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States of Matter Y9

Diffusion
Define diffusion __________________________________________
_______________________ ________________________________
The smoke forms nearer
to the ammonia end
why?.________________
___________________-

Pressure
Define pressure __________________________________________
_______________________ ________________________________
Draw a particles
(circles) diagram

Heating and cooling curves


Label the graph with the
state at each point.
Why does the temperature
not change when something
changes state
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
Define Solvent _________________________________________
Define Solute _________________________________________
Define insoluble _________________________________________
Define dissolve_________________________________________
Define solution_________________________________________

State 4 ways to increase pressure


________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

Separation techniques draw a labelled diagram for the


following and give an example of each
filtering

Chromatography

Distillation

Fractional distillation

Crystallisation

Purity testing

Chemical reactions Y9

Metallic/Ionic/Covalent Bonding

Give 4 signs that a chemical reaction has taken place


______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________

Element/compound or mixture
Can contain any number of
substances in a different ratio
A/B/C/D Element/compound
or mixture

Contains one type of atom


A/B/C/D Element/compound
or mixture
Contains more than one type of
atom chemically bonded
A/B/C/D lement/compound
or mixture

Covalent Bonding Draw on the electrons to

Ionic Bonding Draw the ions for the following

show bonding

Diamond

Graphite

Hydrogen

Chlorine

Use

Water
Oxygen

Bonding
(diagram)

Properties

Methane (CH4)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Subatomic
particle

Mass

Charge
+1

-1
0
Colour on the Periodic table
non-metals
unreactive gases
alkali metals are found (very reactive)
Atoms in the same group have similar
properties because they have the same number
of _____________ in the outer shell.
The mass number is the total number of
________ and _______.
The atomic number is the number of
__________.

Match the pictures above with the words


below and define the words
Element

Compound

Mixture

Complete the sentences with the following words. (some are red herrings!) Ionic
element Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with
sodium
electron covalent chlorine chlorine
sodium
Na+
the same/different numbers of protons.
NaCl+ compoundClIsotopes are atoms of the same element with
Sodium chloride NaCl is a ____________. There are __________ bonds between the two
the same/ different numbers of electrons.
elements _________ and _________. When these atoms bond one ____________ from the
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with
___________ atom is donated to the _____________ atom. This results in 2 ions : _______ and
the same/ different numbers of neutrons.
_______.
Complete the
electron
arrangement
of a boron
atom

Complete the
electron
arrangement
of a boron
ion

ion

Lost/
gained?

Number of
electrons

Mg 2+

lost

Cl Li +
O 2Fe 3+

Periodic Table

Label
Nucleon number and Proton number (LHS)
Protons neutrons
Electrons (RHS)

y10
Subatomic
particle

Mass

Charge
+1
-1
0

Colour on the Periodic table


non-metals
unreactive gases
alkali metals are found (very reactive)

Atoms in the same group have similar properties because they have the same
number of _____________ in the outer shell. The nucleon number is the total
number of ________ and _______. The proton number is the number of
__________which is equal to the number of ________________.

Transition metals

Alkali Metals
What do they look like?
______________________________________

What are their physical


properties?
_________________________
_________________________

Why are they stored under oil?


_______________________________________
Why does reactivity increase down the group?
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
Write the equation for sodium with water
produces sodium hydroxide and hydrogen
______________________________________

What are their chemical


properties?
_________________________
_________________________
What are their uses?
_________________________
_________________________

Halogens
Give two examples of halogens
______________________________________
Describe what they look like
_______________________________________
Why does reactivity decrease down the group?
_______________________________________

_____________________________________

Rates of Reaction y10


What FOUR things cause a reaction to increase?
Explain using particle theory!

