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Jewish background

1856-1939
Lived in Vienna until Nazi
occupation in 1938
Had medical background-
Private practice with
specialty in neurology
Private practice in nervous
and brain disorders
Case study on Anna O.
Early 1900s published
many works--
Interpretation of
Dreams (1900)
The Psychopathology of
Everyday Life (1901)
1905 concept of sexual
drive being most
powerful personality
component
1906 Psychoanalytic
Society formed
Psychodynamic workings
of personality
Died of jaw cancer 1939
1. Psychic Determinism
2. Unconscious Motivation
3. Child development
4. Anxiety


 Economic/Drive Theory (Dual Instincts)
 Topographic ( UNC, Preconscious, CON )
 Structural ( ID, EGO, SUPEREGO )
Deterministic: ultimate cause of behavior comes
impulses.
These impulses control our desires, thoughts and
feelings whether we like it or not.
Motivation happens to us, we don’t choose.
Motivational impulses of adult can be traced in
childhood events.
Spotlight on sexual and aggressive urges.
Life is full of conflicts like anxiety, repression
By puberty, the personality is formed and will
change very little or none later in life.
 States of excitation in the body that seek
expression and tension reduction



EROS Life Instinct Preservation of
self and species

THANATOS Death instinct Source of
aggression and drive to die


Conscious
Preconscious
Unconscious

Current contents of
your mind that you
actively think of
What we call
working memory
Easily accessed all
the time
Contents of the
mind you are not
currently aware of
Available for easy
access when needed
Contents kept out of
conscious awareness
Processes that
actively keep these
thoughts out from
awareness
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Dreams
Slips of the tongue
Posthypnotic suggestions
Material derived from free-association
Material derived from projective
techniques
Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms
 NOTE: consciousness is only a thin slice of
the total mind

The Id
The Ego
The Superego
The Id – Reservoir of Psychic Energy

Most primitive part of the mind;
what we are born with
Source of all drives and urges
Operates according to the pleasure
principle and primary process
thinking
The Ego- Executive of Personality

The part of the mind that constrains
the id to reality
Develops around 2-3 years of age
Operates according to the reality
principle and secondary process
thinking
Mediates between id, superego, and
environment
The Superego- Upholder of Values and
Ideals

The part of the mind that internalizes
the values, morals, and ideals of
society
Develops around age 5
Not bound by reality
He studied very few people so not
representative sample
Process of psychoanalysis interviewing-
exhibit preconceived notions
His measures/methods were untestable
Difficult to operationalize and test
Definitions don’t lend themselves to
experimentation
One’s personality is fixed and unchanging
Obsessed with sex and aggression
Neglect of interpersonal environment and
social learning

MAIN LIMITATIONS OF
PSYCHOANALYSIS

• Overemphasis on the past

• Overemphasis on internal factors (wishes,
conflicts, etc.)

• Overemphasis on “sexual” development


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 1. Principle of psychic determinism
 Nothing in nature happens by chance
 Nothing in the mind happens by chance
 2. The unconscious
 Conscious rationality is the exception rather than the rule in
psychic processes
 Evidence for this is inferred from:
 Psychopathology - symptom formation
 Parapraxes, i.e. slips of the tongue, of the pen, etc.
 Dreams
 Free association
 Hypnosis
 These two hypotheses interlock
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 Link with biology
 Freud hoped to link up his thoeries with biological knowledge
 We’re still not able to do that
 Freud used the term ―instincts‖ in this regard but the term is misleading
in English
 Drive = Tension or excitation looking for release, i.e. need --> motor
activity --> gratification
 Psychic energy & cathexis
 Freud postulates a psychic energy analogous to physical energy
 Amount of psychic energy directed towards memories, thoughts, and
fantasies of an object is called ―cathexis‖
 e.g. child’s mother is an object highly cathected with psychic energy
 Two forms of drive energy
 Thanatos - aggressive/destructive
BEYOND FREUD
Neo-analytic approach: Jung, Adler, Horney


• Focus shifts from the Id to the Ego

• View of personality development as more
continuous, life-long process

• Recognition of the role of society and culture in
shaping personality

• Freud emphasized sex too much
• Sexuality is not important in infancy
• Different view of the Unconscious
• Different view of the Ego
The Basic Instincts: Sex and Aggression

