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# UNIT-III : NETWORK TOPOLOGY

## Definitions-graph, planar and non planar,

connected and oriented graph, sub graph,
path, tree & tree branches, co - tree and
loops, basic tie set and cut set matrices,
loop and nodal analysis.

NETWORK TOPOLOGY
The study of geometrical properties of figures
which are unchanged when the figure is
twisted, bent, folded is called Network
Topology
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When the nature of elements is
disregarding, each element is replaced by a
LINE SEGMENT or EDGE between the end
points called NODES or VERTICES
1 2
a b
A B
1 2
a b
A
B
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GRAPH:
Graph is defined as a set of nodes together with
a set of edges with the condition that each
end of an edge terminates at one of the
vertices.
4
1 2
3
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ORIENTED GRAPH:
When the directions are assigned to all the
edges of a graph, the graph is said to be
Oriented.
4
1 2
3
5
3
6 1
4
2
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CONNECTED GRAPH:
If there exists atleast one path between any two
nodes of the graph.
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SUB GRAPH:
A graph G
1
is said to be a sub graph of graph G if
each node of G
1
and each edge of G
1
is in G.
4
1 2
3
4
1 2
3
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PLANAR GRAPH:
If a graph is represented on a single plane
without crossover then it is called planar
graph.
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NONPLANAR GRAPH:
A graph containing crossover is called
NONPLANAR GRAPH.
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PATH:
A path is a traversal from one node to another
node of a graph along the branches such that
no node is encountered twice.
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DEGREE OF VERTEX:
The number of edges terminating at a node is
called the degree of a node.
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LOOP:
It is a subgraph in which the degree of each
node is exactly two.
It is a closed path.
It is a path between a node i and it self.
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RANK:
The rank of a connected graph is defined as n-1,
where n is the number of nodes of the graph.
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TREE:
It is defined as a connected subgraph which contains all
the nodes but no loops of the original graph.
Some important properties of a TREE:
- It is a connected subgraph.
- It contains all the nodes of the graph.
- It does not contain any loops.
- It has exactly one and only one path between any
two nodes.
- It has exactly n-1 branches.
4
1
2
3
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The branches of the graph which are removed to
from a tree are called chords or Links.

If there are n nodes, b branches in a graph, then
b-(n-1) = b-n+1
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CO-TREE or COMPLEMENT OF A TREE:
The set of branches which are not in the tree is
known as CO-TREE.

TWIGS:
The branches of a tree are called TWIGS.
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INCIDENCE MATRIX (A)
(Augmented Incidence Matrix)
It is a rectangular matrix of n rows and b
columns
a
ij
= +1 if j
th
branch is incidence at i and is
away from it.
a
ij
= -1 if j
th
branch is incidence at i and is
directed towards it.
a
ij
= 0 if j
th
branch is not incident at i .

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4
1 2
3
4
1 2
3
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(
(
(
(

+ +
+
+
+ +
1 0 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 1 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 1 1
nodes n
1
2
3
4
b branches
4
1 2
3
5
3
6 1
4
2
1 2 3 4 5 6
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(
(
(
(

+

+
=
1 0 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 1 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 1 1
A Matrix Incidence
The Matrix obtained by deleting a row is called Reduced
Incidence matrix or simply Incidence Matrix.
(
(
(

=
0 1 0 1 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 1 1
Re A Matrix Incidence duced
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If the branch currents are represented
by j
k
for k=1,2,3,..b
The branch current vector is given by
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
6
5
4
3
2
1
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
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KCL equations are given by
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(

6
5
4
3
2
1
0 1 0 1 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 1 1
j
j
j
j
j
j
[A] [j] = 0
= [O]
1
2
3
1 2 3 4 5 6
3 ) 3 ( ........ 0
2 ) 2 ( ........ 0
1 ) 1 ( ........ 0
5 3 2
6 5 4
4 2 1
node at j j j
node at j j j
node at j j j
= +
= +
= + +
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KVL equations are given by [v]=[A
T
][e]
v is the branch voltage vector
e is the node to datum voltage vector
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

3
2
1
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 1 0
1 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
0 0 1
e
e
e
v
v
v
v
v
v
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) 6 ( ..........
) 5 ( ..........
) 4 ( ..........
) 3 ( . ..........
) 2 ( . ..........
) 1 ( .. ..........
2 6
3 2 5
2 1 4
3 3
3 1 2
1 1
e v
e e v
e e v
e v
e e v
e v
=
+ =
=
=
=
=
Branch voltages
in terms of node
voltages
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TIE SET MATRIX:
* Addition of a link to a tree form a closed path
fundamental loop or tie set.
4
1 2
3
5
3
6
1
4
2
4
1 2
3
5
3
6
1
4
2
I
1
I
2
I
3
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4
1 2
5 6
1
I
1
4
2
3
5
4
2
I
2
3
Tie-set 1
Tie-set 2
The direction of loop current should coincide with link current.

Tie-set can be defined as set of branches that forms a closed
loop in which link current flows.
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4
1
6
UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY 27
4
3
3
4
I
3
Tie-set 3
1 2
5 6
Tie-Set Matrix: [B]
b
ij
= 1 if j
th
branch is in f
i
loop and their directions coincide
= -1 if j
th
branch is in f
i
loop and their directions opposite
= 0 if branch is not in the loop

(
(
(

+
+ +
+ +
=
0 0 1 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0 0 1
3
2
1
] [
Loop
Loop
Loop
B
b branches
1 2 3 4 5 6
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KVL [B][V]=[O]
where V is the branch voltage vector
KCL branch currents in terms of link currents
[I
b
]=[B
T
][I
L
]
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CUT-SET MATRIX
- A Cutset is a minimal set of branches of a
connected graph such that the removed of
these branches causes the graph to be cut in
to exactly two parts.
-A Cutset consists of one and only one branch of
the network tree, together with any links
which must be cut to divide the network into
two parts.
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Example:
1
3
2
8
5
7
6
4
2
1 3
4
5
Let branches 1,2,8 & 6 assumed as links.
Then Tree is
3
5
7
4
2
1 3
4
5
Cut-Sets
1
3
2
8
5
7
6
4
2
1 3
4
5
C
2
1

C
3
C
4
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Cut-Set Matrix: [Q]
q
ij
= 1 if j
th
branch is in i
th
cutset and orientation coincides with
each other
= -1 if j
th
branch is in i
th
cutset and has opposite orientation.
= 0 if j
th
branch is not connected with i
th
cutset .

| |
(
(
(
(

=
4
3
2
1
C
C
C
C
Q
b branches
1 2 8 6 3 4 5 7
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KCL [Q] [j
b
] = O

KVL [V
b
] = [Q
T
] [e
T
]

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1. Draw the oriented graph of the network shown in
figure and write the incidence matrix.
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2. Develop the tie-set matrix of the circuit shown in figure.

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For the given network graph shown in figure, write down the
basic Tieset matrix, taking the tree consisting of edges 2, 4 and 5.
Write down the KVL network equations from the matrix.
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