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LINES AND

FIRST DEGREE EQUATIONS
Math 14
Plane and Solid Analytic Geometry
OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the lesson, the student is expected to be
able to:
• Define and determine the general equation of a line
• Define and determine the different standard
equations of line
• Determine the directed distance from a point to a
line
• Determine the distance between parallel lines
STRAIGHT LINES
A straight line is a locus of a point that
moves in a plane with constant slope. It may also
be referred to simply as a line which contains at
least two distinct points.

LINES PARALLEL TO A COORDINATE
AXIS
If a straight line is parallel to the y-axis, its
equation is x = k, where k is the directed distance
of the line from the y-axis. Similarly, if a line is
parallel to the x-axis, its equation is y = k, where k
is the directed distance of the line from the x-axis.



DIFFERENT STANDARD FORMS OF
THE EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE
A. POINT-SLOPE FORM:
If the line passes through the point (x
1
, y
1
), then the
slope of the line is . Rewriting the equation we
have which is the standard equation of
the point-slope form.
1
1
x x
y y
m
÷
÷
=
( )
1 1
x x m y y ÷ = ÷
The equation of the line through a given
point P
1
(x
1
, y
1
) whose slope is m.
y
x
-
-
( )
1 1 1
y , x P
( ) y , x P
m
( )
( )
( )
f orm. slope
- point the as known is
which x - x m y - y or
y - y x - x m us give
will x - x by sides both
g multiplyin and
x - x
y - y
m
f ormula, slope g sin U
1 1
1 1
1
1
1
=
=
=
EXAMPLE:
Find the general equation of the line:
a. through (2,-7) with slope of 2/5
b. through the point (-3, 4) with slope of -2/5
B. TWO-POINT FORM:
If the line passes through the points (x
1
, y
1
) and
(x
2
, y
2
), then the slope of the line is .
Substituting it in the point-slope formula, we have
which the standard equation of
the two-point form.

1 2
1 2
x x
y y
m
÷
÷
=
( )
1
1 2
1 2
1
x x
x x
y y
y y ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
= ÷
The equation of the line through points
P
1
(x
1
, y
1
) and P
2
(x
2
, y
2
)
y
x
-
-
( )
1 1 1
y , x P
( )
2 2 2
y , x P
m
-
( ) y , x P
( )
f orm. point - two
the as known is which
x x
x x
y y
y - y
us give will f orm slope
- point the to it ing substitut and
x x
y y
m slope the ing Us
1
1 2
1 2
1
1 2
1 2
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
=
C. SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM:
Consider a line not parallel to either axes of the
coordinate axes. Let the slope of the line be m and
intersecting the y-axis at point (0, b), then the slope of
the line is . Rewriting the equation, we have
which is the standard equation of the slope-
intercept form.

0 x
b y
m
÷
÷
=
b mx y + =
EXAMPLE:
Find the general equation of the line:
a. passing through (4,-5) and (-6, 3)
b. passing through (2,-3) and (-4, 5)
y
x
-
-
( ) b , 0
( ) y , x P
m
( )
f orm. intercept - slope
the as known is which
b mx y theref ore
and b - y mx us give
will x by sides both
g multiplyin and
0 - x
b - y
m
f ormula, slope g sin U
+ =
=
=
The equation of the line having the slope,
m, and y-intercept (0, b)


EXAMPLE:
a. Find the general equation of the line with slope 3
and y-intercept of 2/3.
b. Express the equation 3x-4y+8=0 to the slope-
intercept form and draw the line.
D. INTERCEPT FORM:
Let the intercepts of the line be the points (a, 0)
and (0, b). Then the slope of the line and its
equation is . Simplifying the equation
we have which is the standard equation of
the intercept form.

a
b
m ÷ =
( ) 0 x
a
b
b y ÷ ÷ = ÷
1
b
y
a
x
= +
The equation of the line whose x and y
intercepts are (a, 0) and (0, b) respectively.

y
x
-
-
( ) b , 0
( ) 0 , a
m
-
( ) y , x P
( )
( )
( )
f orm.
intercept the as known is which
1
b
y
a
x
us give will ab by sides
both dividing and ab ay bx
become will positive terms the all
make to equation the arranging
- re by Then . bx ab - ay
us give will a by sides both
g multiplyin and 0 x
a
b
- b - y
f ormula, slope - point g sin U
= +
= +
÷ =
÷ =
EXAMPLE:
Find the general equation of the line:
a. with x-intercept of 2 and y-intercept of -3/4
b. through (-2, 7) with intercepts numerically equal
but of opposite sign
E. NORMAL FORM:
Suppose a line L, whose equation is to be found,
has its distance from the origin to be equal to p. Let the
angle of inclination of p be

u
o
b
y
x
u
p
L
u
u
u
sin
p
b
b
p
sin
=
=
Since p is perpendicular to L, the slope of p is equal to
the negative reciprocal of the slope L.

