A presentation on

Brands Presented to
professor Subba Rao

Brand image is the impression left in the mind of the prospect by the brand. Brand Image is how the brand is perceived by the consumer. Brand personality is only a part of brand image. Brand personality is the cause while brand image is the effect. A brand is unlikely to have one brand image, but several, though one or two may predominate. The key in brand image research is to identify or develop the most

subsequent brand communications. The term "brand image" gained popularity as evidence began to grow that the feelings and images associated with a brand were powerful purchase influencers, though brand recognition, recall and brand identity. It is based on the proposition that consumers buy not only a product (commodity), but also the image associations of the product, such as power, wealth, sophistication, and most importantly identification and association with other users of the brand. Good brand images are instantly evoked, are positive, and are almost always unique among competitive brands.

1.Contents of the ad: The quality of contents,i.e.the color combination, music, background words, headline, illustration, etc. can give an intended image to the ad.eg. If wit is used then the ad can get an intelligent image. 2. Personalities used: the personality of the person endorsing the brand must match with the personality of the brandeg.Sachin endorsing Adidas brand.

3.Symbols: The company and the brand logos should be designed for instant recognition of the brand. e.g.,. The MRF-muscled man, the Ceat tyres- born tough Rhino. The coolest onePenguin of Kelvinator. 4.Media used: The quality of media or programs sponsored may affect the brand image. e.g.. Raymond suiting can advertise in Business magazines but not in local magazines. 5. Packaging: The package is the face of the product. Therefore, it must be properly designed in order to give a rich image to the

To the product. The material, color, shape, design. Size, etc. highly influence the brand image. 6.Sponsoring of the Events: The events sponsored by the company can affect the brand image. Therefore, brands having rich image sponsor rich events. E.g.. Tennis tournaments being sponsored by the premium brands. 7. Distribution: The type of distribution undertaken by a company can definitely affect the brand image. E.g.. Tanishq jewelery is available at selected stores in India hence the brand gets an elitist image.

8. After sales-service: Prompt and effective after sales service can help develop a good image to the brand in the market. E.g.. Maruti udyog Ltd., Whirlpool enjoy a good brand image due to is network. 9. Product: The product itself is an important factor in developing the brand image. The product should be able to generate customer satisfaction. 10.Price: The price factor can obviously enhance the brand image. e.g. the premium pricing done by Mercedes has helped it to develop a classy image not only for co. but also the brands.

1. Attributes: When used in a market research context, they are simply properties of a given product, brand, service, advertisement or any object of interest. Much brand and market research is targeted at understanding the most significant and powerful attributes of a product/service/brand or product/service/brand class. A product, service, or brand can have many attributes including cost, value for money, prestige, taste, usability, liking ("affect") and a wide range of image or personality attributes.

2. Consequences: This term, consequences, suggests the effects of the brand image. 3.Brand Personality: Brand personality is the sum total of all the significant tangible and intangible assets that a brand possesses. Based on the premise that brands can have personalities in much the same way as humans, Brand Personality describes brands in terms of human characteristics. Brand personality is seen as a valuable factor in increasing brand engagement and brand attachment, in much the same way as people relate and bind to other people.

Five Dimensions:
1.Sincerity e.g. the Forhans Dr. 2.Excitement e.g. Josh machine-Ford Ikon 3.Competence e.g. Pepsodent 4.Sophistication e.g. Mercedes 5.Ruggedness e.g. Ceat tyres, Live-in -jeans

1.Single Minded: The first and the foremost thing that matters in building brand personality is being single minded in communicating and preserving what might be called as core brand values. e.g. Marlboro cigarettes after having the cowboy as its symbol it never deviated from that image. The Indian brands like Lifebuoy has been consistent with its ‘Tandurusti-ki-raksha, Colgate’s ‘Tandurusti-ki-raksha’ and Bournvita’s ‘Tan-ki-shakti, Man-ki-shakti Bournvita.