Define Rate of Reaction

_______________________________________
Two reasons a reaction stops?

1. ______________________________________________________

_______________________________________
_______________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________

What 2 things need to occur for a reaction to happen

3. ______________________________________________________

_______________________________________
_______________________________________

4. ______________________________________________________
Draw the apparatus to investigate the rate of reaction

Describe the role of light in photochemical reactions and the


effect on the rate (speed)

____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________

Equilibrium & Breaking Bonds


Define exothermic reaction _______________________
_______________________________________________
Define endothermic reaction ______________________
_________________________________________________
Define equilibrium _______________________________
_________________________________________________
Define Dynamic ___________________________________
_________________________________________________

Exothermic/endothermic?
Amount of energy needed to break bonds less than amount of energy
released.
Exothermic/endothermic
If the energy taken in to break bonds is more than the energy
released
Exothermic/endothermic
Burning a fuel in air
Exothermic/endothermic
Hydrogen

Biofuel

Nuclear fuel

2 pros
2 cons

Increasing Pressure

Increasing Concentration

Increasing temperature

REDOX

y10

Rules

Oxidation state of an
element is 0
Ionic compounds
oxidation state is its
charge
Hydrogen = +1

OILRIG stands for


O_________ I__ L_______ o __ e_________
R__________ I__ G_______ o__ e_________

Work out the oxidation states :


2Mg + O2 2MgO
Mg = ______
O = _____
MgO ______
Has the Mg been oxidised/reduced?
Has the O been oxidised/reduced?

Oxygen = -2

This reaction takes place in the blast furnace:


Fe2O3 (s) + 3CO ( g) 2Fe (l) + 3CO2( g)
The word equation for the reaction is:

It is a redox reaction, because

The reducing agent in this reaction is ....

Oxidation states in a
compound = 0

What is the oxidation state of:


Cu in CuO ___________
Cu in Cu2O ___________
Fe in FeCl2 ___________
Fe in FeCl3 ___________

Which is being oxidised and which is being reduced?


a) Mg + 2HCl
b) 2CO + O2
c) 3H2 +

MgCl2
2 CO2

N2

d) 4Na + O2

2NH3
2Na2O

H2

Electrolysis y10
What is a conductor? ____________________________
What is an insulator? ___________________________
Why are the only solids that conduct are metals
and graphite ___________________________________
________________________________________________
Why do ionic substances only conduct when
molten/dissolved
Electrolysis
Define electrolysis _______________________
______________________________________
4 uses of electrolysis _____________________
______________________________________
RULES FOR ELECTROLYSIS
At cathode (-), either a metal/hydrogen forms

If a metal is more reactive than hydrogen its ions stay in


solution and hydrogen bubbles off

If the metal is less reactive than hydrogen the metal forms.

At anode (+) a non-metal other than hydrogen


forms.

If it is a concentrated solution of a halide then halogens


form.

If the halide solution is dilute /no halide oxygen forms.

Chemical

Uses

Sodium
chloride
Chlorine

Hydrogen

Sodium
hydroxide

Electrolysis of Brine
Ionic equation at cathode

___________________________
Ionic equation at anode
___________________________
Test for chlorine
_______________

Electrolysis of copper with copper electrodes


Match the keyword

Ionic equation at cathode ___________________________

Anode

negative ions

Cathode

liquid which conducts electricity

Anions

positive electrode

Electrolysis of copper with inert electrodes

Cations

Positive ions

Ionic equation at cathode ___________________________

Electrolyte

Negative electrode

Ionic equation at anode

Ionic equation at anode

___________________________

___________________________

Moles

y10

Avagadros constant is 6.02x1023

Atom calculations
How many atoms of carbon are in a 10 g diamond

Moles = mass/RMM = 10/12= 0.833 moles


1 moles = 6.02x1023
0.833 x 6.02x1023 = 5.02x1023

Gas Calculations
What volume does 0.25moles of a gas occupy at rtp?
1 mole occupies 24 dm3
so 0.25 moles occupies 0.25 x 24 dm3 = 6 dm3
So 0.25 moles of any gas occupies 6dm3 at rtp.
Q 3 What volume of nitrogen reacts with 10 kg of hydrogen to form
ammonia?
N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH3(g)
Q4 What volume of oxygen reacts with 510 g of ammonia?
4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g)

Q1 What mass of silicon contains 1.25x1022 silicon atoms


Q2 What mass of titanium contains 1.204x1024 atoms

What mass of aluminium oxide is produced when 135 g of


aluminium is burned in oxygen?
2 Al + 3 O2 Al2O3

Concentrations
Solution A contains 2.5g copper sulphate in 1dm3 of water
Solution B contains 125g copper sulphate in 0.5dm3 water
Change the mass to moles.
Mr of copper sulphate is 250
Solution A : 2.5g = 0.01 moles 1dm3 there are 0.01 moles/dm3

What mass of iodine is produced when 7.1 g of chlorine


reacts with excess potassium iodide?
Cl2 + 2 KI 2 KCl + I2

Solution B : 125g in 0.5dm3, which is 250g in 1dm3 =1 moles/dm3 = 1M

For each of the following compounds the Mr and the empirical formula is
shown. Work out the molecular formula of each compound.

