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 “Total Communication is a philosophy

requiring the incorporation of
appropriate aural, manual, and oral
modes of communication in order to
insure effective communication with and
among hearing impaired persons”
› Gannon, 1981, p.369

 Hearing individuals
benefit from
information given to
them from the
environment via the
auditory channel

 Deaf and Hard of
Hearing individuals
must use other
means of
information in order
to provide a base for
 First
through sign in A.D.
 Benedictine monks
formed a sign
system to
communicate daily
needs while
keeping a vow of

 Each country
developed a sign

 Signs were shared
and systems
 Oralists and manualists continue to
debate over the mode of
communication that results in the best
exchange of information for the deaf
and hard of hearing

 From this debate, many new methods of
communication were founded
• ASL = American Sign Language or Ameslan
• Created by deaf individuals in the United
• Now it is used by 250,000 to 500,000
Americans of varying ages
• 60% of ASL signs originated from French sign
•Accounts of sign communication is recorded
as early as mid-1700’s
 American Sign Language (ASL)
 Manually Coded English Systems
 Contact Signing (CS)
 Rochester Method
 Total Communication
 Oral Communication
 Cued Speech

 Visual/manual communication system with
it’s own syntax and vocabulary
 Signs in conjunction with facial expression
and body language convey concepts
 Facial and bodily cues differ from
nonverbal cues used with speech
 An interactive language between the
signer and the receiver
 Speech aspects that
communicate the
speaker’s intention
include consonantal
and vocalic
segments that are
blended together to
form the message
 ASL also has
distinctions that are
blended to form
signs that are then
organized to convey
the signer’s intention
 Research conducted by William Stokoe
identified three independent part of a
1. Handshape or dez (designator)
how the fingers are extended
2. Location or tab (tabulation)
where on the body or in space the sign is
3. Movement or sig (signation)
how the hand or hands move – up,
down, circular, etc.
(Baker & Battison, 1980)
-From the study of humans who are
born deaf and learn sign languages
that are used around them that the
ability to hear speech sounds is not
necessary condition for the
acquisition and use of language.

-Certain auditory locations within the
cortex are activated during signing
even though no sound is produce
that supporting the contention that
the brain is neurologically equipped
for language rather than speech.

Writing is a method of representing
language in visual or tactile form.

Writing systems use sets of symbols to
represent the sounds of speech, and may
also have symbols for such things as
punctuation and numerals.
Written and spoken language differ in many ways.
However some forms of writing are closer to
speech than others, and vice versa. Below are
some of the ways in which these two forms of
language differ:
Writing is usually permanent and written texts
cannot usually be changed once they have been
printed/written out.
Speech is usually transient, unless recorded, and
speakers can correct themselves and change
their utterances as they go along.
A written text can communicate across time and
space for as long as the particular language and
writing system is still understood.
Speech is usually used for immediate interactions.
Written language tends to be more complex and
intricate than speech with longer sentences and
many subordinate clauses. The punctuation and
layout of written texts also have no spoken
equivalent. However some forms of written
language, such as instant messages and email,
are closer to spoken language.