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Network Topology

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connected and oriented graph, sub graph,

path, tree & tree branches, co - tree and

links, formation of linearly independent

loops, basic tie set and cut set matrices,

loop and nodal analysis.

NETWORK TOPOLOGY

The study of geometrical properties of figures

which are unchanged when the figure is

twisted, bent, folded is called Network

Topology

2 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

When the nature of elements is

disregarding, each element is replaced by a

LINE SEGMENT or EDGE between the end

points called NODES or VERTICES

1 2

a b

A B

1 2

a b

A

B

3 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

GRAPH:

Graph is defined as a set of nodes together with

a set of edges with the condition that each

end of an edge terminates at one of the

vertices.

4

1 2

3

4 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

ORIENTED GRAPH:

When the directions are assigned to all the

edges of a graph, the graph is said to be

Oriented.

4

1 2

3

5

3

6 1

4

2

5 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

CONNECTED GRAPH:

If there exists atleast one path between any two

nodes of the graph.

6 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

SUB GRAPH:

A graph G

1

is said to be a sub graph of graph G if

each node of G

1

and each edge of G

1

is in G.

4

1 2

3

4

1 2

3

7 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

PLANAR GRAPH:

If a graph is represented on a single plane

without crossover then it is called planar

graph.

8 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

NONPLANAR GRAPH:

A graph containing crossover is called

NONPLANAR GRAPH.

9 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

PATH:

A path is a traversal from one node to another

node of a graph along the branches such that

no node is encountered twice.

10 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

DEGREE OF VERTEX:

The number of edges terminating at a node is

called the degree of a node.

11 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

LOOP:

It is a subgraph in which the degree of each

node is exactly two.

It is a closed path.

It is a path between a node i and it self.

12 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

RANK:

The rank of a connected graph is defined as n-1,

where n is the number of nodes of the graph.

13 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

TREE:

It is defined as a connected subgraph which contains all

the nodes but no loops of the original graph.

Some important properties of a TREE:

- It is a connected subgraph.

- It contains all the nodes of the graph.

- It does not contain any loops.

- It has exactly one and only one path between any

two nodes.

- It has exactly n-1 branches.

4

1

2

3

14 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

CHORDS or LINKS:

The branches of the graph which are removed to

from a tree are called chords or Links.

If there are n nodes, b branches in a graph, then

chords or Links are

b-(n-1) = b-n+1

15 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

CO-TREE or COMPLEMENT OF A TREE:

The set of branches which are not in the tree is

known as CO-TREE.

TWIGS:

The branches of a tree are called TWIGS.

16 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

INCIDENCE MATRIX (A)

(Augmented Incidence Matrix)

It is a rectangular matrix of n rows and b

columns

a

ij

= +1 if j

th

branch is incidence at i and is

away from it.

a

ij

= -1 if j

th

branch is incidence at i and is

directed towards it.

a

ij

= 0 if j

th

branch is not incident at i .

17 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

4

1 2

3

4

1 2

3

18 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

(

(

(

(

+ +

+

+

+ +

1 0 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 1 1 0

1 1 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 1 1

nodes n

1

2

3

4

b branches

4

1 2

3

5

3

6 1

4

2

1 2 3 4 5 6

19 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

(

(

(

(

+

+

=

1 0 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 1 1 0

1 1 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 1 1

A Matrix Incidence

The Matrix obtained by deleting a row is called Reduced

Incidence matrix or simply Incidence Matrix.

(

(

(

=

0 1 0 1 1 0

1 1 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 1 1

Re A Matrix Incidence duced

20 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

If the branch currents are represented

by j

k

for k=1,2,3,..b

The branch current vector is given by

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

=

6

5

4

3

2

1

j

j

j

j

j

j

j

21 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

KCL equations are given by

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

6

5

4

3

2

1

0 1 0 1 1 0

1 1 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 1 1

j

j

j

j

j

j

[A] [j] = 0

= [O]

1

2

3

1 2 3 4 5 6

3 ) 3 ( ........ 0

2 ) 2 ( ........ 0

1 ) 1 ( ........ 0

5 3 2

6 5 4

4 2 1

node at j j j

node at j j j

node at j j j

= +

= +

= + +

22 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

KVL equations are given by [v]=[A

T

][e]

v is the branch voltage vector

e is the node to datum voltage vector

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

3

2

1

6

5

4

3

2

1

0 1 0

1 1 0

0 1 1

1 0 0

1 0 1

0 0 1

e

e

e

v

v

v

v

v

v

23 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

) 6 ( ..........

) 5 ( ..........

) 4 ( ..........

) 3 ( . ..........

) 2 ( . ..........

) 1 ( .. ..........

2 6

3 2 5

2 1 4

3 3

3 1 2

1 1

e v

e e v

e e v

e v

e e v

e v

=

+ =

=

=

=

=

Branch voltages

in terms of node

voltages

24 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

TIE SET MATRIX:

* Addition of a link to a tree form a closed path

fundamental loop or tie set.

4

1 2

3

5

3

6

1

4

2

4

1 2

3

5

3

6

1

4

2

I

1

I

2

I

3

25 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

4

1 2

5 6

1

I

1

4

2

3

5

4

2

I

2

3

Tie-set 1

Tie-set 2

The direction of loop current should coincide with link current.

Tie-set can be defined as set of branches that forms a closed

loop in which link current flows.

26 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

4

1

6

UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY 27

4

3

3

4

I

3

Tie-set 3

1 2

5 6

Tie-Set Matrix: [B]

b

ij

= 1 if j

th

branch is in f

i

loop and their directions coincide

= -1 if j

th

branch is in f

i

loop and their directions opposite

= 0 if branch is not in the loop

(

(

(

+

+ +

+ +

=

0 0 1 1 0 0

0 1 1 0 1 0

1 1 0 0 0 1

3

2

1

] [

Loop

Loop

Loop

B

b branches

1 2 3 4 5 6

Links Twigs

28 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

KVL [B][V]=[O]

where V is the branch voltage vector

KCL branch currents in terms of link currents

[I

b

]=[B

T

][I

L

]

29 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

CUT-SET MATRIX

- A Cutset is a minimal set of branches of a

connected graph such that the removed of

these branches causes the graph to be cut in

to exactly two parts.

-A Cutset consists of one and only one branch of

the network tree, together with any links

which must be cut to divide the network into

two parts.

30 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

Example:

1

3

2

8

5

7

6

4

2

1 3

4

5

Let branches 1,2,8 & 6 assumed as links.

Then Tree is

3

5

7

4

2

1 3

4

5

Cut-Sets

1

3

2

8

5

7

6

4

2

1 3

4

5

C

2

1

C

3

C

4

31 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

Cut-Set Matrix: [Q]

q

ij

= 1 if j

th

branch is in i

th

cutset and orientation coincides with

each other

= -1 if j

th

branch is in i

th

cutset and has opposite orientation.

= 0 if j

th

branch is not connected with i

th

cutset .

| |

(

(

(

(

=

4

3

2

1

C

C

C

C

Q

b branches

1 2 8 6 3 4 5 7

32 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

KCL [Q] [j

b

] = O

KVL [V

b

] = [Q

T

] [e

T

]

33 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

1. Draw the oriented graph of the network shown in

figure and write the incidence matrix.

34 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

2. Develop the tie-set matrix of the circuit shown in figure.

35 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

For the given network graph shown in figure, write down the

basic Tieset matrix, taking the tree consisting of edges 2, 4 and 5.

Write down the KVL network equations from the matrix.

36 UNIT-III NETWORK TOPOLOGY

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