R 255
G 211
B 8
R 255
G 175
B 0
R 127
G 16
B 162
R 163
G 166
B 173
R 137
G 146
B 155
R 175
G 0
B 51
R 52
G 195
B 51
R 0
G 0
B 0
R 255
G 255
B 255
Primary colours: Supporting colours:
SCFDMA
LTE Air Interface Course
3 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM vs. SCFDMA
SCFDMA and OFDMA Comparison
SCFDMA Principles
SCFDMA Transmitter
SCFDMA Transmitter Simulation
SCFDMA
4 © Nokia Siemens Networks
OFDM Benefits and Challenges
OFDM benefits:
Good performance in frequency selective fading channels.
Low complexity of baseband receiver.
Good spectral properties and handling of multiple bandwidths.
Link adaptation and frequency domain scheduling.
Compatibility with advanced receiver and antenna technologies.
OFDM Challenges
•Tolerance to frequency offset.
•The high PeaktoAverage Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmitter
signal. It requires transmitter with linear response in a large range.
Those “high linear response” amplifier have a low power conversion
efficiency and therefore they are not ideal for Mobile Stations. In LTE
the problem was solved by adopting SCFDMA for Uplink, which has
better power amplifier efficiency.
5 © Nokia Siemens Networks
The transmitted power is the sum of the
powers of all the subcarriers
• Due to large number of subcarriers,
the peak to average power ratio
(PAPR) tends to have a large range
• The higher the peaks, the greater the
range of power levels over which the
transmitter is required to work.
• Not best suited for use with mobile (
batterypowered) devices
• Solution?
> see next slide
PeaktoAverage Power Ratio in OFDM
6 © Nokia Siemens Networks
• Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access:
Transmission technique used for Uplink
• Variant of OFDM that reduces the PAPR:
– Combines the PAR of singlecarrier system with the
multipath resistance and flexible subcarrier frequency
allocation offered by OFDM.
– It can reduce the PAPR between 6…9dB compared to
OFDMA
– TS36.201 and TS36.211 provide the mathematical
description of the time domain representation of an SC
FDMA symbol.
• Reduced PAPR means lower RF hardware
requirements ( power amplifier)
• SCFDMA will be used for both FDD and TDD
modes
S
C

F
D
M
A
O
F
D
M
A
SCFDMA in UL
7 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA
OFDM vs. SCFDMA
SCFDMA and OFDMA Comparison
SCFDMA Principles
SCFDMA Transmitter
SCFDMA Transmitter Simulation
8 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA and OFDMA Comparison
• OFDMA transmits data in parallel across multiple subcarriers
• SCFDMA transmits data in series employing multiple subcarriers
• In the example:
– OFDMA: 6 modulation symbols ( 01,10,11,01,10 and 10) are transmitted per OFDMA
symbol, one on each subcarrier
– SCFDMA: 6 modulation symbols are transmitted per SCFDMA symbol using all
subcarriers per modulation symbol. The duration of each modulation symbol is 1/6
th
of
the modulation symbol in OFDMA
OFDMA
SCFDMA
9 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA and OFDMA Comparison
OFDM Transmission
SCFDMA Transmission
Difference in transmission: for SCFDMA there is an extra block on the
transmission chain: the FFT (or DFT = Discrete Fourier Transform) block
which should “spread” the input modulation symbols over all the allocated
subcarriers
FFT or DFT (Discrete
Fourier Transform)
10 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA and OFDMA Comparison
11 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA and OFDMA Comparison
0
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12000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
0
2000
4000
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10000
12000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
120
100
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0
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120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
120
100
80
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0
20
40
60
80
100
120
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
OFDM: power and amplitude SCFDMA: power and amplitude
Lower PAPR for
the SCFDMA
12 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA and OFDMA Comparison – Overview
The same Variable Bandwidth
BW = 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz
The same subcarrier spacing
Δf = 15KHz
The same symbol duration
Tsymbol = 66,7μs
The same Cyclic Prefix length
Normal CP = 4.69/5.12μsec
Extended CP = 16.67μsec
The same TTI = 1ms
The same frame format
Could be used for FDD and TDD
• OFDMA transmits several
modulation symbols in parallel
• SCFDMA transmits only one
single modulation symbol at a time
• SCFDMA is having an extra
block on the transmission chain to
spread the modulation symbols
over all the subcarriers
•SCFDMA is having a lower
PAPAR = Peak to Average Power
Ratio than OFDMA
SCFDMA and OFDMA
Commonalities
SCFDMA and OFDMA
differences
13 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA
OFDM vs. SCFDMA
SCFDMA and OFDMA Comparison
SCFDMA Principles
SCFDMA Transmitter
SCFDMA Transmitter Simulation
14 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA Principles
1. PAPR is the same as that used for the input modulation symbols
This could be achieved by transmitting N
modulation symbols in series at N times the rate.
So that looking in time domain only one
modulation symbol is transmitted at a time.
One can see that the SCFDMA symbol which is
having 67µs is containing N “subsymbols”.
N = 6 in the example shown
2. The number of subcarriers which could be allocated for transmission
should be multiple of 2,3 and/or 5
This limitation is imposed by the input of the FFT (DFT) block
which is before the IFFT. This enables efficient implementation of
the FFT.
Note that also the number of Resource Blocks should be multiple
of 2,3 or/and 5
15 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA Principles
3. The FFT (DFT) output size is always smaller than the IFFT input size
FFT
(DFT)
IFFT
…
.
.
.
Subcarriers allocated
for one UE
Subcarriers
allocated to other
users or set to
zero
This is because a typical cell’s uplink capacity will be
greater than 180kHz (12 subcarriers), meaning that
more than one UL channel will be available. Other
UEs will be assigned other groups of subcarriers to
use across the uplink channel bandwidth. No two UEs
will be assigned the same 180kHz block to use
simultaneously.
As not all subcarriers are used by the mobile station,
many of them are set to zero in the diagram, if they
are not used by other users
Note that if the output size of the FFT is equal to the
size of the IFFT input then the overall effect is null
since the two operations (FFT and IFFT are
complementary)
16 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA Principles
4. Adjusting the data rate in SCFDMA
Halved SCFDMA
“subsymbol”
duration
Initial
bandwidth
SCFDMA
“subsymbol”
duration
Doubled
bandwidth
If the data rate increases more bandwidth is needed to transmit more modulation
symbols (when data rate is doubled the resource allocation in the frequency domain is
also doubled). The individual transmission is now shorter in time but wider in the
frequency domain. For double data rate the amount of inputs in transmitter doubles and
the “subsymbol” duration is halved. Note that the SCFDMA is still 67 µs
In the example 6 modulation symbols are sent initially and 12 modulations for double
data rate
Double
the data
rate
SCFDMA
symbol 67µs
SCFDMA
symbol 67µs
17 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA
OFDM vs. SCFDMA
SCFDMA and OFDMA Comparison
SCFDMA Principles
SCFDMA Transmitter
SCFDMA Transmitter Simulation
18 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA Transmitter
S
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
M
a
p
p
i
n
g
K

