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Dr. H.

Ronald
Moser
Cumberland
University
Kleppners
Advertising
Procedure
Chapter 15
Research in Advertising
Kleppners
Advertising
Procedure, 18e

Lane * King * Reichart
Learning Objectives
Discuss how advertisers use research.
Explain the role of the account planner.
Understand anthropology, sociology, and
psychology as they relate to advertising.
Discuss values, lifestyle, and life-stage
research.
Describe the research steps in advertising.
Explain types of advertising research.
Research in Advertising
In this chapter, we look at the various types of
available researchproduct, market, consumer,
advertising strategy, and message researchto
answer the advertisers question of:
What consumer need does our product or
service satisfy?
How does it satisfy differently from and/or
better than our competitors product or
service?
How can we reach consumers?
To create effective advertising, one key
question you need to address early is
what motivates the consumer?
What Message Will Consumers
Take From This Ad?
Research Is An Information Tool Functions
of Advertising Research
To help identify consumers.
To help look for new ideas in products or services.
To help improve what is offered in products.
To pinpoint causes of possible problems.
To monitor activities.
To help in communications development.
Research is and should be used to help improve an
advertisers effectiveness and profitability by staying
in touch with the consumer. Research is used most
often in the following ways:
Account/brand Planners and Consumer
Insights Some Generalizations
Account Planners have the role of representing the
consumer in the agency and making research
usable to ensure that the advertising
is strategically and executionally
relevant to the target audience.
When Account Planners fulfill expectations of
what their role is during creative development,
their key benefit to the creative team is in their
providing a consumer-focused
advertising strategy that persuasively
talks to the targeted audience.
By using research to stay in touch with prospects,
and advertiser should improve effectiveness and
profitability.

Account/brand Planners and Consumer
Insights Some Generalizations
The Account Planners must do all of the following:
Discern not just who buys specific brands, but
why and which specific brands are bought.
The Account Planners should be
responsible for all brand research.
The Account Planners should understand and
represent the target audience.
The Account Planners should provide insight that
moves the discussion from I think to I know.
The Account Planners normally
do not control the budget.
The role of Account Planner was developed in
England.
Basic Considerations in Marketing
Research Some Generalizations
Some basic considerations in undertaking market
research include all of the following:
Maintaining a consumer-behavior perspective.
Being sure the right questions are being asked.
Using appropriate research techniques
and controls.
Presenting the research findings in a clear,
comprehensible format that leads to action.
Considerations such as ensuring the consumer is
represented on the research panel would not be a
basic consideration in undertaking
market research.
Anthropologists Study Commonalities
Across Cultures Some Generalizations
Today, marketers employ anthropologists and
ethnographers who use direct observation to
understand consumer behavior.
For advertising purposes, if you were to hire an
anthropologist or ethnographer, they would be
expected to study the emotional connection
between their consumer values and your product.
Some companies use cameras to record
observations of consumers.
Companies send researchers with handheld
cameras into homes to get up-close pictures of
how people behave in various aspects of their
lives.



What Kind of Research is Needed Sociology
and Advertising
Social Class and Stratification.
Trend Watching.
Cohort Analysis.
Life-Stage Research.
Consumption Research.
Advertisers use sociological research to predict the profitability of
product purchases by various consumer groups. For advertising, a
sociologist would use one of the following research techniques:
What Kind of Research is Needed Sociology
and Advertising
Social Class and Stratification Advertisers
have learned that people aspire to be like
people in the social class immediately above them.
Trend Watching There are two categories: micro
and macro. Generally, young people set them.
Cooking schools show a desire to host dinner parties
like previous generations. The Macarena and Beanie
Babies were fads.
Advertisers use sociological research to predict the
profitability of product purchases by various consumer
groups. For advertising, a sociologist would use one of the
following research techniques:
What Kind of Research is Needed Sociology
and Advertising
Life-Stage Research Similar to family life-cycle
research, life-stage research looks at crucial points
in consumers livers (see Exhibit 15.6).

