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Chapter 4

:
Memory and
knowledge
What is Memory ?
 Consumer Memory – the persistence of
learning over time, via shortage and
retrieval or information , either consciously
or unconsciouly
 Retrieval – The process of remembering or
accessing what was previously stored in
memory
 Sensory memory – Input from the five
senses stored temporarily in memory
 Working memory (WM) – the portion of
the memory where incoming information
is encoded or interpreted in the context
of existing knowledge , and kept
available for more processing
 Long Term Memory (LTM) – the part of
memory where information is permanently
stored for later use.
 Episodic (autobiographical) memory –
knowledge we have about ourselves and
our personal , past experiences.
 Semantic memory – general knowledge
about an entity detached from specific
episode
 Explicit memory – when consumers are
consciously aware that they remember
something
 Implicit memory – Memory without any
conscious attempt at remembering
something.
 Recognition – the process of identifying
whether we have previously encountered
a stimulus when reexposed to it
 Recall – the ability to retrieve information
from memory without being reexposed
 Elaboration – transferring information into
long-term memory by processing it at
deeper levels
 Chunking – consumers will hold
information in short-term memory and
transfer it to a long-term memory by
providing large bits of information that
chunk together for small bits.
 Rehearsal – When motivation is low ,
marketers may use tactics such as jingles ,
sounds and slogans to instigate
rehearsals.
 Recirculation – is an important principle of
marketing because it expalins why
repetition of marketing communications
affect memory , particularly in low-
involvement situations.
KNOWLEDGE
CONTENT,
STRUCTURE AND
FLEXIBILITY
| Report in Consumer Behavior

- reflects the information
we have already
learned and stored in
memory about brands,
companies, stores,
people, how to shop,
etc.



- describes how we
organize knowledge
(both episodic and
semantic) in memory.

KNOWLEDGE CONTENT,
STRUCTURE AND FLEXIBILITY




• Both knowledge content and structure are
flexible.
• KNOWLEDGE
CONTENT
• KNOWLEDGE
STRUCTURE
• Schemas are a form
of semantic
knowledge:
knowledge about
“what” objects and
people are, and what
they mean to a
consumer.


• Scripts are a form of
procedural
knowledge:
knowledge about
“how” to do things
with the objects and
people and are
related to episodic
memory.

KNOWLEDGE CONTENT :
schemas and scripts
KNOWLEDGE CONTENT :
schemas and scripts
SCHEMAS AND ASSOCIATIVE NETWORKS

Schema – is a group of associations or associative
network linked to an object or person (more in general to
a “concept”).

We have Schemas for
- People
- Salespeople
- Places
- Companies
- Ads
- Product Category
- Self-schema



New product
Olay Body
Wash
OLAY
Makes skin
look younger
Is not greasy
(even though it
used to be
called Oil of
Olay)
The Fountain
of Youth
Facial
Moisturizer
Neutrogena
Chanel
Mom uses it
Buy it at the
drugstore
Crest
Figure 1. Marketers Use Ads, Packages, and Product Attributes to Enhance
Consumers’ Knowledge About an Offering
KNOWLEDGE CONTENT :
schemas and scripts
• Spreading of activation – the process by which
retrieving a concept or association spreads to the
retrieval of a related concept or association.
• Priming – the increased sensitivity to certain
concepts and associations due to prior
experience based on implicit memory.
• Associative Network – is a set of concepts
connected by links. When one concept is
activated, others may become activated via the
links.
• Concepts connected by strong links are more
likely to activate each other than are those
connected by weak links.
KNOWLEDGE CONTENT :
schemas and scripts
• Associations in schemas vary in three dimensions that are
crucial to building and maintaining strong brands:
1. Favorability
2. Uniqueness
3. Salience
CREATING BRAND EXTENSIONS

Brand extension – define as using the brand
name or product with a well-developed image
on a product in a different category.


KNOWLEDGE CONTENT :
schemas and scripts
Two General Effects

1. A transfer of associations takes place from the
original brand schema to the new branded
product.
- Consumers tend to like brand extensions more
when the product fits in some way with the parent
brand and when they really like the parent brand.

2. A transfer of meaning from the new branded
product to the original brand schema may take
place.
- Brand extensions may take the brand schema
less coherent and may dilute the brand’s image.
KNOWLEDGE CONTENT :
schemas and scripts
MAINTAINING BRAND IMAGES AND PERSONALITIES
To develop the brand images and personalities, a
company may:
• Offer multiple brand extensions
• Link the product to an appropriate sponsorship; or
• Highlight additional features and benefits

CHANGING BRAND IMAGES AND PERSONALITIES
• If a brand or product image becomes stale, outdated, or
linked to negative associations, marketers need to add new
and positive associations.
KNOWLEDGE CONTENT :
schemas and scripts
PROTECTING BRAND IMAGES AND PERSONALITIES
• Brand images and personalities may be threatened during
crises that involve potential harm. The way that a company
responds to a crisis affects its brand image but consumers’
prior expectations also play a critical role.
• Companies whose customers held a strong, positive image
of the brand prior to the crisis suffered less image damage
than did companies whose customers had lower
expectations.
• Companies with weaker brand images should act
aggressively to support their brand after a crisis.
KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURE:
CATEGORIES
Taxonomic Categories – is a specifically defined
division within an orderly classification of objects
with similar objects in the same category.

BEVARAGES
Tea
Herbal
Celestial
Seasonings
Lipton
Nonherba
l
Coffee
s
Soft
Drinks
Diet
Diet
Coke
Diet
Pepsi
Nondiet
Coke Pepsi
Bottled
Waters
Juices
Figure 2. Taxonomic Category Structure
Serial-Position Effects:
Primary and Recency
=The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first or last
in a sequence.
= the fact that the things we encountered first or last in a sequence are often
those most easily remembered.

Retrieval Errors
Memory is not always accurate or complete and may be subject to
selection, confusion, and distortion.
-memory is selective when you only remember the good things that
happened on your last vacation but not the bad things that happened.
-Memory can be Confused, as when you remember your friend telling you a
great story about a new movie; when it was really your neighbor who told
you. Source of Confusion because you accurately remember the story about
the movie but confuse who the source of the story

-Memory can be Distorted, as when you remember experiences or events
that actually did not happened and the virtual interaction with a product
leads to more false memories because it generates vivid images that
consumers later come to believe were real occurrences.
Enhancing Retrieval
Given the importance of retrieval, marketers need to understand how they can
enhance the likelihood that consumers will remember something about
specific brands.

Enhancing factors mentioned , Retrieval is affected by;
1. The characteristic of the stimulus itself
2. What the stimulus is linked to
3. The way the stimulus is processed
4. The consumers characteristics

Characteristics of the Stimulus

Salience- objects tend to attract attention and induce greater elaboration,
thereby creating stronger memories.
Prototypicality- we are better to recognized and recall prototypical or pioneer
brands because these have been frequently rehearsed and recirculated and
are linked to many other concepts in memory.
Rebundant cues- memory is enchaced when the information items to be learned
seem to go together naturally.
The Medium in which the stimulus is processed- researhers are exploring whether
certain media are more effective than others at enchancing
consumer memory.