You are on page 1of 33

# Step-up

transformers
Step-down
transformers
Power system
Machine is a device used for electromechanical
energy conversion.
Machines are divided into generators and motors.
GENERATORS – which convert mechanical energy into electrical
energy
MACHINES
Generators Motors
MOTORS – which convert electrical energy into mechanical
energy
GENERATOR
GENERATOR
ELECTRICAL INPUT
MECHANICAL OUTPUT
MECHANICAL INPUT
ELECTRICAL OUTPUT
MOTOR
MOTOR
MACHINES
AC MACHINES DC MACHINES
DC Generators AC Generators DC Motors AC Motors
PRINCIPLE OF DC
Generators
ALL GENERATORS WORKS ON THE PRINCIPLE OF
DYNAMICALLY INDUCED E.M.F.

THIS PRINCIPLE IS NOTHING BUT THE FARADAY’S LAW OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION.

“WHEN EVER CONDUCTORS CUT’S THE
MAGNETIC FIELD AN EMF WILL BE INDUCED”

DYNAMICALLY INDUCED E.M.F.
when a magnetic field is stationary and the conductor is in
motion then the induced e.m.f is called dynamically induced e.m.f.

PRINCIPLE OF DC MOTOR
“WHEN EVER A CURRENT CARRYING
CONDUCTOR PLACED IN A MAGNETICFIELD
IT EXPERIENCES A FORCE “
LAWS OF MAGNETISM
SOLENOID / ELECTROMAGNET
CURRENT AND FLUX DIRECTION
Fleming's right-hand rule for generators
The thumb is the Motion, M.

The first finger is the magnetic flux density, F.

The second finger is the EMF/CURRENT, E/I.
EMF
Fleming's left-hand rule for motors
The thumb is the force, F.

The first finger is the magnetic flux density, B.

The second finger is the electric current, I.
GENERATOR OPERATING PRINCIPLE
AC power Generation

A single-loop generator with each terminal connected to a segment of a two-
segment metal ring is shown in figure 1-4.
The two segments of the split metal ring are insulated from each other. This
forms a simple COMMUTATOR. The commutator in a dc generator replaces the slip rings
of the ac generator. This is the main difference in their construction.
The commutator mechanically reverses the armature loop connections to the
external circuit. This occurs at the same instant that the polarity of the voltage in the
armature loop reverses. Through this process the commutator changes the generated ac
voltage to a pulsating dc voltage as shown in the graph of figure 1-4.
DC power Generation
MOTOR OPERATION
DC Machine Construction
yoke
base
Bearings
Shaft
Armature
STATOR
ROTOR
DC Machine Construction
Shaft
Rotor
Pole shoe
Pole core
4-POLE DC-MACHINE
YOKE
DC Machine Construction
ARMATURE
Teeth
Slot
COMMUTATOR
S.
NO
PART FUNCTION MATERIAL
1.
YOKE
(OR)FRAME
1.TO SUPPORT FIELD POLES.
2.TO PROVIDE PATH FOR MAGNETIC FLUX.
3.TO ACT AS A PROTECTIVE DEVICE
CAST IRON,CAST
STEEL,SILICON
STEEL.
2.
MAIN POLE
CORE
1. TO CARRY FIELD WINDING.
2. TO PROVIDE FLUX PATH.
CAST IRON,CAST
STEEL,SILICON
STEEL, SILICON
STEEL LAMINATIONS.

3. POLE SHOES
1.TO SUPPORT FIELD WINDINGS.
2.TO KEEP UNIFORM AIR GAP AND TO MAINTAIN
UNIFORM FLUX
SILICON STEEL
LAMINATIONS.
4.
MAIN FIELD
WINDING
TO CARRY CURRENT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF
MAIN MAGNETIC FLUX
COPPER WIRES
5.
ARMATURE
CORE
TO PROVIDE ARMATURE WINDING IN THE SLOTS
AND TO CARRY FLUX
CAST IRON,CAST
STEEL,SILICON
STEEL, SILICON
STEEL LAMINATIONS.
6.
ARMATURE
WINDING
1.TO INDUCE EMF AND CARRY CURRENTS.
2.TO CAUSE ELECTROMECHANICAL
CONVERSION
COPPER WIRES