Q6 The Mr of sodium hydroxide is 40. How many grams of sodium


hydroxide are in
a)
500cm3 of a molar solution
b)
25cm3 of a 0.5M solution

1. empirical formula = CH3


Mr = 30
2. empirical formula = NH3
Mr = 17
3. empirical formula = CH2
Mr = 98
4. empirical formula = CH
Mr = 78
Calculate the percentage of the elements shown in the following compounds:
C in CO
N in (NH4)2SO4
O in Al(OH)3
O in Na2CO3.10H2O

Q5 What is the concentration of a solution containing.


a)
4 moles in 2 dm3 of solution
b)
0.3 moles in 200cm3 of solution

Behaviour of Metals y10


Where are metals found in the periodic table? __________________
Name 5 properties of metals _________________________________
_________________________________________________________
Chemical properties of metals________________________________
________________________________________________________
Draw a picture of an alloy

What is an alloy?
___________________
______________________

Iron reduces copper oxide (OIL RIG)


Equation
Fe (s) + CuO (s) FeO (s) + Cu(s)
Half equations __________________________________
_________________________________
Ionic equations _________________________________
Thermal Decomposition Reactions
_____________ Oxide + carbon dioxide (except Na &K)
_____________ Oxide + Water (except Na & K)
_____________ Oxide + nitrogen dioxide + oxygen (except Na & K)

Why does aluminium not rust? ______________________________


_______________________________________________________
Explain 2 ways you can protect iron from rusting?
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

USES of METALS

y10

Extraction of metals from the ores

Name two uses of aluminium? ______________________________


_______________________________________________________

Label on the right Which ones are extracted by


electrolysis, which are found naturally and which are
burnt with carbon and reduced

Two uses of copper ? _____________________________________

Ores

Two uses of zinc? _____________________________________

What is haematite ? ______________________


What is bauxite? _________________________

Name the uses of mild steel ________________________________


Name the uses of stainless steel _____________________________
_______________________________________________________
Name the uses of copper related to its properties ______________
_______________________________________________________
Label the blast furnace

Name an iron ore used in the


blast furnace.
_________________________
Name two substances that are
mixed with iron ore
___________________________
_______________________
Name one of the gases leaving
the blast furnace.
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Name two substances which
react together to produce most
of the energy required to heat
the furnace to 1400C
___________________________
_____________________ What
impurities are found and how are
they removed.
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________

Extracting zinc
How do you extract zinc from zinc blende?
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________

AIR and WATER Y11


What is the equation for respiration
_______________________________________________________
What is the equation for combustion
_______________________________________________________
What is the equation for photosynthesis
_______________________________________________________

Seperation of air
You can separate gases from air by fractional distillation.
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
2 uses of oxygen
_______________________________________
2 uses of nitrogen _______________________________________
2 uses of noble gases _______________________________________
Water treatment
Add the labels
chlorination (kill bacteria)
coagulant
sand filters and charcoal
add air

What is thermal decomposition?


_______________________________________________________

What is the composition of air?


Complete the pie chart for oxygen,
nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other
gases
Name 4 pollutants in air
_______________________________
_______________________________
______________________________

Rusting
What 2 conditions are needed for rusting? _______________________
Write and equation __________________________________________
How can you stop rusting _____________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

Define solution_________________________________
Define solvent _________________________________
Define soluble_________________________________
2 tests for water?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

Non-Metals

Y11

Thermal decomposition
Define Thermal decomposition ______________________________

Making fertilisers
Element

What it is used for?

