. Magnetic Field
Electric Generator
G
Mechanical
Energy
Electrical
Energy
Stationary magnets - rotating magnets - electromagnets
AC/DC
(not the band)
 Alternating Current
 Large-scale
generators produce
AC
 Follows sine wave with
n cycles per second
 1, 2, 3-phase?
 US:120 V,60 Hz
 Europe: 240 V,50Hz
 Transforming ability
 Direct Current
 Batteries, Photovoltaics,
fuel cells, small DC
generators
 Charge in ONE direction
 Negative, Positive
terminals
 Easy conversion AC to
DC, not DC to AC

Generator Phases
1 Phase – 2 Phase – 3 Phase…Smooth Power
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
250
220
110 
V t ( )
V
1
t ( )
V
2
t ( )
V
3
t ( )
0.033 0 t
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
110
110 
V t ( )
V1 t ( )
V2 t ( )
V3 t ( )
0.033 0 t
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
155.563
110 
V t ( )
V1 t ( )
V2 t ( )
V3 t ( )
0.033 0 t
Polyphase Systems 3 phases for smoother torque delivery
Force Driving Motor (Red)
Single Phase Two Phase Three Phase
WHERE DO WE GET
ENERGY FROM AND WHAT
DO WE USE IT FOR?
Energy Sources
 Non Renewable
 Fossil Fuels
 Natural Gas
 Shale Oil
 Tar Sands
 Nuclear Fusion Fuel
 Renewable
 Solar
 Geothermal
 Tidal
Solar
 Direct Sunlight
 Wind
 Hydroelectric
 Ocean Currents
 Ocean Thermal Gradients
 Biomass
World Primary Energy
Consumption
Energy Consumption Versus
GDP
2010 US Energy Flow
US Energy Consumption

 The United States uses more energy per
capita than any other country in the world, and
Alaska as a state has the highest energy per
capita energy use in the narration at 1112
MMBtu per person. This is three times higher
than the national average of 333 MMBtu.
 This is due to our cold harsh winters, high
level of air travel
 43% of total energy is from jet fuel most of
which is for international flights.

Climate Change Logic
1. The Burning of fossil fuels cause carbon
dioxide concentrations to rise.
2. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas.
3. Increasing the greenhouse effect increases
average global temperatures (among other
impacts)

“Does Skeptic mean a person who has not looked at the data?”
1000 years of CO2
Concentration
1000 Years of Temperature
Changes
Every Year an Average Coal Plant Releases
 3,700,000 tons of CO2
 10,000 tons of SO2.
 500 tons of particulates
 10,200 tons NOx
 720 tons of CO
 220 tons of volatile organic
compounds (VOC)
 170 pounds of mercury
 225 pounds of arsenic
 114 pounds of lead

And there are over 600 of them in the US.
Source: Union of Concerned Scientists: www.ucsusa.org
Types of Pollutants
 CO
2
– Global Warming
 CO – Health problem
 PM –Respiratory and
heart disease, haze
 SOx – Acid Rain,
respiratory illness, haze
 NOx – Ozone formation,
acid rain, smog, nutrient
 Mercury – Neurotoxin
 Lead – Neurotoxin
 Arsenic - Poison
 VOCs – Numerous
health problems
 Ozone – Health
problems, damage to
flora & fauna
 Hundreds of other toxic
chemicals
Power in the Wind
Power = Work / t
= Kinetic Energy / t
= ½mV
2
/ t
2
/t
= ½ρAV
2
(d/t)
= ½ρAV
3

d/t = V
Power in the Wind = ½ρAV
3
A couple things to
remember…
 Swept Area – A = πR
2
(m
2
) Area of
the circle swept by the rotor.

 ρ = air density – in Colorado its
3
Power in the Wind = ½ρAV
3
R
Example – Calculating Power in the Wind
V = 5 meters (m) per second (s) m/s
ρ = 1.0 kg/m
3
R = .2 m >>>> A = .125 m
2
Power in the Wind = ½ρAV
3

= (.5)(1.0)(.125)(5)
3

= 7.85 Watts

Units

= (kg/m
3
)x (m
2
)x (m
3
/s
3
)
= (kg-m)/s
2
x m/s
= N-m/s = Watt
Power in the Wind = ½ρAV
3
(kg-m)/s
2
= Newton
Wind Turbine Power
Power from a Wind Turbine Rotor = C
p
½ρAV
3

 C
p
is called the power coefficient.
 C
p
is the percentage of power in the wind that is
converted into mechanical energy.