 Closely follows Darwin’s theory
 Freud believed that everything humans
do can be understood as manifestations
of the life and death instincts
 Later termed libido (life) and thanatos
(death)

Unconscious Motivation

 Individuals control their sexual and
aggressive urges by placing them in the
unconscious
 These take on a life of their own and
become the motivated unconscious
Psychic Determinism

 Nothing happens by chance or accident

 Everything we do, think, say, and feel is
an expression of our mind

Energy Model

 Humans are viewed as energy systems

 Hydraulic model. Energy transformed
but not destroyed

alytic_________
Motivated unconscious Cognitive unconscious
Conflicts bring info into Priming/Cog.
Mechanisms bring
awareness info into awareness

Autonomous Not autonomous
Greatly influences beh. Does not greatly
influence beh.
Repressed Not repressed
Stores unacceptable thoughts Stores harmless thoughts
Primitive, irrational, dramatic Peaceful, rational,
benign
We aren’t at all aware of info. We aren’t aware of some
of the info some of the time
Psychoanalytic
Neoanalytic
• Underlying processes among the Id,
Ego, and Superego do occur
• Childhood experiences are important
• Defenses are the result of dealing with
anxiety that reflects various,
underlying psychological conflicts
o Neo-Analytic Approach – the approach to
personality psychology that is concerned with
the individual’s sense of self (ego) as the
core of personality
o Generally under this approach a person does
not have free will to make choices and their
destiny is set (but this is open to
interpretation)
o Most of the Theorists were founded in Freud’s
Psycho-Analytic Society, however these
Theorists broke away from this approach to
create the Neo-Analytic Approach
Rejected the idea that the adult personality
is formed from experiences in the first 5 or 6
years of life
Recognized social and cultural forces that
shape individuals
Disliked the generally negative tone of
Freudian Theory
• Ego processes and development are
central to an understanding of
personality (Ego Psychology)
• The Ego’s primary tasks revolve
around the nature and quality of the
person’s relations with other people
(Psychosocial Theory)

• Ego functioning is given greater status
than it was accorded by Freud
• The Ego’s purpose of adaptation and the
conscious processes by which it takes
place are more important than its battles
for control over the Id
• Ego exists at birth, apart from the Id
• Different theorists had varying views on
how the Ego allow us to achieve greater
adaptation
Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-1994)
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
Reasons he broke from Freud in 1911
 Adler assumed that humans are
motivated primarily by social urges
 Perfection not pleasure was for Adler
the goal of life
 Adler broke with Freud over the issue
of sexuality
Alfred Adler
(1870-1937)
Felt the central core of personality is
striving for superiority
 Inferiority Complex
 Superiority Complex
Neurotic Person vs. ―Normal‖ Person
This was probably Adler’s greatest
contribution to psychological theory
Firmly believed in the unique
motivations of individuals and the
importance of each person’s perceived
niche in society
Developed a theory of social interest
and striving for superiority
1st Psychoanalyst to emphasize the
fundamental social nature of humans
Organ Inferiority
Aggression Drive
Masculine Protest
Perfection Striving
Role in determining personality
characteristics
 1
st
born must learn to deal with the fact that
they are not the sole focus and parental
attention must be shared with siblings
 2
nd
born born into situation of rivalry and
competition
 Last born usually more pampered than others
and remains forever the ―baby of the family‖
Not the birth order per se that is
important, but rather the motivations it
creates
Reasons he broke from Freud in 1913
 Basic disagreement over the
importance of sex drive
 Tired of Freud’s concern with
pathological side of human nature
 Wanted to develop a psychology that
dealt with human aspirations and
spiritual needs
Carl Jung
(1875-1961)
The psyche is a general entity that
operates through the principle of
opposites
Through the psyche, energy flows
continuously from consciousness to
unconsciousness and back and forth from
inner to outer reality
Libido and psychic energy are
interchangeable terms; libido signifies a
more general life-process energy in which
sexual urges are only one aspect
Successful adjustment requires uniting
the various opposing forces through
middle ground
The ego: entirely conscious complex that is
the center of one’s awareness, contains the
conscious thoughts of our own behavior and
feelings, as well as memories of our
experiences
The persona: the protective façade, or social
mask that helps us deal with the demands of
society.
Begins forming at birth, contains material
derived from personal experience that is no
longer, or is not yet, at the level of
awareness
The shadow—consists of material repressed
into the personal unconscious because it is
shameful and unpleasant
storehouse of latent memories of our
human and pre-human ancestry
It is the deepest and most inaccessible
layer of the psyche
It consists of instincts and archetypes that
we inherit as possibilities and that often
affect our behavior
Examples of archetypes: the wise old
man, the hero, the trickster, the prophet,
the disciple, the child, the parents,
rebirth or reincarnation.
Infancy—Trust vs. Mistrust
Toddler—Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Early Childhood—Initiative vs. guilt
Elementary School Age—Industry vs.
Inferiority
Adolescence—identity vs. Role Confusion
Young Adulthood—Intimacy vs. Isolation
Adulthood—Generativity vs. Stagnation
Old Age—Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Occurs when the normally competent ego is
seriously weakened by social trauma,
physical ills, by the failure to resolve prior
crisis, pathological symptoms often represent
a desperate attempt to develop and retain a
sense of identity, rather than resulting from
some instinctual force
Reasons she broke from
Freud/Psychoanalytic Theory 1941
 Joined the New York Psychoanalytic
Institute in 1934
 Could not accept some of Freud’s
views concerning women
 Did not agree with Freud’s penis envy
 More focused on social world and
social motivations than Freudians
Karen Horney
(1885-1952)
One of the most important discoveries
a child makes is that of his/her own
helplessness
Importance of self-realization and
growth for each individual
Emphasized importance of warm,
stable family as well as impact of
larger society and culture