Advertisers use sociological research to predict the
profitability of product purchases by various consumer
groups. For advertising, a sociologist would use one of the
following research techniques:
Cohort Analysis If you are looking at consumers
lifelong values and preferences in order to develop
strategies for products they will use later life, you are using
this technique.
Exhibit 15.6. Testing Power of a Lifestyle
Appeal Sociology and Advertising
EXHIBIT 15.6.
An Advertiser
May Test The
Power Of This
Lifestyle Appeal.
What Kind of Research is Needed Sociology
and Advertising
Advertisers use sociological research to predict the
profitability of product purchases by various consumer
groups. For advertising, a sociologist would use one of the
following research techniques:
Consumption Research Advertisers often find it
useful to study consumers consumption patterns
to help them learn more about their target audience.
What Kind of Research is Needed
Psychology and Advertising
Motivation Cognition Learning
Psychology is the study of human behavior and its causes.
Here we look at three psychological concepts of importance
to consumer behavior which are listed below:
What Kind of Research is Needed
Psychology and Advertising

Psychology is the study of human behavior and its causes.
Here we look at three psychological concepts of importance
to consumer behavior which are listed below:

Motivation
Here Psychologists
study drives, urges,
wishes, or desires
that initiate buying
behavior.
Cognition
Here is an
area in which
all the mental
phenomena
(perception, memory,
judging, thinking)
are grouped.
What Kind of Research is Needed
Psychology and Advertising
Psychology is the study of human behavior and its causes.
Here we look at three psychological concepts of importance
to consumer behavior which are listed below:
Learning
Learning refers to
those changes
in behavior
relative to
external stimuli
conditions that
occur over time.
What Kind of Research is Needed Psychology
and Advertising Values and Lifestyle
Values and Lifestyles The research company that
popularized psychographic segmentation developed Values
and LifeStyle (VALS) classification system.
SRI Consulting Business Intelligences VALS are designed to
predict consumer behavior by profiling the
psychology and demographics of U.S. consumers.
VALS classifies consumers along the resources and primary
motivation dimension (see Exhibit 15.7).
Using VALS typology, advertisers can do all of the following:
Refine product concepts.
Segment particular markets.
Develop marketing strategies.
Position services and products.
Using VALS typology, advertisers normally cannot aid in
short-term decision-making.

Exhibit 15.7 VALS Lifestyle Categories What Kind of
Research is Needed Psychology and Advertising
Innovators
Most Resources
Least Resources
Thinkers
Believers
Survivors
Ideals Achievement Self-Expression
Achievers
Strivers
Experiencers
Makers
Advertisers can use the VALS typology to segment particular markets, develop
market strategies, refine product concepts, position products and service,
develop advertising and media campaigns, and guide long-range planning.
What Kind of Research is Needed Psychology and
Advertising MindBase Consumer Segments
I am Expressive.
I am Driven.
I am At Capacity.
I am Rock Steady.
I am Down to Earth.
I am Sophisticated.
I Measure Twice.
I am Devoted.
Yankelovichs MindBase, a segmenting tool, identified eight
major consumer groups with shared life attitudes and
motivations and an understanding of consumers
generation cohorts. These eight groups are each divided
into three subgroups that reflect distinctions in how they
react in the marketplace and to marketers efforts. Here are
the eight major MindBase segments:
Exhibit 15.8. To Which MindBase Segment
Would THIS Ad Appeal?
Marketing Environment Sources of Data
From the Marketing Environment
Universal Product Code
Single-Source Data
Database Marketers
Internet Data
Companies and agencies that need to make crucial integrated-
marketing communication decisions can accumulate data faster
today through the use of all of the following technology:
Marketing Environment Sources of Data
from the Marketing Environment
Companies and agencies that need to make crucial integrated-
marketing communication decisions can accumulate data faster
today through the use of all of the following technology:
Universal Product Code When
the grocer scans a price into the
register at the checkout, that
information is instantly available to the
retailer.
Single-Source Data When
retailer tracking scanner data are
integrated with household panel data
on purchase patterns and
advertisement exposure, researchers
are conducting this kind of data.
Marketing Environment Sources of Data
From the Marketing Environment
Companies and agencies that need to make crucial integrated-
marketing communication decisions can accumulate data faster
today through the use of all of the following technology:
Database Marketers Database
marketers use sweepstakes entries,
rebate information, merchandise
orders, free-product offers, request for
new-product information, and purchase
information to build consumer
databases telling them a great deal
about how consumers live.
Marketing Environment Sources of Data
From the Marketing Environment
Companies and agencies that need to make crucial integrated-
marketing communication decisions can accumulate data faster
today through the use of all of the following technology:
Internet Data Online and internet
data research shouldnt completely
replace traditional marketing research,
but harnessing the Internet improves the
research process. Web-based research
should be part of the mix (see Exhibit
15.10. in your text book).
The Series of Research Steps in Advertising
1: Advertising Strategy Development
2: Advertising Execution Development
3: Evaluating Pretesting Executions
4: Campaign Evaluation
The term advertising research is broadly defined as including
research that contributes to all four stages of the advertising
process listed below:
The Series of Research Steps in Advertising
1: Advertising Strategy Development Research
tries to answer many questions such as who is the market and
what does it want? What is the competition we are specifying?
What communication do we want our selected market to get from
our advertising? How will we reach the person selected as our
market?

