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The information a communicator sends that is
unrelated to the verbal informationthat is,
nonverbal messages, or nonverbal
communication is an area of growing research
interest among behavioral scientists. 6 One of the
most interesting aspects of nonverbal
communication is that its irrepressibly effective. 7
Try as they might, people cannot refrain from
behaving nonverbally. If, for example, a person
tries to act as passive as possible, shes likely to be
perceived as inexpressive, inhibited, withdrawn,
and uptight.
Messages sent with body
posture, facial expressions, and
hand and eye movements; as
important as verbal
refers to how a message is transmitted: loudly
or softly, quickly or slowly, with controlled or
uncontrolled inflection, or with a high or low
pitch. The method of transmission adds
meaning to the receiver, who assesses these
cues. Body expressions are another important
source of nonverbal communication. Ekman
and Friesen have classified body language into
five types of expression: emblems, illustrators,
regulators, adaptors, and affect displays.
are gestures much like sign language (the
hitchhikers thumb, the OK sign with thumb
and forefinger, the V sign for victory, and
the high-five and closed-fist pump for
significant achievement). These movements
quickly convey an understood word or
are gestures that give a
picture of what is being
said (a raised forefinger
to indicate the first point
of a senders position,
extended hands to
illustrate the size of an
are movements that regulate
a conversation. For example,
an upraised palm from the
receiver tells a sender to slow
down, an arched eyebrow can
convey a request the sender
to clarify what has been said,
and a nod of the head
indicates understanding.

are expressions used to adjust
psychologically to the interpersonal
climate of a particular situation.
Usually learned early in life, adaptors
are frequently used to deal with stress
in an interpersonal situation.
Drumming fingers on a table, tugging a
strand of hair, or jiggling a leg or foot
are all ways of releasing some degree
of stress.
Presented by:
MAEd- Student

Communication that flows from
higher to lower levels in an
organization; includes management
policies, instructions, and official
Downward communication is a direct
consequence of corporate
communication decisions.

Communication flowing from lower to
higher levels in an organization;
includes suggestion boxes, group
meetings, and grievance procedures.
Research studies have found that, in
organizations where upward communication
programs were effectively implemented, a
majority of managers improved their
performance. However, achieving effective
upward communicationgetting open and
honest feedback from employees to
managementis an especially difficult task,
particularly in larger organizations.

Communication that flows across
functions in an organization;
necessary for coordinating and
integrating diverse organizational
In a college of business
administration, when the chairperson
of the accounting department
communicates with the chairperson of
the marketing department concerning
thecourse offerings, the flow of
communication is horizontal

Communication that cuts across
functions and levels in an
organization; important when
members cannot communicate
through upward, downward, or
horizontal channels.
while probably the least used
channel of communication in
organizations, is important in
situations where members cannot
communicate effectively through
other channels.

The grapevine is a powerful means of
communication that cuts across formal
channels of communication. Despite
the efforts of many companies to limit
or disapprove of the grapevines use, it
is still extremely prevalent.
Although the nature of its effect on
organizational effectiveness is debatable,
theres no denying that its effect is real. Many
if not most of an organizations employees
listen to the assortment of facts, opinions,
suspicions, and rumors the grapevine
This is information that normally does not
travel through the organizations formal
channels. According to research, an
organization has several grapevine
systems, information traveling in a
grapevine does not follow an orderly path,
and the grapevine is at least 75 percent
Managers must recognize that a
grapevine that serves as a constant
source of rumors can be troublesome.
Rumors are an everyday part of
business and management. In fact, an
estimated 33 million-plus rumors are
generated in U.S. businesses every day.
The best that managers can hope for is that they can
manage rumorskeeping them from disrupting
organizational activitiesrather than eliminate them.
A rumor is an unverified belief that is in general
circulation inside the organization (an internal rumor)
or in the organizations external environment (an
external rumor). A rumor has three components: the
target is the object of the rumor; the allegation is the
rumors point about the target; and the source is the
original communicator of the rumor. Often, individuals
will attribute a rumor to a prestigious or authoritative
source to give the rumor more credibility.
1. Pipe dreams or wish fulfillment
2. The Bogie rumor
3. Wedge drivers
4. Home-stretchers
These express the wishes and hopes
of those who circulate rumors. These
are the most positive rumors, helping
to stimulate the creativity of others.

