POLICIES

• Attendance

• ID & uniform • Quizzes • Grading System – 40% Quizzes – 30% Manual – 10% Exam – 60%

Anatomy-Physiology
• Anatomy – “ana” (apart) “tomy” (to cut), study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another. • Physiology – “physio” (nature) “ology” (the study of) study of how the body and its parts work or function.

THE CELL

Monina C. Montenegro, MD, DPSP

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
• (1632-1723), Dutch, maker of first single lens microscope • The first to document the structure of RBC & the nature of the circulatory system • protozoans & bacteria, life cycles of many species of insects. Micrometer = (µm) metric unit = 1/1000

Types of microscopes
1. Compound or light microscopes Principle: light source -- sunlight Magnification = extent to which an image is enlarged 7. Electron microscope Principle: beam of electrons a. Transmission (magnification: 1Mx or greater) b. Scanning (3 – D image <250,000x)

Image under Compound microscope

Transmission EM

Scanning EM

Ant

Tissue Paper

Pollen

Blood Cells

CELL
• Robert Hooke (1665) = study the
cork & other plant materials  many small partitions separating cavities  cells.

• Building block of all living things • Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life • carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen • Iron, Na, K

3 Main Regions

1. Nucleus
• “headquarters” “control center” • DNA ▫ Genetic blueprint ▫ Building proteins ▫ Cell reproduction

3 Distinct Regions
• Nuclear envelope/membrane – encloses the nucleoplasm • Nucleoli – 1 or more round bodies, where ribosomes are assembled • Chromatin – DNA + protein (nondividing)
▫ Chromosome (dividing)

2. Plasma Membrane
syn: plasma membrane, plasmalemma, cell membrane - outer covering of the cell - surround each cell  separate its contents from external environment - composed of a bilipid layer (proteins & carbohydrates float) - regulates what enters & leaves the cell

Cell Membrane

rane

Plant cell

Membrane Junctions
1. Tight junction
= formed from fusion of adjacent cell membrane = keep digestive juices & harmful substances from damaging the organs

4.

Desmosomes
= an area of contact between two adjacent cells = cell membrane  thickened & fine fibers (tonofibrils) extend from the desmosome into the cytoplasm e.g. skin

8. Gap junction
= allow all materials to pass between cells e.g. nervous system

3. Cytoplasm
• semifluid, “factory area” • 3 Major Elements
▫ Cytosol – semitransparent, largely water ▫ Organelles – “little organs”, specialized compartments, specific functions ▫ Inclusions – nonfunctioning, stored nutrients or cell products (pigment,

1. Mitochondria
• Tiny, threadlike (mitos) or • Sausage-shaped • “powerhouse”
- ATP

2. Ribosomes
• Tiny, round, dark bodies • Proteins + ribosomal RNA (rRNA) • Actual site of protein production

3. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
• “network within the cell” • Fluid-filled tubules or canals • Minicirculatory system • 2 Types ▫ Rough ER – w/ ribosomes, protein synthesis ▫ Smooth ER – cholesterol synthesis/breakdown,

4. Golgi Apparatus
• Stack of flattened membranous sacs • Modify and package proteins

5. Lysosomes
• “breakdown bodies” • digestive enzymes • demolition sites
▫ WBC’s

6. Peroxisomes
• Sacs containing oxidase enzymes • Use oxygen to detoxify harmful or poisonous substances (e.g. alcohol, formaldehyde) • Disarm “free radicals”

7. Cytoskeleton
• cell’s “bones and muscles” • cell shape • supports other organelles • intracellular transport • cellular movements

3 Types
1. Microtubules - cell shape, cell division 3. Intermediate filaments 5. Microfilaments

8. Centriole
• Rod-shaped bodies • Direct the formation of mitotic spindle

• Cilia –
“eyelashes”, hair-like e.g. cells lining the respiratory system

• Flagella –
e.g. sperm

Cell Life Cycle
• 2 Major Periods • Interphase – “metabolic phase”, cell growth, longer phase, resting from division
- genetic material (DNA) - duplicated