t
o

N
IFFT
s
0
s
1
s
N1
g
1
DFT
(FFT)
g
2
g
K1
.
.
.
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
D
o
m
a
i
n
Modulation
Mapper
d
0
Modulation
Mapper
d
1
Modulation
Mapper
d
K1
b
10 ,
b
11
,…
Bit
Distrib.
b
20 ,
b
21
,…
b
K1 0
…
Binary
Coded
Data
.
.
.
T
i
m
e
D
o
m
a
i
n
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
D
o
m
a
i
n
.
.
.
U
p

c
o
n
v
e
r
s
i
o
n
C
P
/
G
u
a
r
d
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
Modulation
g
0
g
1
g
2
g
K1
s
0
s
a
s
a+1
s
N1
.
.
.
s
a+2
s
a+x
…
…
…
d
0
d
1
d
2
…
d
K1
DFT
19 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA
OFDM vs. SCFDMA
SCFDMA and OFDMA Comparison
SCFDMA Principles
SCFDMA Transmitter
SCFDMA Transmitter Simulation
20 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA Transmitter Simulation
• The same assumptions as for the OFDM transmission simulation are
considered (see chapter 3 for more details)
• The same data is generated like in the Downlink
• The major difference in the UL is the presence of the DFT = Discrete
Fourier Transform Block
• Another difference is the considered scenario:
– Scenario : 1200 subcarriers transmitted from 3 terminals (each terminal is
having equal allocation i.e. 400 subcarriers)
21 © Nokia Siemens Networks
QPSK Modulation
•Discrete Fourier Transform
Unlike OFDM
modulation, this time we
can look at the QPSK
modulated symbol
succession as being a
time series !
22 © Nokia Siemens Networks
DFT output – frequency domain
DFT
Time
Domain
g
0
, g
1
, …, g
k1
Frequency
Domain
d
0
, d
1
, …, d
k1
DFT transform the time series (the modulation
symbols input) into frequency domain symbols
sequence.
One can see that the data symbols are
transmitted serially. The SCFDMA symbol
contains 400 “subsymbols” for each terminal.
For simplicity only the first 40 symbols are
shown
23 © Nokia Siemens Networks
DFT Output –
Spectrum Reprezentation
Terminal 1
Terminal 2
Terminal 3
•The spectrum shows how one
modulation symbol is spread over
the bandwidth
•Each modulation symbol is
spread over the entire
400×15KHz=6MHz bandwidth
available for each terminal
24 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Subcarriers Mapping & IFFT
•Subcarrier Mapping & IFFT =
Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
25 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Subcarriers Mapping
Could be achieved by inserting zeros among the output of the DFT
The zero padded DFT output is mapped to the number of subcarriers (IFFT
size)
The position of zeros should determine to which subcarriers the data is
mapped
26 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Subcarrier Mapping
Terminal 1 – transmits in
the 06 MHz range
Terminal 2 – has been allocated for the
next 400 subcarriers, hence it transmits
in the 612 MHz range
Terminal 3 – is scheduled in the last
available 400 subcarriers, therefore it
transmits in 1218MHz range
27 © Nokia Siemens Networks
IFFT Output – Time Domain Representation
IFFT
Time
Domain
x
0
, x
1
, …, x
N1
The PAR is the same as
that used for the original
modulation symbols
because of serial
transmission
28 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Subcarriers Mapping
•Up  Conversion
29 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Upconversion
Time
domain
Frequency
domain
30 © Nokia Siemens Networks
SCFDMA Simulation Overview