This type of rumor comes from employees
fears and anxieties, causing general
uneasiness among employees, such as
during budget crunches. In this case,
employees verbally express their fears to
others. These rumors are sometimes
damaging (such as a rumor about possible
layoffs) and need a formal rebuttal from

This is the most aggressive and damaging type of rumor. It
divides groups and destroys loyalties. These rumors are
motivated by aggression or even hatred.

They are divisive and negative rumors. They tend to be
demeaning to a company or in dividualand can cause damage
to the reputation of others. A wedge driver rumor may be a
tale such as Louise, the office manager, was seen the other
day alone with that new accountant.
They were in a car together leaving Motel Six. Or someone
may spread theword that Mary got the promotion because
shes sleeping with the boss. Women are morelikely to be
attacked with the sexual type of rumor.
These are anticipatory rumors. They
occur after employees have been
waiting a long time for an
announcement. There may be just one
final thing necessary to complete the
puzzle and this, in effect, enhances the
ambiguity of the situation.
Grapevines, rumors, and gossip are deeply
ingrained in organizational life, so managers must
be tuned in to whats being said. Managers must
also seek to keep employees informed about
whats going on.
Informal communications systems, such as the
grapevine itself, can provide yet another, albeit
weak, communication vehicle to keep the
workforce informed about job-related matters.
Finally, the organization can conduct training
programs for employees on the disruptive nature
of damaging rumors.
Presented By:
Francis M. Ramos
MAED Student
Communications that flow between
individuals in face-to-face and group
The problems that arise when managers
attempt to communicate with other
people can be traced to perceptual
differences and interpersonal style
differences ..
Manner in which we relate to
other persons.
Interpersonal style refers to how an individual prefers to relate
to others . The fact that much of any interpersonal relationship
involves communication indicates the importance of
interpersonal style.
The region most conducive to
effective interpersonal relationships
and communication is termed the
arena . In this setting, both the
communicator (self) and the receivers
(others) know all of the information
necessary to carry on effective
When relevant information is known
to others but not to the self, a blind
spot results. This constitutes a
handicap for the self, since one can
hardly understand the behaviors,
decisions, and potentials of others
without having the information on
which these are based.
When information is known to the self but unknown to
others, a person (self) may resort to superficial
communicationsthat is, present a false front, or
facade. Information that we perceive as potentially
prejudicial to a relationship or that we keep to ourselves
out of fear, desire for power, or whatever, makes up the
facade . This protective front, in turn, serves a defensive
function for the self. Such a situation is particularly
damaging when a subordinate knows and an immediate
supervisor does not know. The facade, like the blind spot,
diminishes the arena and reduces the possibility of
effective communication.
This region constitutes that portion of
the relationship where relevant
information is known by neither the
self nor other parties. As is often
stated, I dont understand them, and
they dont understand me.


