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What is

• Psychology is the
scientific study of
mind and behaviour
Psychological Concepts
• Memory and recall
• Learning
• Perception and representation
• Thinking and cognition
• Creativity
• Attitudes and behaviour
• Individual differences and personality
• Intelligences
Schools of Thought…
• Psychodynamics
• Nativism (Rationalist/Biological)
• Behaviourism (S-R)
• Cognitive Psychology
• Humanistic Psychology
• Constructivist theories
• Social Psychology
A Brief History of Psychology
• Sigmund Freud (1865-1939):
‘I set myself the task of
bringing to light what human
beings keep hidden within
them… the task of making
conscious the most hidden
recesses of the mind is one
which is quite possible to
A Brief History of Psychology
• Ivan Pavlov(1849-1936):
Studied the conditioned and
unconditioned responses of
animals to stimuli.
Concluded that learning
occurred as an association
(coupling) of one event with
another. Stimulus-Response.
• Classical Conditioning
A Brief History of Psychology
• B. F. Skinner (1904-1990):
• Behaviourism
• A behaviour followed by a
reinforcing stimulus results
in an increased probability of
that behaviour occurring in
the future.
• Operant Conditioning
• Extinction of behaviour
A Brief History of Psychology
• Edward Tolman (1886-1959):
• Cognitive Shift Theory
• Cognitive Map
• Challenge to Behaviourism
A Brief History of Psychology
• Leon Festinger (1919-1989):
• Cognitive Dissonance
• Describes conflicting
thoughts or beliefs
(cognitions) that occur at the
same time, or when
engaged in behaviours that
conflict with one's beliefs.
A Brief History of Psychology
• Carl Rogers (1902-1987):
• Humanistic approach to
• Unconditional positive
• Student centred learning
(Client centred approach)
A Brief History of Psychology
• Abraham Maslow (1902-
• Hierarchy of Human Needs
• Self Actualisation
• Psychology of Being
• ‘Peak experiences’
A Brief History of Psychology
• Lev Vygostsky (1896-
• Zone of Proximal
Development (ZPD)
• Social learning
• Co-operative learning
A Brief History of Psychology
• Jean Piaget (1896-1980):
• The child as a solo scientist
• Discovery learning
• Assimilation and
• Schema Theory
A Brief History of Psychology
• Jerome Bruner (1915-):
• Scaffolding
• The ‘spiral curriculum’
• ‘Cognition is involved in
everything a human being
might possibly do…’

A Brief History of Psychology
• Howard Gardner(1943-):
• Theory of Multiple
• ‘An important part of that
understanding is knowing
who we are and what we can
do... Ultimately, we must
synthesize our
understandings for