 Characteristics
 Socially interested
style of life
 What you see is what
you get
 Doing two things well:
love and work
 Decent and balanced

 Causes
 Awareness of
inferiority complex and
distorted mode of
striving for superiority
 Uniting opposing forces
through middle ground
 Successfully making
way through
developmental stages
 Resolved inner
conflicts
 Characteristics
 No personal initiative
(spoiled & dependent
child)
 A true split between
who you are and who
you portray
 Being stuck in a stage
of development
 Helplessness,
aggressiveness,
detachment

 Causes
 Parental pampering or
neglect
 Unbalanced psychic
energy and opposing
forces
 Inability to adapt
during an identity
crisis
 Inattentive parenting

Emphasizes the self as it struggles to cope
with emotions and drives on the inside and
the demands of others on the outside
Emphasizes the importance of the positive
and goal-oriented nature of humanity
Acknowledges the impact of other
individuals, society, and culture on
personality
Attempts to explain the structure of the
healthy and unhealthy psyche
Assumes development continues throughout
the life cycle
Relatively unconcerned with biology
and fixed personality structures
Very difficult to test empirically
Sometimes a hodgepodge of different
ideas from different traditions
Sometimes relies on abstract or vague
concepts
Anxiety: Future-oriented “diffuse
apprehension”

Fear: Present-oriented defensive response to
observable threat

Stress: Perceived environmental demands
exceed one’s perceived ability to meet them


 Uncertainty

 Lack of control

 Perception of danger
 According to Freud (and to Erikson), our ego has
to deal with at least three kinds of anxiety:
 Reality anxiety occurs in response to perceived threats
in the outside world (having to give a talk in public,
being arrested for speeding, falling off a tall ladder,
bouncing a large check, etc.).
 Neurotic anxiety is experienced when unacceptable id
impulses are dangerously close to breaking into
consciousness.
 Moral anxiety occurs when the superego seeks to censor
or suppress id impulses that violate the superego’s strict
moral code (i.e., guilt).
 The ego is assumed to act as an arbiter or
mediator in all of these cases.
 According to Adler, Erickson, and Horney:
 We experience anxiety early in life as soon as we
become self-aware enough to realize that, as an
infant, we are weak, helpless, and dependent on
others for our survival.
 Much of the anxiety we experience in life takes the
form of reality anxiety.
 In order to deal with this type of anxiety, we must
develop coping strategies.
 The number of coping strategies people use is
almost endless, so―to simplify things―they are
grouped into types.
 Active coping strategies
 Active-cognitive strategies
 Considered several alternatives for handling the
problem
 Drew on past experience
 Active-behavioral strategies
 Made a plan of action and followed it
 Tried harder to make things work
 Avoidance coping strategies
 Avoided being with people in general
 Refused to believe that it happened
 Tried to reduce tension by drinking more