Increasing the arena area by reducing the
facade area requires that the individual be
open and honest in sharing information with
others. The process that the self uses to
increase the information known to others is
termed exposure because it sometimes
leaves the self in a vulnerable position.
Exposing ones true feelings by telling it
like it is often involves risk.
When the self doesnt know or understand, more
effective communication can be developed
through feedback from those who do know. Thus,
the blind spot can be reduced with a
corresponding increase in the arena. Of course,
whether feedback can be used depends on the
individuals willingness to hear it and on the
willingness of others to give it.
Obtaining feedback is dependent
on the active cooperation of
others, while exposure requires the
active behavior of the
communicator and the passive
listening of others.
Managers who are autocratic leaders, typically
aloof and cold; often poor interpersonal
Type A managers exhibit:
anxiety and hostility and give the appearance
of aloofness and coldness toward others .
Type A managers often display characteristics
of autocratic leaders.
Managers who seek good relationships
with subordinates but are unable to
openly express feelings; often ineffective
interpersonal communicators.
Managers interested only in their
own ideas, not ideas and opinions
of others; usually not effective
Managers who feel free to express
feelings to others and to have others
express feelings; most effective
interpersonal communicators.
A manager has no greater
responsibility than to
develop effective
Different individuals can interpret the same
communication differently, depending on previous
experiences that result in variations in the
encoding and decoding processes.
Communication specialists agree that this is the
most important factor that breaks down the
commonness in communications. When the
encoding and decoding processes arent alike,
communication tends to break down.
In this form of selective perception, the
individual tends to block out new
information, especially if it conflicts with
existing beliefs. Thus, in a directive from
management, the receiver notices only
things that reaffirm his beliefs. Things that
conflict with preconceived notions are
either ignored or distorted to confirm those
In every communication situation, the
receiver makes value judgments. This
basically involves assigning an overall worth
to a message prior to receiving the entire
communication. Value judgments may be
based on the receivers evaluation of the
communicator, previous experiences with
the communicator, or on the messages
anticipated meaning.
Source credibility is the trust, confidence, and
faith that the receiver has in the words and actions
of the communicator. The level of credibility that
the receiver assigns to the communicator in turn
directly affects how the receiver views and reacts
to the communicators words, ideas, and actions.
Thus, subordinates evaluation of their manager
affects how they view a communication from her.
This, of course, is heavily influenced by previous
experiences with the manager.
Communication has been defined as the
transmission of information and
understanding the use of common symbols .
Actually, we cannot transmit
understanding. We can merely transmit
information in the form of words, which are
the common symbols. Unfortunately, the
same words may mean entirely different
things to different people. The
understanding is in the receiver, not in the

Filtering, a common occurrence in
upward communication in
organizations, refers to the
manipulation of information so
that the receiver perceives it as

Each of us at some time has
undoubtedly been subjected to highly
technical jargon, only to learn that the
unfamiliar words or phrases described
simple procedures or familiar objects.

Organizations often express
hierarchical rank through a variety of
symbols (titles, offices, carpets, etc.).
Such status differences can be
perceived as threats by persons lower
in the hierarchy, and this can prevent
or distort communication.

The pressure of time presents an
important barrier to communication.
Managers dont have time to
communicate frequently with every

An important but often overlooked
element of nonverbal communication
is proxemics, defined as an individuals
use of space when interpersonally
communicating with others.

One vital task performed by a manager
is decision making. One of the
necessary factors in effective decisions
is information .
This technique is used when you
assume that youre misunderstood
and, whenever possible, attempt to
determine whether your intended
meaning was actually received. As
weve seen, meaning is often in the
mind of the receiver.
Regulating communication can ensure
an optimum flow of information to
managers, thereby eliminating the
barrier of communication overload.
Communication can be regulated in
both quality and quantity.
Earlier, the chapter identified
feedback as an important element in
effective two-way communication. It
provides a channel for receiver
response that enables the
communicator to determine whether
the message has been received and has
produced the intended response.
Empathy is the ability to put oneself in
the other persons role and to assume
that individuals viewpoints and
emotions. This involves being receiver-
oriented rather than communicator-
Repetition is an accepted principle of
learning. Introducing repetition or
redundancy into communication (especially
that of a technical nature) ensures that if
one part of the message is not understood,
other parts carry the same message.
Time pressures often mean that
managers cannot follow up
communication and encourage
feedback or upward
communication every time they
Individuals are exposed to
thousands of messages daily.
Because of the impossibility of
taking in all the messages,
many are never decoded and
Complex language has been identified
as a major barrier to effective
communication. University students
often suffer when their teachers use
technical jargon that transforms simple
concepts into complex puzzles.
To improve communication,
managers must seek not only to be
understood but also to understand .
This involves listening. One
method of encouraging someone
to express true feelings, desires,
and emotions is to listen.