What is the maximum amount of energy that can
be extracted from the wind?

 Betz Limit when a = 1/3
 V
ax
= 2/3V
1
 V
2
= V
1
/3
Actuator Disk Model of a Wind
Turbine
Where
Free stream velocity, V
1

Wake velocity, V
2
=(1 2a)
Velocity at rotor, V
ax
= V
1
(1-
a)
Induction factor, a

5926 .
27
16
C
max , p
 
Rotor Wake
Rotor Disc
Tip Speed Ratio
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

F
a
c
t
o
r

Reality Check
 What’s the most power the .6 ft turbine in the
example can produce in a 5 m/s wind?

7.85 Watts x .5926 (Betz Limit) = 4.65 Watts
Maximum Possible Power Coefficient
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
Cp
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Tip Speed Ratio
Betz - Without Wake Rotation
With Wake Rotation
Tip-Speed Ratio
Tip-speed ratio is the ratio
of the speed of the rotating
blade tip to the speed of
the free stream wind.

ΩR
V
=
ΩR
R
Where,
Ω = rotational speed in radians /sec
R = Rotor Radius
V = Free Stream Velocity
Which should work the best??
Rectangular
Reverse
Linear
Taper
Linear
Taper
Parabolic Taper
Airfoil Nomenclature
wind turbines use the same aerodynamic principals as aircraft
α
V
R
= Relative Wind
α = angle of attack = angle between the chord line and the
direction of the relative wind, V
R
.

V
R
= wind speed seen by the airfoil – vector sum of V (free
stream wind) and ΩR (tip speed).

V
ΩR Ωr
V
Airfoil Behavior
 The Lift Force is
perpendicular to the
direction of motion. We
want to make this force
BIG.

 The Drag Force is
parallel to the direction
of motion. We want to
make this force small.
α = low
α = medium
<10 degrees
α = High
Stall!!
Airfoil in stall (with flow separation)
• Stall arises due to separation of flow from airfoil
• Stall results in decreasing lift coefficient with
increasing angle of attack
• Stall behavior complicated due to blade rotation
 Sharp trailing edge
 Round leading edge
 Low thickness to chord
ratio
 Smooth surfaces
Making Good Airfoils

Good
Not so good
Energy Production Terms
• Power in the Wind = 1/2AV
3
• Betz Limit - 59% Max
• Power Coefficient - C
p
• Rated Power – Maximum
power generator can
produce.
• Capacity factor
– Actual energy/maximum
energy
• Cut-in wind speed where
energy production begins
• Cut-out wind speed where
energy production ends.

Typical Power Curve
Performance Over Range of Tip
Speed Ratios
• Power Coefficient Varies with Tip Speed Ratio
• Characterized by Cp vs Tip Speed Ratio Curve
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
Cp
12 10 8 6 4 2 0
Tip Speed Ratio
Considerations for Optimum Blade
• Optimum blade will have low solidity (10%) and tip speed
ratio, λ, about 5-7. (match speed to generator)
• High λ means lower pitch angle (blade tip is flat to the
plane of rotation).
• Lower λ means higher pitch angle (feathered).
• Pitch angles should be equal for all blades.
• Optimum blade has large chord and large twist near hub
and gets thinner near the tip.
• Optimum blade is only "optimum" for one tip speed ratio.
• The optimum blade will have smooth streamlined airfoils.

Number of Blades – One
 Rotor must move more
rapidly to capture same
amount of wind
 Gearbox ratio reduced
 Added weight of
counterbalance negates some
benefits of lighter design
 Higher speed means more
noise, visual, and wildlife
impacts
 Blades easier to install
because entire rotor can be
assembled on ground
 Captures 10% less energy
than two blade design
 Ultimately provide no cost
savings

Number of Blades - Two
 Need teetering hub
and or shock
absorbers because of
gyroscopic imbalances
 Capture 5% less
energy than three