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Multimedia Over Internet

Growth of Internet
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 Low cost infrastructure
 No fees for joining or licenses to buy
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 No sales experience needed
 No employees required
 No expensive accounts needed
 No inventory to carry
 No order processing
 No product shipping
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Multimedia Over IP Multicast Network
Multimedia Over IP Multicast Network
Delivering Real-time Multimedia over Internet
 framework for transporting real-time Internet video includes
two components: congestion control and error control
 Congestion control consists of rate control, rate-adaptive
encoding, and rate shaping
 Error control consists of forward error correction (FEC),
retransmission, error resilience, and error concealment
 QoS issues are bandwidth, delays and loss of data
Heterogeneity Network Environment
 Network heterogeneity and Receiver heterogeneity
 Network heterogeneity refers to the subnetworks in the
Internet having unevenly distributed resources (e.g.,
processing, bandwidth, storage, and congestion control
policies).
 Receiver heterogeneity means that receivers have different
or even varying latency requirements, visual quality
requirements, and/or processing capability.
Heterogeneity Network Environment
 Network-centric approach:
 Routers/switches in the network are required to provide QoS
support to guarantee bandwidth, bounded delay, delay jitter,
and packet loss for video applications (e.g., integrated
services, or differentiated services).
 End-system based approach:
 Control techniques to maximize the video quality without
any QoS support from the transport network.
 The integrated solutions is based on both transport (use of
control/processing techniques without regard of the specific
video) and compression perspectives (employing signal
processing techniques with consideration of the video
semantics).
Heterogeneity Network Environment
 Congestion Control:
 Bursty loss and excessive delay are caused by network
congestion
 Reduce packet loss and delay
 Rate control matches the rate of the video stream to the
available network bandwidth.
 Rate-adaptive video encoding or rate shaping is required.
 Rate control is from the transport perspective, while rate-
adaptive video encoding is from the compression
perspective; rate shaping is in both transport and
compression domain.
Heterogeneity Network Environment
 Error Control
 Four types: Forward error correction (FEC),
retransmission, error resilience, and error concealment.
 FEC adds redundant information to a compressed video bit
stream so that the original video can be reconstructed the
in presence of packet loss. Three kinds of FEC:
 channel coding;
 source coding-based FEC;
 joint source/channel coding.
Internet Multimedia Applications
 Classes of multimedia applications
 Streaming Stored Multimedia Data Applications
 Clients request on-demand data (for example, compressed
audio or video files) which is stored on servers.
 One to many streaming of real-time data applications
 Similar to ordinary broadcast of radio and television, except
the transmission takes place over the Internet.
 Real-time interactive multimedia applications
 Allows people to use audio/video to communicate with each
other in real-time
Multimedia Data Streaming
 Significant improvement over the download-and-play
approach to multimedia file distribution
 Allows the data to be delivered to the client as a continuous
flow with minimal delay before playback can begin
 Streaming is a server/client technology that allows live or
pre-recorded data to be broadcast in real time
 Multimedia applications such as news, education, training,
entertainment, advertising, and a host of other uses
 Streaming enables the Internet or company Intranet as a
new broadcast medium for audio and video.
Multimedia Data Streaming
Unicast vs. IP Multicast
 Streaming delivery techniques: Unicast and Multicast.
 Unicast: Computers establish two-way, point-to-point
connections. Client computer can communicate with the
computer supplying the multimedia stream. Each client
that connects to the server receives a separate stream,
which rapidly uses up network bandwidth.
 IP Multicast: One computer sends a single copy of the data
over the network and many computers receive that data.
Only a single copy of the data is sent across the network,
which preserves network bandwidth. It is connectionless;
clients have no control over the streams they receive
Web Multimedia Information Systems
 Web Process
 Organizing entity that determines a set of activities and
specifies their relations
 Activity
 Process step, which participates in the fulfilment of an
overall objective. An agent who satisfies the required skills
and rights (paradigm of role) fulfilled it.
 Activities Synchronization
 Temporal preconditions to define a temporal order between
activities, Alternatives to let the user decide on the media to
use for a specific purpose, Parallelism between activities
what is especially useful in the case of collaborative work.
Web Information System Architecture
Interactive Web Pages
Interactive Multimedia Applications
Video Streaming
Interactive Multimedia Applications
Interactive Multimedia Applications
Multimedia Messaging System
MMS Network Architecture
MMS Operation
Sending Messages: A user sends a message by having its MMS-UA
(MMS User Agent) submit the message to its home MMS-RS (MMS
Relay/Server).
 Receiving Messages: Upon reception of a message, the recipient
MMS-RS verifies the recipient profile and generates a notification to
the recipient MMS-UA.
 Message Adaptation: Within a request for delivery of a message, the
recipient MMS-UA can indicate its capabilities, e.g., a list of
supported media types and media formats, for the recipient
MMS-RS.
 Delivery Reports: If a delivery report has been requested by the
originator MMS-UA and if the recipient MMS-UA did not request a
delivery report not to be generated, the recipient MMS-RS generates
a delivery report and delivers the delivery report to the originator
MMS-RS.