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Eunike Eylevencia
Ivana Jessline
Stage theory of memory assumes that we human
have a three stages memory that meets our need
to store information for different lengths of time
1. Sensory Register
2. Short Term Memory
3. Long Term Memory

Levels of processing
An Alternative to the stage model
1. Sensory Register
The first stage of memory, in which an exact image of
each image sensory experience is held briefly until it
can be processed
-Echoic memory (from the word echo)
refers to auditory sensory memory.
retained for up to several second
- Iconic memory (Icon = Image)
Refers to visual sensory memory
retained only about second
George Sperling (1960), flashing for 4 coloumns and 3
rows of letters for only 1/20s
2. Short Term Memory
Limited capacity memory system in which information is
usually retained for only 30s unless we strategies to
retained it longer
George Miller (1959) examinated the limited capacity of
STM in the classic paper magical number 7 plus or minus
Mental repetition of information to retained it longer in
Units of memory
3. Long Term Memory
The third stages of memory, involving the storage of
information that is kept for long periods of time. LTM
differs from STM in 4 major ways
1. The ways in which information is recalled
Because the amount of information stored in LTM so
vast, we cant scan the entire contents of LTM as we do
in STM. Instead LTM has to be indexed
2. The form in which information is stored in
The LTM stored information based on its
3. The reason that forgetting occurs
STM = Memory dropped out
LTM = We forget because we cant retrieve
it for some reason
4. Physical location of these function on the brain
STM = Frontal Lobes
LTM = Hippocampus language and perception

Types of LTM
Each of them have distinctly different and each based on different
brain mechanism
1. Procedural memory
Memory for motor movement and skill
2. Semantic memory
Memory for meaning without reference to the time and place of
3. Episodic memory
Memory for spesific experiences that can be defined in terms of
time and space

Declarative Memory = Semantic memory and episodc memory
Because they easy to describe (declare)
Organisation in LTM

The organization of memory in LTM has been
characterized as an associative network by some
theorist. According to this view, memories are
associated or linked together, through experience

Retrieval of LTM
Three ways of testing retrieval
1. Recall Methods
--> A measure of memory based on the ability to
retrieve information from LTM with few cues
2. Recognition Methods
--> A measure of memory based on the ability to
select correct information from among the option
3. Re-learning Methods
--> A measure of memory based on the length of
time it takes to relearn forgotten material
The tip - of the tongue phenomenon
A type of effortful retrieval that occurs when we are confident
that we know something but cannot quiet pull it out of
* Serial learning
Sometimes if we remembered something in the list, we just can
remember at the beginning and at the end. Why it occurs?
its called serial position effect
Serial position effect the finding that immidiate recall of
items listed in a fixed order betters for item at the beginning
and at the end of the list than for those in the middle
Why it occurs?
The answer perhaps located in the differences between
STM and LTM . The last items in a list are remembered well
because they are still In STM Whereas the first items in a
list are remembered well bacause they can be rehearsed
enough times to transfer them firmly into LTM
Levels Of Processing
Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart (1972)
Have proposed an alternative levels of processing models
an alternative to the stages memory of memory
stating that distinction between STM and LTM
memory is a matter af degree rether than deffirent
kind of memory and is based on how incoming
information is processed
Deep processing and
survival value
we deeply processed some events more
that others , which increases the
likelihood of remembering them. One
version of these theory suggests that
our memory processes have evolved
through natural selection to favor the
deep processing and recall of
information relevant to our survival
and reproductive fitness
Elaboration and deep
Elaboration= the process of creating
association between a new memory
and existing memories

Check your learning
1. Theassumes that we human have a three stages memory
that meets our need to store information for different
lengths of time
2. The first stage of memory is the., which holds an exact
image of each sensory experience for a very brief time
3. The.. Is used to store information temporarily and to
think ( sometimes termed working memory)
4. LTM is similar to STM in term of the way in which
information is recalled, the reason forgetting occurs , and
the form in which information is usually stored
True or False?
5. The.. Is a memory model suggesting that the distinction
between short term and long term memory is a matter of
degree rather that separate stages
Forgetting and Why it occurs
1. Decay theory
According to decay memory, memories that
are not used fade gradually over time
2. Interference Theory
The theory that forgetting occurs because
similar memories interfere with the storage
or retrieval of information

3. Reconstruction (schema) theory
the theory that information stored in LTM
sometimes changes over time to become
more consistent to our beliefs, knowledge,
and expectation
False memory -->remembering an event
that did not occur or that occurred in a way
that was substantially different from the
memory of the event

4. Motivated Forgetting
Forgetting that is believed to be based on the
upsetting or threatening nature of the
information that is forgotten
Emotional arousal does not always lead to
poor memory sometimes it has little effect
and sometimes emotional arousal improves
memory in some ways
Thus, mild level of either positive or negative
arousal appear to enhance memory
Check your learning
1. According to . Theory , forgetting occurs simple
because the memory trace fades as time passes
2. .theory states that forgetting occurs because similar
memories block the storage or retrieval of informatioin
3. ..theory suggest that some LTM become so distorted
over time that they are unrecognizeable
4. Forgetting that occurs because the memory is upsetting
or threatening is term
5. Remembering an event that never happened is
Bagian pengertian dari memori yang
meninggalkan bekas pada otak,ini
merupakan dasar biologis dari ingatan.
Suatu proses aktivitas alami yang
mengakibatkan perubahan secara
struktural pada sinapsis yang
membuat belajar dan mengingat lebih
Penguatan yang berangsur-angsur
pada zat kimia yang berubah dalam
sinapsis yang mengikuti proses belajar.
Penilitan membuktikan bahwa
perubahan fisik pada sinapsis terjadi di
Amnesia dibagi menjadi 2 yaitu:
- Retrograde Amnesia
-Anterograde Amnesia
Ketidak teraturan pada memory atau ingatan yang
ditandai dengan ketidakmampuan kembali
mengingat memori jangka panjang yg lama dari yang
umum sampai yang ke spesifik dari jangka waktu yang
lama sampai permulaan kekacauan itu/amnesia biasa.
Kekacauan pada ingatan ditandai
ketidakmampuan u/ menyimpan dan
atau mengingat kembali informasi
baru di ingatan yang panjang.
Yang menyebabkan anterograde
adalah perusakan pada
You guys are great!!