2: Advertising Execution Development If you
are the account planner needing to conduct exploratory research
so your creative people will more clearly know and understand
the language used by the targeted prospects, you are in the
Advertising Strategy Development stage.

The term advertising research is broadly defined as including
research that contributes to all four stages of the advertising
process listed below:
The Series of Research Steps in Advertising
3: Evaluating Pretesting Executions Pretesting
is the stage of advertising research at which advertising ideas
are tested. Partly because of the finality of much pretesting, it is
The most controversial kind of advertising research.
4: Campaign Evaluation Campaign evaluation
usually involves a tracking study to measure the performance
of a campaign.
The term advertising research is broadly defined as including
research that contributes to all four stages of the advertising
process listed below:
The Series of Research Steps in Advertising
Translating Information Into Strategy
Information isnt enough by itself to answer
marketing problems.
According to Jack Dempsey, respected researcher
from McCann-Erickson, information acquires value
when the strategies examine it from a
point of view that is relevant to the
marketing and advertising issues.
Researchers have to get involved in all the data at
their disposal and, it necessary, fill in some gaps
by acquiring more information.
The secret of effective strategy formation lies in a
thorough analysis of how your
prospective customers behavior.
The Series of Research Steps in Advertising Market,
Product, Competitive And Consumer Research
Basic information is gathered and analyzed to
determine the marketing strategy for a product or
service, projected sales, the source of business,
pricing and distribution factors, geographic
information, and how to develop data to identify
the size and nature of the product category.
A situation analysis helps to define clearly the
market in which the product or
service competes (see Exhibit 15.11).
The amounts and kinds of information required will
vary according to the product category and
marketing situation. Exhibit 15.12 outlines strategic
choices indicated by different levels of brand trial
and awareness.
Exhibit 15.11. Situation Analysis The
Series of Research Steps in Advertising
Market
Sales
Geography
Pricing
Distribution
Trends
Product
Sales/share
Profit
Distribution
Pricing
Strengths/Weaknesses
Competition
Spending
Position
Strategy
Consumer
Demos
Psychos
Lifestyles
Attitudes
Usage
Exhibit 15.12. Brand Trial/Awareness Ratios: Strategic
Options The Series of Research Steps in Advertising
The Series of Research Steps in Advertising
Focus Group Research
A Focus Group Research is a qualitative research
interviewing method using in-depth interviews
with a group.
The following are characteristic of Focus Group
Research:
Trained moderator leads a
group, usually of prime
prospects.
Interviews last for up to
two hours.
Clients can watch the
interview from behind
a one-way mirror.
Groups can be videotaped
for later review.
The Series of Research Steps in Advertising
Concept Testing And Pretest Research
Concept Testing is a method to determine the
best of a number of possible appeals to use in
advertising; testing attempts to separate good
and bad ideas; and providing insight into
factors motivating acceptance or rejection.
Pretest Research The client wants assurances
that the advertising proposed will be effective. In
pretesting, a particular advertisement passes or
fails or is selected as being better than others. In
general, there are two levels of research aimed at
helping advertisers determine how well an
advertisement will perform. Copy testing
is done in two stages.
(Over)
The Series of Research Steps in Advertising Concept
Testing And Pretest Research Stages of Copy Testing
Stages of Copy Testing are:
Rough copy research needed to determine
if copy is effectively achieving
message goals.
Finished copy research done to evaluate
how well production process has achieved
communication and attitude effects
(see Exhibit 15.13. in your text).
An example of a variable that could be
evaluated in pretesting would be the ability
to predict the success or failure of an ad.

