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 Shallow excavation with unprotected slope

 Shallow excavation with sheeting and bracings
Shallow excavation with unsupported
 Space is available to establish slope
 steepness of the slope depends on the
otype of soil,
odepth of excavation,
otime to which the excavation should
 For sandy soil slope of 1 : 1.5 is provided
Shallow excavation with sheeting and
 Building site is adjacent to other site or some
structure is already existing.
 Depth of excavation is less than 2 m
 Vertical planks called sheeting is driven
around the proposed excavation
 Sheeting is kept in position by means of
horizontal beam called wales.
 Wales in turn are supported by Hz struts
 If the excavation is too wide the wales are
supported by inclined struts called rakes

Shallow excavation with sheeting
and bracing
If the excavation is
too wide the wales
are supported by
inclined struts
called rakes

Shallow excavation with sheeting
and bracing
 Excavation beyond a depth of 2 m is generally
categorized as deep excavation

Problems encountered:

 Collapsing of the sides of the trench
 Prevention of water entering the sides of the trench or
from the bottom of the trench
Stay bracing
Box sheeting
Vertical sheeting
Sheet piling
Stay bracing
 Similar to shallow
 Used in moderately firm
 Depth of excavation does
not exceed 2m
 Vertical sheets are placed
on opposite sides of the
trench and they are held in
position by means of struts
 Suitable for loose soil
 Depth of excavation does not exceed 4m
 Planks or vertical sheeting are placed
 Longitudinal rows of wales keep the sheet
in position
 Strut hold the wale in position

In very loose soil additional bracings are provided
Box sheeting
Box sheeting
Vertical sheeting
 Provided in soft ground
 Upto to a depth of 10 m
 Work is carried out in
 An offset is provided at
each stage (@ 3 – 4 m
 Width of the offset is 50 -
60 cm
At each stage separate
sheeting, wales and braces
are provided

 Used when immediate
support is needed in case
of very loose and soft
 Runners are long thick
wooden sheet with iron
shoes at the ends

Sheet piling
 When the depth of
excavation exceeds 10 m

Timber sheeting become

Flat , arch , z type –sheet
piling is used
Excavation tools
Ordinary excavations are
carried out with the aid of
tools such as spade, pick
axe, phaorah, crowbar,
rammer, boring rod,
basket, pan etc

When rocks are
encountered, chisel,
jumper, hammer, wedges
are used
Components of a building
 Substructure
 Substructure is the lowest portion of a building, which is
located below the ground
 Provides stability to the ground and distribute the load
coming from superstructure
 Superstructure
 Provides adequate stability and safety against adverse
weather condition
 Provides aesthetic appearance
Selection of site for a building
 Depending on the type of building, the area and location
has top be decided.
 Site should have gentle slope, so as to have natural
 Should be fairly level, and should not have ups and
 Site should not be a filled up ground.
 Site should not be water logged or the GWT is very high
 Site should have high bearing capacity.
 Basic amenities such as water supply, electricity,
telephone should be available near the site.
 Site should be connected by adequate transport

Improvement of foundation soil
If unsuitable soil condition are encountered at the
site one of the following three procedures may be
Bypass the unsuitable soil by means of deep
Remove the poor material and treat it or
substitute it by suitable material
Treat the soil in place to improve its
Improvement of foundation soil
Surface compaction
Drainage method
Vibration method
Preloading and surcharge fills
Vertical drains
Grouting and injection
Chemical stabilization
Soil reinforcement
One of the widely used and oldest
method of soil densification
If the depth to be densified is less
surface compaction alone is enough
Most economical method
Drainage method
Vibration method
Preloading and surcharge fills
In this process an earth fill or
some other material is placed over
the site
Soft soil is allowed to consolidate
Main requirement are availability
of enough space and fill material
Vertical drains
 For deep clay soil preloading alone will take long

Vertical drains are continuous vertical
columns of pervious materials installed in
clayee soil for the purpose of collecting and
discharging the water expelled during
Grouting and injection
Fill the void to prevent excessive
Stabilizing loose soil against
strengthening existiting foundation
Reduction of machine foundation

Chemical stabilization
Lime, cement and fly ash are used in combination

Increases the bearing capacity
Decreases settlement
Reduce permeability
Improve shear strength
Soil reinforcement
Soil reinforcement is the process of
strengthening the weak soil by providing
high strength thin horizontal membranes.

