Unit II- Structure of writing

Writing style
Presenters: Sayyid Adil & Rahil
Style is the way in which something is written, as opposed to the
meaning of what is written. In writing, however, the two are very
closely linked. As the meaning of the text, style influences the
reader‟s impression of the information itself.
The main goal in considering style is to present your information
in a manner appropriate for both the audience and the purpose
of the writing.
A writer’s style is a reflection of his personality, his unique
style, his voice and his way to approach his audience and
Generally there are four different types or styles of writing.
1. Expository Writing

2. Descriptive writing

3. Persuasive Writing

4. Narrative Writing

1. Expository Writing:

Expository writing is a subject-oriented writing style, in which
the main focus of the author is to tell you about a given topic or
subject, and leave out his personal opinions.

A writer does it by furnishing you with relevant facts and figures.

This is one of the most common type of writing styles, always seen in
text books and usually “How – to” articles, in which the author tells you
about a given subject, as how to do something.

Key Points:

• It usually explains something in a process.
• It is often equipped with facts and figures.
• It is usually in a logical order and sequence.
2. Descriptive writing:

Descriptive writing is a style of writing which focuses on describing a
character, an event or a place in great details.

It is sometimes poetic in nature in which the author specifies the details of the
event rather than just the information of that event happened.


In descriptive writing, the author will not just say:
“The vampire killed his lover”

He will change the sentence, focusing on more details and descriptions, like:
“The red-eyed, bloody vampire, flushed his rusty teeth
into the soft skin of his lover, and ended her life.”

Key Points:

• It is often poetic in nature.
• It describes places, people, events, situations or locations in a highly
detailed manner.
• The author visualizes you what he sees, hears, tastes, smells and feels.
3. Persuasive Writing:

Persuasive writing, unlike „Expository Writing‟, contains the
opinions, biasness and justification of the author.

It is a type of writing which contains justifications and reasons to
make someone believe on the point the writer is talking about.

Persuasive writing is for persuading and convincing on your point of

It is often used in complain letters, when you provide reasons and
justifications for your complaint; other copywriting texts, T.V commercials,
affiliate marketing pitches etc. are all different types of persuasive writing,
where author is persuading and convincing you on something he wants you
to do and/or believe.

Key Points:

• Persuasive writing is equipped with reasons, arguments and justifications.
• In persuasive writing, the author takes a stand and asks you to believe his
point of view.
• If often asks for a call or an action from the readers.

4. Narrative Writing:

Narrative writing is a type of writing in which the author places
himself as the character and narrates you to the story.

Novels, short stories, novellas, poetry, biographies can all fall in the
narrative writing style.

Simply, narrative writing is an art to describe a story. It answers the
question: “What happened then?”

Key Points:

• In narrative writing, a person, being a narrative, tells a story or event.
• It has characters and dialogues in it.
• It has definite and logical beginnings, intervals and endings.
• It often has situations like disputes, conflicts, actions, motivational events,
problems and their solutions.

Diction refers to both the choice and the order of words
A study of diction is the analysis of how a writer uses language
for a distinct purpose and effect, including word choice and
figures of speech.
“The difference between the right word and almost the right word is like the difference
between lightning and the lightning bug.” (Mark Twain)

Informal Diction (personal writing)
e.g. bug, folks, job, kid, boss, get across

Formal Diction (academic or literary writing)
e.g. germ, relatives, position, child, superior, communicate
Types of Diction
Colloquial words – conversational language

Example: aren't mad

Jargon – the special language of a profession or group (lawyer
talk, technical talk)

Example: are not angry

Very or highly informal

Example: ain't ticked

Ways to Characterize Diction

General – look, walk, sit, cry, throw, dog, boy
Specific – gaze, stride, slump, weep, hurl, black Labrador
retrieve, tall boy

Monosyllabic words – single syllable words
Polysyllabic words – more than one syllable in the words

Note: The greater the number of polysyllabic words, the more
complex the passage.

Cacophonous words – harsh sounding words (maggot)
Euphonious words – pleasant sounding words (butterfly)

Abstract words – not material; representing a thought
(pleasant tasting)
Concrete words – real or actual; specific, not general
(sour tasting)
Denotative words – dictionary meaning (wedding dress, law
officer, public servant)

Connotative words – emotional meaning (wedding gown, cop,
bureaucrat )
To denote is to signify directly or refer to specifically.

The denotation of a word refers to its literal meaning-the definition
you find in the dictionary. In other words, denotative meaning of a
word is its direct, explicit meaning.
Let us consider the word “Lamb” .
In dictionary it would mean “a young sheep.”
However, when it is compared with the characteristics of a
person, the word „lamb‟ connotes innocence, gentleness,
or meekness.
To connote is to suggest a feeling or an idea in addition to literal
meaning. Connotative meaning refers to the associations, images,
and feelings that a word calls to mind in addition to its dictionary

The connotation of a word emphasizes certain characteristics or
specific information, or it reveals implied or hidden attitudes.


a. Olivia was born deaf and dumb

lacking the power of speech (Denotative)

b. When the police questioned Carter, he acted dumb.

condition of being stupid (Connotative)

Positive Negative
pruning the bushes slashing at the bushes
the politician's stance the politician's spin
Besides the level of formality, connotations of the words can be of
two forms; Positive and Negative
Thank you