Testing Creative Research
A good copy-testing system is based on a
model of human response to communications,
which includes all the following:
The reception of the stimulus.
The comprehension of the stimulus.
The response of the stimulus.
The reception of, comprehension of
and response to the stimulus.
The response to psychological standards
would not be a good example of a copy-testing
system.


Testing Creative Research Forms of
Testing
Concept testing
Card concept test
Poster test
Layout test
Finished print test
Finished
commercial test
Unfinished
commercial test
Animatics
Photomatics
Liveamatics

Each advertiser and agency use similar but modified steps
in the testing of creative research. The following are
examples of this process:
Testing Creative Research Forms of
Testing
Concept testing
Card Concept Tests Here creative strategies
are presented to respondents in the
form of a headline followed by a
paragraph of body copy on a plain white card.
Poster Tests Post Tests are similar to card
tests except that small posters containing
simplified illustrations and short copy are used
rather than plan cards without illustrations.
Layout Tests Here we are showing a rough
copy of a print advertisement to respondents.
Each advertiser and agency use similar but modified steps
in the testing of creative research. The following are
examples of this process:
Our customers are
our #1 priority
Testing Creative Research Forms of
Testing
Finished Print Tests and Finished Commercial Tests
Finished print tests can take may forms; they measure
the finished advertisement as it will appear in print.
Prospects may preview a magazine during one-on-one
interviews in high-traffic malls. Respondents are
questioned regarding unaided, aided, and
related recall of the test advertisement.
Next prospects are asked to focus on the test
advertisement only and are probed for reactions.
Agencies are furnished with diagnostic
data to improve the advertisement.






Each advertiser and agency use similar but modified steps
in the testing of creative research. The following are
examples of this process:
Testing Creative Research Forms of
Testing
Unfinished Commercial Tests Generally, Commercial
Testing falls into one of three categories:
Animatics Animatics is artwork, either cartoons or
realistic drawings, that are computer
generated or hand drawn.
Photomatics Photomatics are photographs shot in
sequence on films.
Liveamatics Liveamatics involves filming or taping
live talent and is very close to finished commercial.


Each advertiser and agency use similar but modified steps
in the testing of creative research. The following are
examples of this process:
Readership is not a form of Commercial Testing.
(Over)
Testing Creative Research Readership
Testing Creative Research Readership
Advertisers face mounting competition both in the market
and on the printed page. It is important to have the ability to
determine if an advertisement has been
seen. One such readership service that
supplies this kind of information is the
Starch Readership Service from Roper Starch.
For an individual advertiser, the readership report has the
capability to do all of the following:
Identity types of layouts that attract and
retain the highest readership.
Compare current advertisements with those of competitors.
Compare current campaign against previous campaigns.
Compare readership data of their ads in a given magazine
issue to the norm for ads with the same size
and color in the same product category.

Testing Creative Research Readership
Starch Readership Test Classifications
Noted Reader A Noted Reader is a person
who remembers having previously seen the
advertisement in the issue being studied.
Associated Reader An Associated Reader
is a person who not only noted the advertisement but
also saw or read some part of it that clearly indicated the
brand or advertiser.
Read Most Starch Readership Services
classifies respondents who read half or more of the
written material in the ad under scrutiny as Read Most.
The following are ways Starch Readership Tests
are classified:
Testing Creative Research Readership
Starch Readership Test Classifications
Clients receive Adnorm data with the Starch Readership
Reports. Adnorms enable advertises to compare
readership data of their advertisement in a given
magazine issue to the norm for advertisements of the
same size and color in the same product category.
These data can help advertisers identify the types of
layouts that attract and retain the highest readership as
well as the level of engagement consumers have with
their ad in a specific magazine. They can also compare
current advertisements against those of competitors,
compare the current campaign against previous
campaigns, compare the current campaign against a
competitors previous campaign, and compare current
advertisements against the Adnorm tables Exhibit 15.15.
This ad would score well on a Starch
Readership test among football fans
EXHIBIT 15.15.
This Ad Would
Likely Score
Well On a Starch
Readership Test
Among Football
fans.

The End!