Nitrogen

_______________________________________

Phosphorous

_______________________________________

Potassium

_______________________________________

Equations for making fertilisers


Ammonia + nitric acid __________________
________ + Sulphuric acid ammonium _________
Ammonia + ___________ acid _________ phosphate
Potassium hydroxide + nitric acid potassium ____ +water
Ammonium chloride + calcium hydroxide calcium chloride + water + _______

Haber Process
What does the Haber process make? ______________________
What is the equation ? __________________________________
Where does the nitrogen come from? ______________________
Where does the hydrogen come from? _____________________
3 conditions for the Haber Process? _______________________
_____________________________________________________

2 Uses of Calcium oxide ____________________________________


What is the equation for calcium oxide when it reacts with water?
________________________________________________________
Limestone
Formula of Limestone? ___________________________________
2 uses of limestone _____________________________________
Formula of Lime _______________________________________
2 uses of lime ________________________________________
Formula of Slaked Lime ___________________________________
2 uses of Slaked Lime ____________________________________

Organic Chemistry Y11


Difference between alkanes and alkenes
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
What can you use to test if something is an alkane or alkene?
__________________________________________________

Cracking
What is cracking? __________________________________________
_______________________ ________________________________
What conditions are needed for cracking?
________________________________________________________
What is a hydrocarbon? _____________________________________

Combustion

Two ways to make alcohol


__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

What is combustion? ________________________________________


Equation for Complete Combustion
________________________________________________________
Equation for Incomplete Combustion
________________________________________________________

Fractional Distillation
The crude oil enters the column at the _________ where it is extremely
________. Here the different fractions _________ and evaporates. The higher
they rise the _________ they become. When they _________ enough they
will turn back to _________. The fractions can be collected at the __________
of the column. Fractions with ___________ boiling points are found at the
bottom. Ones with _________ boiling points are found at the top.

Polymers Y11

Match up the following

5 uses of plastics
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
______________________
5 properties of plastics
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
_____________________

How can plastics be disposed of


__________________________
________________________

Acids and Bases Y10

Zinc reacts with oxygen. Zinc oxide is made.


What are the reactants?________ ________
What is the product?_____________
Complete the word equation for this reaction
___________+ ____________ __________ ________
2Zn + O2 2ZnO
How many Zinc and Oxygen atoms are on the left-hand side?
Zn ______
0_______
How many Zinc and Oxygen atoms are on the right-hand side?
Zn ______
O______
Is this equation balanced? Yes/No

Reactions with Acids. Complete the equations


Acid+ metal salt + hydrogen
Hydrochloric acid + _________ magnesium chloride + hydrogen
_________ acid + zinc zinc sulfate + Hydrogen
Acid + metal oxide salt + water
Acid + metal hydroxide salt + water
Nitric acid + copper oxide- ___________ ___________ + water
Sulphuric acid + ________ _______ zinc sulfate + water
___________acid + sodium hydroxide sodium chloride + ______
Acid+ metal carbonate salt + water + carbon dioxide
Hydrochloric acid + sodium carbonate ______ ________ + water +
___________ ____________
Which gas

What do you do?

What happens?
Gives a squeaky pop

Bubble through
limewater
Oxygen

pH

Colour with
Universal
indicator

Acid Alkali, neutral?

Purple

Strong Alkali

Red

Blue

14

Green

Acids have pHs of _____ to _____


Bases (soluble alkalis) have pHs of _______ to ______.
Neutral is pH _______
Indicators are used to.

Complete the equation for a neutralisation reaction:


Acid+ Alkali ________ + _________
Tick which of the following are real uses of neutralisation reactions.
Indigestion tablets (neutralising stomach acid)
In cars (neutralising battery acid)
On fish and chips (vinegar is an acid)
In Gardening (Neutralising acidic soils)
In Lakes (Neutralising lakes which have become acidic due to acid rain

In the Lab
Metal

Y11
Colour of flame

Copper

Ion tested

Solution added
Barium chloride + dilute
hydrochloric acid

Chloride (Cl)

colour

A white precipitate

Copper
zinc

Lilac
Lithium

Sodium hydroxide

Brick-red
Sodium

Iron(III), (Fe3+(aq))

Barium

2+

White precipitate in NaOH, which dissolves


in excess

Sodium hydroxide with


aluminium foil and heat

Hydrochloric acid

Bubbles of carbon dioxide are given off.

Iron(II) (Fe (aq))


Colourless precipitate
Iodide (I)
Barium chloride + dilute
hydrochloric acid

Metal

Colour of flame

Carbon dioxide
Damp litmus gets bleached
Oxygen
Hydrogen

A white precipitate of barium sulfate is


formed.