 Reinforced is analogous to reinforced concrete
 Materials such as steel, concrete, glass fibre,
rubber, aluminium, and thermoplastic have
been used successfully
Spread footings
Common type of with
minimum cost and
complexity of construction

Also known as pad
footing, isolated footing,
square and rectangular
Combined footing
Footings formed by
combining two or more
equally or unequally loaded
column into one footing

Usually rectangle in shape

Strap is provided to
accommodate wide column
spacing or column close to
property line
Continuous footing
Footings carry closely spaced
columns or continuous wall , such
that the load distribution is uniform
and the load intensity is low on the
supporting soil
Also called as strip footing or
wall footing (L/B > 5)

Mat or Raft footing
 “N” number of columns
can be accommodated
with in the footing.
 Used when the soil has
low bearing capacity
 Settlement decreases
with the increase in the
width and depth of the
 Unit pressure acting on
the soil is also reduced

When the upper soil is soft or weak
with low bearing capacity we go for
deep foundations.

Piles, caissons and well foundations
are the most common types of deep

arranged in layers at right angle to one another
and the beams are connected with each other by
means of bolts so as to form a rigid unit. The
entire assembly is embedded in concrete.

Adopted for structure having concentrated
loads (factories, town halls, clock tower..)
Depth of foundation is limited to 1 to 1.5m
RSJ are fully embedded in concrete, to
protect from atmospheric actions
Bed of concrete should be 15 cm and no
where the depth of concrete should be less
than 80mm

This type of footing is provided in sloping ground

Points to be taken care
 Over lap should be greater than the depth of foundation
concrete or twice the height of steps
Mini mum depth of foundation concrete is 80 cm
Depth of foundation concrete should be uniform
Distance of sloping surface from lower edge
point should be atleast 100 cm from soils & 60 cm
from rock
Slopes should be stable

The horizontal location of a footing is often affected by adjacent
structure and property lines.

IS recommendation for footings
placed adjacent to a sloping
ground or when the footings
are at different level

The footing should be
founded atleast at a distance
‘S’ from the edge of existiting
Line from the edge of new
footing to the existiting
footing should make an
angle of 45 ◦
New foundation is
constructed lower than the
old foundation, suitable
bracing system should be
The expansive should be completely
Construction should be carried out in dry
Depth of foundation for small buildings
should extend atleast by 30 cm beyond the
depth of crack
For important structure raft foundation
should be adopted
Under pinning is the method of supporting structure
while providing new foundation or carrying out
repairs and alterations without disturbing the
stability of existiting structure

When a building with deep foundation is to be
constructed adjoining a structure with shallow
Protect an existiting structure from the danger of
excessive or differential settlement of foundation
In order t o improve the bearing capacity of a
foundation, so as to sustain heavier loads
To provide a basement for an existiting structure

Pit method
Pile method
Chemical method
Divide the foundations to be
strengthened into various sections
(1.2 to 1.5 m)
Holes are made at desired height
in the existiting wall
Through these hole needle beam
with bearing plate are inserted and
supported on either side of the
Pit is excavated upto the depth
of new foundation
Old foundation is extended upto
the level of new foundation
RCC pile is installed by
making an approach pit
under the existiting wall
Hydraulic jack is arranged
to assess the over load and
to drive the wedge beam
All the material
surrounding the pile is
removed and the gap is filled
with cement concrete to
provide firm bearing ground
Steel wedging beams
are driven between R.C
pile and the steel plate
provided under the
Jacks are removed
A complete
Cylinder is formed
The foundation soil is consolidated by employing

Perforated pipes are driven in the inclined
direction beneath the foundation
Solution of sodium silicate with water is
The pipes are withdrawn, at the time of with
drawl, calcium or magnesium chloride is injected
through the pipe
Chemical reaction takes place and the soil is