Substituting in the slope-intercept form,
y = mx + b , we obtain

Simplifying, we have the normal form of the straight line

u
u
u
u sin
cos
m or , cot
tan
1
m ÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
u u
u
sin
p
x
sin
cos
y + ÷ =
p y sin cos x = + u u
Reduction of the General Form to the Normal Form
The slope of the line Ax+By+C=0 is . The slope of p
which is perpendicular to the line is therefore . Thus,
.
From Trigonometry, we obtain the values
and . If we divide through the general
equation of the straight line by , we have

Transposing the constant to the right, we obtain

This is of the normal form . Comparing
the two equations, we note that .




B
A
÷
A
B
A
B
tan = u
2 2
B A
B
sin
+ ±
= u
2 2
B A
A
cos
+ ±
= u
2 2
B A + ±
0
B A
C
y
B A
B
x
B A
A
2 2 2 2 2 2
=
+ ±
+
+ ±
+
+ ±

B A
C
y
B A
B
x
B A
A
2 2 2 2 2 2
+ ±
÷
=
+ ±
+
+ ±
2 2
B A
C
p
+ ±
÷
=
p y sin cos x = + u u
EXAMPLE:
1. Reduce 5x+3y-4=0 to the normal form.




2. Find the equation of a line parallel to the line
4x-y+8=0 passing at a distance ±3 from the
point (-2,-4).

0
34
4
34
y 3
34
x 5
, thus
34 9 25 B A
-4 C 3 B 5 A
: Solution
2 2
= ÷ +
= + = + +
= = =
( )
( ) ( )

4 y x 4 4 2 4 y x 4
is 4 , 2 through g sin pas
and line given the to parallel line a of equation The
: Solution
÷ = ÷ ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷
( )
17 3 4 y x 4
or 17 3
17
4
17
y
17
4x
be would f orm, normal the in lines, required the of equations The
17
4
17
y
17
4x
1 16
4
1 16
y
1 16
4x
have we f orm, normal the to ducing Re
± ÷ = ÷
÷ |
.
|

\
|
±
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
÷
+ ÷
÷
=
+ ÷
÷
+ ÷


PARALLEL AND PERPENDICULAR LINES
The lines Ax+By+C=0 and Ax+By+K=0 are parallel
lines. But, the lines Ax+By+C=0 and Bx-Ay+K=0 are
perpendicular lines.

EXAMPLE: Find the general equation of the line:
a. through (-3, 8) parallel to the line 6x-5y+15=0
b. through (6,-1) and perpendicular to the line 4x-5y-6=0
c. passing through (-1, 5) and parallel to the line through
(1 ,3) and (1,-4)

DIRECTED DISTANCE FROM A POINT TO A LINE
The directed distance from the point P(x
1
, y
1
) to the
line Ax+By+C=0 is , where the sign of B is
Taken into consideration for the sign of the . If
B>0, then it is and B<0, then it is . But
if B=0, take the sign of A.

2 2
1 1
B A
C By Ax
d
+ ±
+ +
=
2 2
B A +
2 2
B A + +
2 2
B A + ÷
y
x
-
-
( )
1 1 1
y , x P
( )
2 2 2
y , x P
0 C By Ax
1 1
= + +
0 d
1
>
0 d
2
<
line the below is
point the 0, d if
line the above is
point the 0, d if
: note
< -
> -
EXAMPLE:
a. Find the distance of the point (6,-3) from the
line 2x-y+4=0.
b. Find the equation of the bisector of the acute
angle for the pair of lines L
1
: 11x+2y-7=0 and L
2
:
x+2y+2=0.
c. Find the distance between the lines 3x+y-12=0
and 3x+y-4=0
EXERCISES:
1. Determine the equation of the line passing
through (2, -3) and parallel to the line passing
through (4,1) and (-2,2).
2. Find the equation of the line passing through
point (-2,3) and perpendicular to the line
2x – 3y + 6 = 0
3. Find the equation of the line, which is the
perpendicular bisector of the segment connecting
points (-1,-2) and (7,4).
4. Find the equation of the line whose slope is 4
and passing through the point of intersection of
lines x + 6y – 4 = 0 and 3x – 4y + 2 = 0

5. The points A(0, 0), B(6, 0) and C(4, 4) are
vertices of triangles. Find:
a. the equations of the medians and their
intersection point
b. the equations of the altitude and their
intersection point
c. the equation of the perpendicular bisectors of
the sides and their intersection points

Exercises:
1. Find the distance from the line 5x = 2y + 6 to the
points
a. (3, -5)
b. (-4, 1)
c. (9, 10)
2. Find the equation of the bisector of the pair of acute
angles formed by the lines 4x + 2y = 9 and 2x – y = 8.
3. Find the equation of the bisector of the acute angles
and also the bisector of the obtuse angles formed by
the lines x + 2y – 3 = 0 and 2x + y – 4 = 0.

REFERENCES
Analytic Geometry, 6
th
Edition, by Douglas F. Riddle
Analytic Geometry, 7
th
Edition, by Gordon Fuller/Dalton Tarwater
Analytic Geometry, by Quirino and Mijares