2. Cluster of value satisfactions: Brands with a coherent personality deliver a ‘cluster of value satisfactions’. This can be done only when each element of the marketing mix is configured to deliver a brand personality besides a brand. When its personality is managed well, a brand acquires a distinct identity. e.g. Mysore sandal, pears toilet soaps cannot be mistaken for any other soap in packed o unpacked condition. Keo Karpin hair oil pitches on mothers love, and has never changed its dark green bottle. In the same way, its difficult to imagine Lifebuoy ia anything other than a red carbolic cake. Onida carved a niche for itself with its unique negative emotional advertising and a premium product.

3.Powerful Logos: The logo used must be such that the customer should be able to associate the brand with the product. Hence, its very vital to design a powerful logo that leaves an impact in the minds of the consumer. e.g. MRF has consistently built its image through the logo of ‘muscleman’. It backed this up with aggressive advertising and reliable service. The net result is that MRF stands out as a brand in a category with tremendous clutter. Asian paints lovable mascot ‘Gattu’, its imaginative products like ‘Utsav’ and ‘Apcolite’ have given it near invincibility in the decorative paints market. Some other powerful great logos include, LIC, JW Mariott.

4. Able to Deliver something Unique: There is tremendous competition in the market. Hence the confused customer mostly prefers to buy a product which has its own USP. In other words, the brand should be so built that its differentiating factor induces the customer to buy the product. e.g. Nyle herbal shampoo, (though in some trouble now), has a strong personality. It stands on the green platform and hence it looks green in a transparent bottle. The communivation also underlines the health and freshness of green symbolised through a lady wearing a similar looking green. Amongst shampoos, it has almost cornered the word green for itself. In a similar manner the bike Hero Honda

and Yamaha stand for fuel efficiency and power respectively. 5. Quality and Reliability: Last but not the least, the two important features quality and reliability help in building a very strong brand personality.
e.g. The brand names Tata and Godrej appear on so many product categories and are yet successful because they are synonymous with quality and reliability.

Brand Positioning
 Positioning

is the act of designing the company's offering and image to occupy a distinct place in the target markets mind

A Brand position is the part of Brand Identity and value proposition that is to be actively communicated to the target audience and that demonstrates an advantage over the competing brands.

Positioning is a concept commonly seen in Marketting. Postioning is the act of designing company's offerings and image to occupy a distinctive place in the target audiences mind. The essence of Brand Positioning is achievement of valued distinctions differentiation in the consumers mind.

A Few Examples
Name Personality Lifebuoy Soap Price Carbolic Philips 2 - in 1 Quality Leading electronics mfg Boost Advertising Promotion Image Value for money Hard working Reliable Technologicall y superior Energy energy

Kinetic Honda Gearless Ignition start

Comfort comfort

Raaga Herbal Communicatio Tradional Powder n Shikakai Hygenic Brand Name Classic milds (“MILD”) Advertising (gracious people) Sophistication Sophistication


Light vehicle Advertising

Modern Rebel adolescent

Little hearts

Puffed biscuits Novelty Distinct packing Attractive

Heart shaped romantic biscuits

Some well positioned Brands

Raymonds : The Complete Man Fair and lovely : Fairness Woodland : Tough shoes Dettol : Antiseptic

Brand Positioning Strategy
 The

prime prospect  The competitor frame  Leverageable difference  The end difference

Benefits Of BPS
 Strengthen

the current position  Grab an unoccupied position  Reposition, if necessary  Exclusive club stratergy

How to determine positioning strategy?
Identify the competitors  Determine how the competitors are perceived and evaluated  Determine the competitors position  Analyze the customer  Select the position  Monitor the position

7 positioning strategies
      

Positioning by attribute Positioning by price-quality Positioning by use or application Positioning by product user Positioning by product class Positioning by cultural symbols Positioning by competitors

Positioning By Product Attributes

Associating a product with an attribute, a product feature or a consumer feature. Sometimes a product can be positioned in terms of two or more attributes simultaneously. A common approach is setting the brand apart from competitors on the basis of the specific characteristics or benefits offered. Sometimes a product may be positioned on more than one product benefit.