 Problem-focused coping strategies: try to solve,
or at least ameliorate, the problem
 Identify the source(s) of the problem
 Develop a plan for dealing with the problem
 Carry out the different steps or stages of the plan
 Emotion-focused coping strategies: try to bring
one’s emotions under control
 Take a deep breath and calm oneself
 Take time away from the problem
 Reflect and meditate
 Pray



 In almost all cases, active strategies are more
effective than avoidance strategies in helping people
cope with stressors.
 The results of a survey study revealed that the more
people relied on effective coping strategies, the
happier and more satisfied with their lives they were
(McCrae & Costa, 1986).
 A similar result was found in a study of Smokers who
used at least one active coping strategy were four
times more likely to quit smoking than those who
used none (Shiffman, 1985).
 In general, then, you should find an active way of
coping with your problems, rather than finding ways
to avoid confronting them with the hope that they
will ―go away.‖

 Avoidance strategies can help you feel better in
the short term, but are almost never effective in
the long run, and can even make things worse.
 Emotion-focused strategies are effective when
there is nothing you can do to solve the
problem. In cases like this, a focus on
controlling your own emotions may be your best,
and even only, option (Strentz & Aurbach, 1988).
 According to Freud, aggression is the result of
the ―frustrated libido‖ that occurs whenever
our pleasure-seeking impulse is blocked.
 Our ―primordial reaction‖ in such cases is to
feel rage at whoever or whatever has blocked
our attempt to obtained the desired goal, and
to retaliate through aggression.
 Following the expression of aggression toward
this person or object, we are assumed to
experience an emotional catharsis, which we
find rewarding.
 According to this hypothesis, aggression is
always a consequence of frustration and
frustration always leads to aggression.
 In other words, the hypothesis proposes that
there is only one cause of aggression
(frustration) and one response to frustration
(aggression).
 To explain when aggression will cease, Dollard
and his colleagues also adopted Freud’s
concept of catharsis, predicting that the
aggressive act should end when catharsis has
taken place.
To explain why we don’t spend all our
time acting out life’s frustrations in the
form of aggression, Dollard and his
colleagues proposed that frustration can
sometimes lead to indirect aggression.
Indirect aggression can take three
different forms:
1. displaced aggression,
2. attack in an indirect manner, and
3. sublimation.

Active Passive
Direct Indirect Direct Indirect
Physical
Hitting (kicking,
biting, etc.) the
victim
Setting a trap,
pitfall, or rigging
a harmful device
with the intent to
hurt the victim
Obstructing the
victim’s
passage with
the intent to
punish or inflict
harm
Refusing to take
an action that is
necessary to keep
the victim from
being harmed
Verbal
Insulting,
taunting
(verbally
abusing) the
victim
Slandering and
spreading
malicious gossip
about the victim
with the intent to
hurt the victim
Refusing to
speak; giving
the victim the
“silent
treatment” to
cause
discomfort and
distress
Refusing to speak
or write on the
victim’s behalf
when it would
keep the victim
from being harmed
 Guerra et al. (1995) found that the most
aggressive children tended to be those who
experienced the highest levels of stress and
frustration in their lives.
 Catalano et al. (1993) found that people who
had lost their jobs were six times more likely
to have engaged in an act of violence than
those who were still employed.
 Landau (1988) and Landau and Raveh (1987)
found that as the level of unemployment
increased in Israel, there was often a
corresponding increase in violent crimes like
homocide.
 Freud’s theory predicted that catharsis would
reduce the need to aggress. But does it?
 In a study by Bushman (2002), participants
whose essays had been harshly evaluated by
another person were actually more, rather than
less, angry at the other person after they had
been given the opportunity to hit a punching
bag, either while thinking of the other person or
exercise.
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25
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27
28
29
30
31
Control Exercise Thinking of
other
 Contrary to Freud’s prediction, the catharsis that
results from acting aggressively often increases,
rather than decreases, subsequent aggression.
 Why does this unexpected effect occur? Three
processes may be involved.
 Disinhibition
 The presence of aggressive cues
 Reinforcement
 Its adherents included Melanie Klein, Donald
Winnicott, Margaret Mahler, and Heinz Kohut.
 The theory views the child’s earliest
relationships as crucial to the child’s social
development.
 The theory assumes that the child develops
unconscious representations of the parents to
relate to in the parents’ physical absence.
 It postulates that the nature of these
unconscious representations influence the child’s
way of relating to new people who come along,
even into adulthood.
 Attachment theory was developed by John Bowlby
and refined by Mary Ainsworth.
 The focus of the theory is the quality of the
emotional attachment between the infant and its
caretaker, usually the mother.
 Ainsworth and her colleagues tested the theory by
creating separation and reunion situations, and
observing the results
 Through this research, they identified secure
relationships, anxious-ambivalent relationships, and
avoidant relationships.
 As in Object Relations Theory, these earliest
relationships are assumed to influence the kind of
attachments developed in subsequent relationships.