7. COMMUTATOR
1.TO CONVERT AC TO DC.
2.TO COLLECT CURRENT FROM ARMATURE
WINDINGS
COPPER SEGMENTS
SEPERATED BY MICA
INSULATION.
S.
NO
PART FUNCTION MATERIAL
8.
BRUSH GEAR
AND BRUSHE
HOLDERS
TO HOLD BRUSH TIGHTLY ON THE
COMMUTATOR SURFACE AND TO SHIFT IT ON IT.
STEEL,BRASS
9. BRUSHES TO COLLECT CURRENT FROM COMMUTATOR
SOFT CARBON,
GRAPHITE
10.
INTER POLE
CORES
TO PROVIDE COMMUTATION AND TO REDUCE
ARMATURE REACTION.
CAST STEEL
11.
INTER POLE
WINDING
TO CARRY CURRENT TO PRODUCE INTER POLE
FLUX
INSULATED COPPER
WIRES
12. END PLATES 1. TO PROVIDE COVER AND FORECASTING CAST IRON
13. BEARINGS
1. TO SUPPORT SHAFT, TO REDUCE FRICTION.
2. TO ATTAIN SMOOTH RUNNING OF
ARMATURE.
BEARING ALLOY
14.
LIFTING
BOLTS
TO LIFT MACHINE DURING TRANSPORTATION
AND INSTALLATION.
CAST IRON
15.
TERMINAL
BOX
TO PROVIDE HOUSING FOR VARIOUS WINDING
TERMINALS
STEEL PLATES
16. COOLING FAN
TO CIRCULATE AIR FOR VENTILATION AND
COOLING
CAST IRON
17. SHAFT
TO SUPPORT ROTATING
PARTS,ARMATURE,COMMUTATOR ETC.,
HARD STEEL
18.
SUPPORTING
BASE
TO SUPPORT THE MACHINE AND FIT IT IN
FOUNDATION
MACHINE WINDINGS
OVERVIEW
Winding
Lap Wave
Separately
Excited
Self Excited
Armature
Field
Series Shunt Compound
ARMATURE WINDING
(A). LAP WINDING
(B). WAVE WINDING
S.
NO
LAP WINDING WAVE WINDING
1.
The windings of a lap wound
armature are connected in parallel.
This permits the current capacity of
each winding to be added and
provides a higher operating current .
The windings of a lap wound
armature are connected in series.
2.
It is preferable for high current, low
voltage capacity generators.
It is preferable for low current,
high voltage capacity generators.
3.
Normally used for generators of
capacity more than 500A.
Normally used for generators of
capacity less than 500A.

4. No.of parallel paths (A) = poles(p).
No.of parallel paths (A) = 2(always).

5.

Let
Φ = flux/pole in weber
Z = total number of armture conductors
= No.of slots x No.of conductors/slot
P = No.of generator poles
A = No.of parallel paths in armature
(A = P for lap winding,
A = P for wave winding)
N = armature rotation in revolutions per minute (r.p.m)
E = e.m.f induced in any parallel path in armature

E.M.F Equation
According to Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction, average emf induced
in each conductor is equal to the rate of change of flux in webers per second.
Therefore, emf induced in each conductor e= dΦ / dt
In one revolution flux cut by each armature conductor, dΦ = ΦP

Time taken by armature to complete one revolution dt = 60/N seconds
Therefore, emf induced in each conductor e = dΦ / dt = ΦP / 60/N = ΦPN / 60 volts
Therefore e.m.f induced in dc generator Eg = e.m.f induced in each conductor x
number of parallel path

connected in series in each parallel path = Z/A

Therefore EMF induced in dc generator
In general generated e.m.f

where A = 2 - for simplex wave-winding
= P - for simplex lap-winding
FOR A SIMPLEX WAVE-WOUND GENERATOR

No.of parallel paths = 2

No.of conductors (in series) in one path = Z/2

E.M.F. generated/path is

FOR A SIMPLEX LAP-WOUND GENERATOR

No.of parallel paths = P

No.of conductors (in series) in one path = Z/P

E.M.F.generated/path

Eg =
Eg =
TYPES OF GENERATORS
TYPES OF GENERATORS
Separately
Excited Generator
Self Excited
Generator
Series
Generator
Shunt
Generator
Compound
Generator
Long Shunt
Compound Generator
Short Shunt
Compound Generator