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18th

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Bengal - Richest and
most profitable
province

It became a profitable base for their trade
and commerce





Most prosperous settlements was the British
settlement at Calcutta
Issued by Mughal Emperor
E.I.C. –right to carry duty-free
trade in Bengal i.e. without
paying any taxes to the
government
Right to issue passes or dastaks
for the free movement of their
goods.
Employees of the company were not
entitled to company’s privilege of
duty free trade.
They had to pay taxes.
Fought between Siraj
ud Daulah and the
British East India
Company.

On 23
rd
June,1757.

Turning point in
Indian History

In 1756, Nawab of Bengal
had died.
Alivardi Khan was
Succeeded by his
grandson Siraj ud Daulah
Wanted to curb the
growing power of the
British

Siraj
British
Ordered the British to pay
taxes
Attack on Nawab’s power
Ordered british and french
to dismantle their
fortifications as he didn’t
want them to become the
masters.French agreed.
Thus he wanted to teach
them a lesson
They refused to do
so.
British began to
fortify Calcutta ,in
anticipation of a war
with the French
British refused.
Siraj- ud –Daulah captured fort William
in June 1756.
Robert Clive
reconquered Calcutta
by January 1757.
Nawab had to
Restore trading
privileges to E.E.I.C
Concede(grant) the
right to fortify Calcutta
Siraj had accepted
all the British
demands
The British wanted
to replace Siraj-ud –
Daulah with a
puppet ruler
Made Negotiations with Mir
Jafar

Mir Jafar, the commander in
Chief of the Nawab’s army
was promised to be made
the Nawab of Bengal in
return for a large amount of
money and trading
privileges
After a secret treaty was signed with Mir
Jafar British presented with an impossible
set of demands to siraj.
British
forces led
by Robert
Clive

Siraj also
advanced

However a major part of Nawab’s army was
under Mir Jafar who did n’t participate

Realizing he was
betrayed Siraj fled the
battlefield
But was captured and put
to death
Mir Jafar was proclaimed
the Nawab of Bengal

EEIC got
right to free trade in
Bengal,Bihar and Orissa
Zamindari of the 24
parganas
300 lakh rupees from Mir
Jafar
1.Paved the way for the establishment of
British rule in Bengal and later rest of India

2.Transformed the trading company into
political power
3.Nawab of Bengal- puppet ruler and
British – virtual rulers of Bengal

Bengal nawab
4.Vast resources of Bengal helped to win
Carnatic war and finance military
expeditions in other parts of India

When Mir Jafar was unable to meet the
demands of the British ,they deposed him and
made his son-in law, Mir Qasim the new
Nawab of Bengal in 1760.
Zamindari of the
Burdawan,
Midnapur and
Chittagong district.
Competent and efficient ruler
Determined to free himself from
foreign control
He improved the financial position of Bengal
Raised a modern, disciplined and well –equipped
army trained by the Europeans
The employees of the company
misused their trade privileges
Sold duty free trade permits to Indian
merchants
Thus deprived the nawab of large revenues
Unfair to those merchants who paid heavy duties
To put an end to corrupt practices, Mir Qaim
abolished all duties on internal trade for the
British.

Between Mir Qasim and the British
Nawab was defeated
Mir Jafar reinstated (put back) on
the throne
Mir Qasim was determined to recover his
throne
Escaped to Awadh and formed an Alliance
Alliance- Mir Qasim( Nawab of Bengal) , Shuja
ud Daulah (Nawab of Awadh) and Shah Alam II
(the Mughal Emperor)
Fought in the year 1764
Between the combined forces of the Alliance
and the British troops at Buxar
The alliance was defeated
 Established British as masters of Bengal,
Bihar and Orissa

 Gave them the political control over Awadh
and the Mughal emperor

 Laid the foundation of the British rule in India

 Robert Clive as Governor of Bengal
Robert Clive signed the Treaty of Allahabad
with Shuja-ud-Daulah(Nawab of Awadh) and
Shah Alam II in 1765
 Awadh was returned to Shuja ud daula
 2 districts of Kora and Allahabad were
taken away from Shuja ud daula
 He had to pay a war indemnity of 50
lakh rupees

 British agreed to defend the nawab against his
enemies
 Nawab had to pay for the British troops
 Awadh became a buffer state(a small state
between 2 powerful states that helps keep peace
between them) between Bengal and Maharashtra

 The British gave Shah Alam II the districts of
Kora and Allahabad
 An annual pension of 26 lakh rupees was
also given to him
 In return- Shah Alam II granted the
company the Diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar
and Orissa

 Diwani rights - Right to collect revenue and
Also judge civil cases
 Company’s control over Bengal was made
legal

No military and administrative powers i.e.
puppet rulers
In 1765, Mir Jafar died and his son became the
nawab
He signed a treaty with Clive.
The EEIC became real powers of Bengal from
1765
Nawab had to disband most of his army
Transfer the Nizamat powers( general
administration and criminal justice) to a Deputy
nawab
Deputy nawab was appointed by the British and
could not be dismissed by the Nawab of Bengal

Nawab’s allowance of 53 lakh rupees was
also reduced.
Thus EEIC became real ruler of Bengal from
1765.

Introduced by Robert Clive in Bengal in
1765
Bengal had Dual Governments
1) the Nawab
2) the company
Nawab English east India
company
1. General administration 1. Collection of revenue
2. Maintenance of law
and order
2. Justice (civil cases)
3. Justice (criminal
cases)
3. Defence and military
power
Responsibility without
power
Power without
responsibility
Conditions worsened
One third population
perished
The company nor the
nawab cared
In 1772, court of Directors appointed Warren
hastings as Governor of Bengal
In 1773, the Regulating act introduced the
Governor General as the most important
functionary of the EEIC
Warren Hastings – First governor-general of British
territories in India
 Warren Hastings, the governor-general of
British territories in India , abolished it

Bengal was brought under direct and complete
control of the Company

Nawab was deposed and pensioned off

Treasury was shifted from Murshidabad to
Calcutta (new capital)

Competent administratior
Many reforms introduced in
administration
Laid foundation of organised
system of Government in
Bengal
Period Events
1717

FARMAN ISSUED BY MUGHAL EMPEROR
1756





CAPTURE OF CALCUTTA BY SIRAJ-UD DAULAH
1757

BATLE OF PLASSEY BETWEEN BRITISH AND SIRAJ-UD DAULAH

1760

MIR QASIM THE NEW NAWAB OF BENGAL
1763

WAR BETWEEN BRITISH AND MIR QASIM
1764
BATTLE OF BUXAR BETWWEN THE COMBINED FORCES AND THE BRITISH

1765

THE TREATY OF ALLAHABAD
1772

DUAL GOVERNMENT IN BENGAL INTRODUCED BY CLIVE
1773
WARREN HASTING IS APPOINTED AS THE GOVERNOR GENERAL OF OF THE
BRITISH TERRITORIES IN INDIA
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