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CITING AND REFERENCING

In-text citation
Also called in-text referencing
TELLS THE READER WHERE YOU HAVE FOUND THE
INFORMATION

GIVES THE READER THE FULL DETAILS OF THE PUBLICATION
THAT THE INFORMATION WAS TAKEN FROM. IT IS LISTED AT
THE END OF THE ARTICLE, TOGETHER WITH THE OTHER
REFERENCES USED.
AUTHOR/S, YEAR, TITLE OF ARTICLE/ CHAPTER/BOOK,
EDIDORS NAMES (if a book/chapter of a book) VOLUME (of
journal), PAGES, PUBLISHER

Reference
Citation purposes (wikepedia):
to uphold intellectual honesty (or avoiding
plagiarism),
to attribute prior or an original work and ideas to
the correct sources,
to allow the reader to determine independently
whether the referenced material supports the
author's argument in the claimed way,
to help the reader gauge the strength and validity
of the material the author has used.
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In-text citation
You must give the authors last name (no
authors initial), the year of publication
(no day and month); in some cases must
include the page number of the source.
Irrespective of the style of referencing if
there are multiple authors you must give
the first author (last name) and the
words et al.: (i.e. and others)
'et al.' abbreviation of `et alii' (masculine
plural) or `et aliae' (feminine plural)...
(web definition)

In-text citation
Should be written not only for quotations, but also for
paraphrases and summaries since you are using the
authors ideas and not your own.
Depending on the style of citation and referencing, the
name or the author and the year, or both usuall,y but
not always, are included in brackets.
E.g. Smith et al. (2012) showed that.
E.g. There is evidence that the sea temperature is rising
every year by 0.005 degrees (Smith et al., 2012).
E.g. Smith and Brown (2013) showed that..
In-text citation
Styles of Reference
The Harvard referencing style: is an example of author-
date referencing. Very common, used across
most subjects.
when you cite you include the author's last name and
the date of publication in brackets after the citation.
The full reference to the work is included in an
alphabetic reference list or bibliography at the end of
your paper.
The style is not linked to Harvard University.
There are variations of the Harvard style.
It is important that you apply the version of the
Harvard style that you choose consistently.
Harvard style Links
Cardiff University's Information Literacy Resource Bank features
a section on citing references. The Harvard referencing materials
include activities, quizzes and a Harvard Referencing Tutorial
(Interactive)
Anglia Ruskin University's Harvard System of Referencing Guide has
many examples of how to reference a wide variety of publication
formats
The University of Sussex has developed a Harvard Style Information
Literacy Tutorial has a quiz to test your knowledge of the Harvard
system
the Coventry University Harvard Reference Style. Has a user-
friendly guide, which also contains a glossary of key terms used in
referencing.
Unic Library resources

Oxford, (Footnote/Bibliography)
Chicago (History, Economics, Social Sci)
Harvard, (Science-parenthetical system)
Vancouver (Humanities-uses end notes; also
medical and Scientific papers)
MLA, (Modern Language Association)-Humanities
American Sociological Association (ASA),
American Psychological Association (APA),
and other citations systems
Styles of Citation and Referencing
Citing References in Text some useful
expressions
Introducing someones ideas:

Bloggs (2002) suggests/argues/states/believes/concludes/proposes that ---
expresses/holds the view that ---
draws attention to ---
describes X as ---
describes how ---
refers to ---
takes the stance that ---
emphasises/stresses the need to/the importance of---
According to Bloggs (2002) ---
As stated/suggested/argued/proposed by Bloggs (2002) ---
There is a view/theory/argument that --- (Bloggs, 2002).
It has been suggested/stated/argued/proposed that --- (Bloggs, 2002)
One view/theory/argument/suggestion/proposal is that --- (Bloggs, 2002)
One view, expressed by Bloggs (2002) is that ---

Citing References in Text

Introducing an idea/theory that agrees with/has built on
another:
This is supported by Smith (2003).
in line with the view/theory/suggestion of Smith (2003).

reflects the view/theory/suggestion of Smith (2003).

Smith (2003) accepts/supports/agrees with/concurs with this
view/suggestion/theory.
A similar view is held by Smith (2003)
stance is taken by
This idea/theory has been extended/developed/taken
further/built upon by Smith (2003).

Introducing an idea/theory that disagrees/contrasts with
another:

This conflicts/contrasts with/is contrary to the view held by
Smith (2003) that ---
This is not accepted by/has been challenged by Smith (2003),
who argues that ---
Smith (2003), on the other hand/however/in contrast,
suggests that ---
An alternative view/suggestion is that --- (Smith, 2003)
The opposite/a conflicting view is expressed by Smith (2003)
Citing References in Text