• Cell division – reproduces itself

DNA Replication
• DNA – building blocks “nucleotides”
▫ Deoxyribose sugar ▫ Phosphate group ▫ Nitrogencontaining base

DNA Replication

2 Events of Cell Division
• Mitosis – division of the nucleus 2 daughter nuclei

2. Cytokinesis – division of the cytoplasm

Mitosis
STAGES: • PROPHASE = chromatin coil and shorten chromosomes, barlike bodies
▫ Chromosome = 2 strands of chromatids, held together by a buttonlike body, centromere

Mitosis
STAGES:

• METAPHASE – chromosomes cluster and align
at the center

Mitosis
STAGES: • ANAPHASE – movement of chromosomes toward opposite ends of the cell

Mitosis
STAGES: • TELOPHASE – chromosomes uncoil and become chromatin again, nuclear envelope forms around each chromatin mass

Cell Division

CELL PHYSIOLOGY MOVEMENT of SUBSTANCES ACROSS CELL MEMBRANE
• Definition of terms:
▫ Solution – homogenous mixture of 2 or more components (e.g. air, seawater, alcohol) ▫ Solvent – (dissolving medium) substance present in the largest amount in a solution ▫ Solutes – components or substances present in smaller amounts

Definition of Terms:
• Intracellular fluid – (nucleoplasm and cytosol)
▫ solution containing gases (O2, CO2), nutrients and salts dissolved in H2O.

• Interstitial fluid – fluid that bathes the exterior of cells
▫ nutrients (amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, vitamins), hormones, neurotransmitters, salts and waste products.

Definition of Terms:
• Selective permeability – allows some substances to pass through it while excluding others • Passive transport – substances are transported across the membrane w/o energy input from the cell • Active transport – use of ATP to drive the transport process

Passive Transport Processes
• Diffusion – movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher to lower concentration (concentration gradient).
Size of the molecules Temperature

Diffusion

Simple Diffusion

MOVEMENT of SUBSTANCES ACROSS CELL MEMBRANE
PHYSICAL PROCESSES PASSIVE PROCESS 2. Osmosis = movement of water from a lower to higher concentration through a semi-permeable membrane

Osmosis

MOVEMENT of SUBSTANCES ACROSS CELL MEMBRANE
PHYSICAL PROCESSES

PASSIVE PROCESS 3. Facilitated diffusi0n = protein carrier is needed as a transport vehicle (e.g. glucose)

MOVEMENT of SUBSTANCES ACROSS CELL MEMBRANE
PHYSICAL PROCESSES PASSIVE PROCESS 4. Filtration = process by w/c H2O and solutes are forced through a membrane (or capillary wall) by fluid or hydrostatic pressure (pressure gradient) e.g. filtering capacity of the kidney

Active Transport Processes
1. ACTIVE TRANSPORT - “solute pumping” - when a cell requires protein carriers that use ATP to move substances across the membrane - move against concentration or electrical gradients

Active Transport

MOVEMENT of SUBSTANCES ACROSS CELL MEMBRANE
PHYSICAL PROCESSES REQUIRE CELL ENERGY 2. BULK TRANSPORT a) EXOCYTOSIS – “out of the cell” e.g. hormones, mucus, wastes

Exocytosis

MOVEMENT of SUBSTANCES ACROSS CELL MEMBRANE
PHYSICAL PROCESSES REQUIRE CELL ENERGY 2. ENDOCYTOSIS – “into the cell” Phagocytosis – “cell eating”, bacteria or dead body cells

MOVEMENT of SUBSTANCES ACROSS CELL MEMBRANE
PHYSICAL PROCESSES REQUIRE CELL ENERGY • PINOCYTOSIS - “cell drinking” - bulk-phase endocytosis - droplet or extracellular fluid
containing dissolved proteins or fats - e.g. intestinal lining, kidney tubules

Table. 3.2

EFFECT of OSMOSIS in CELLS
ISOTONIC = same concentration as cell fluid = tissue fluids; blood plasma 0.9% NSS; 5% dextrose (glucose) HYPOTONIC = lower concentration than cell fluid = cell swells HYPERTONIC = higher concentration than cell fluid = cell shrinks

Effects of osmosis

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