Secure

Insecure
Anxious/Ambivalent Avoidant
Toddler Is easily soothed upon
reunion with mother;
seeks proximity to her
Upon reunion, mixes
proximity seeking
with resistance (cries,
hits)
Tends to ignore or pull
away from mother
upon reunion
3 year
old
Greater persistence, peer
competence, and ego
strength; more affective
sharing with peers
Less peer competence
and ego strength;
more passive
resistance to exploring
the environment
Less peer competence
and ego strength; less
freedom in exploring
environment
6 year
old
Accepting, tolerant of
others’ imperfections;
initiates positive
interactions
More ambivalence
upon reunion with
parents; may mix
anger and snubs with
exaggerated
dependency
Defensive, dismissing
of attachment; upon
reunion, maintains
distance from parents
 I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am
comfortable depending on them and having them
depend on me. I don’t often worry about being
abandoned or about someone getting too close to me.
 I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I
find it difficult to trust them completely; difficult to
allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when
anyone gets too close; and often, lover partners want
me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being.
 I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I
would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t
really love me or won’t want to stay with me. I want
to merge completely with another person, and this
desire sometimes scares people away.
Secure adults are more likely than insecure
adults to report positive relationships with
parents and a warm and trusting family
environment.
Anxious-ambivalent adults are more likely to
report that their relationships with family
members are distant and distrustful.
Avoidant adults are more likely to describe
their parents’ marriage as unhappy.
 Adults with a secure attachment style tend to be more
satisfied with their romantic relationship than adults with
an insecure attachment style.
 Adults whose partner has a secure attachment style also
report greater satisfaction than adults whose partner has an
insecure attachment style.
 Not surprisingly, people who have a secure attachment style
are more likely to marry partners who also have a secure
attachment style.
 Compared with people who have a secure attachment style,
those with an avoidant attachment style are less likely to
get married in the first place, more likely to get divorced if
they do marry, and much less likely to re-marry.
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
age 27 age 43 age 52
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

m
a
r
r
i
e
d
Secure
Avoidant
Adult attachment style differences have
also been observed in separation and
reunion behavior
43% of college students with an avoidant
attachment style reported that they had
never been in love (Fraley & Shaver, 1998)
People with an anxious-ambivalent
attachment style fall in love often but
worry about being abandoned and about
whether they can trust their partners
(Simpson, Rhodes, & Nelligan, 1992).
Finally, there is evidence that attachment
styles can be changed. Having a secure,
trusting relationship with a caring and
committed partner can help turn an insecure
person into a more secure one (30% of young
women in one study changed their
attachment style classification over a 2-year
time span).
 Ewen, R.B. (1988). An introduction to theories of
personality (3
rd
ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates.
 Friedman, H.S. & Schustack, M.W. (2003). Personality
classic theories and modern research (2
nd
ed.). Boston:
Allyn & Bacon.
 Hall, C.S., & Lindzey, G. (1978). Theories of Personality
(3
rd
ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
 McAdams, D.P. (2001). The person: an integrated
introduction to personality psychology (3
rd
ed.). Fort
Worth: Harcourt College Publishers.
 Ryckman, R.M. (1978). Theories of personality. New York:
Van Nostrand Company.