Consider the example of Ariel that offers a specific benefit of cleaning even the dirtiest of clothes because of the micro cleaning system in the product. Colgate offers benefits of the preventing cavity and fresh breath.

Positioning by Price/Quality

Marketers often use price/quality characteristics to position their brands. One way they do it is with ads that reflect the image of a high – quality brand where cost, while not irrelevant, is considered secondary to the high benefits derived from using the brand. Premium brands positioned at the high end of the market use this approach of positioning.

Another way to use price/quality for positioning is to focus on one quality or value offered by the brand at a very competitive price. Although price is important consideration, the product quality must be comparable to, or even better than, competing brands for the positioning strategy to be effective.] Eg – Parle Bisleri : Bada Bisleri, same price.

Position by use or application

Another way is to communicate a specific image or position for a brand is to associate it with a specific use or application. Surf Excel is positioned as stain remover : “surf excel hai na” Clinic All Clear “dare to wear black”

Position by product class

Often the competitor for a particular product comes from the outside the product class. For example airlines know that while they compete with other airlines, trains and buses are also available as alternatives. Manufacturers of music CDs must compete with the cassettes industry. The product is positioned against others that, while not exactly the same but provide the class benefits.

Positioning by product user
 

Positioning a product by associating it with a particular user or a group of users is yet another approach. For this approach to work, the marketer has to first identify the target audience and has to make ads that are aimed to reach the specific audience. Certain niche product only have the high end users thus the ads that are made, are made in a way that they appeal more to the high end Audience. The ads of Chevrolet Optra are a good example in point.

Positioning by competitors

Competitors may be as important to the positioning strategy as a firms own product or services. In today's market, an effective positioning strategy for a product or brand may focus on specific competitors. This approach is similar to positioning by product class, although in this case the competition in within the same product category.

Onida was postioned against the giants in the television industry through this startegy. Onida colour t.v was launched with the message that all others were clones and only Onida was the leader.

Positioning by cultural cymbols

   

An additional positioning strategy where in the cultural symbols are used to differentiate the brands. Examples are Humara Bajaj. Tata Tea. Ronald McDonald Each of these symbols has successfully differentiated the product it represents from the competitors.

BRAND EQUITY – is the intangible asset of added value or goodwill that results from the favorable image,impressions of differentiation and strength of consumer attachment of a company name,brand name or trademark.etc is known as BRAND EQUITY . .



“Brand equity is a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand,its name and symbol that add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service to a firm and or that firms customers ” – David Aaker. e.g. coco – cola has the highest brand equity of 70 million dollars because of excellent distribution network.

Two forms of brand knowledge
BRAND AWARENESS – An issue of whether a brand name comes to mind when consumers think about a particular category and the ease with which the name is evoked. BRAND IMAGE – it refers to the type of associations that come to the consumer’s mind when contemplating a particular brand.

Brand equity enhancement
1. 2. 3. 4.

Name awareness Positive associations Perceived quality Strong brand loyalty

• Brand essence is a promise expressed in the simplest, most single – minded terms. • E.g. Volvo is for safety, AA for fourth emergency , Harley Davidson for passion. • The most powerful brand essences are rooted in a fundamental customer need.

•Brand essence is an essence: A Phrase , A Word… •It can have an extreme influence on the consumers. •It can change a negative thought to a positive one like done by effective advertising..

P & G , HLL , FERRARI , GE , GM , INFOSYS , MARLBORO etc are examples of some successful brand equity holders in the world

The Brand Platform consists of the following elements. 1. Brand Vision 2. Brand Mission 3. Brand Values 4. Brand Personality 5. Brand Tone of Voice

Brand Identity
Picture of Sender Physique Externalization Relationship Personality Culture Internalization


Self-Image Picture of Recipient

Physique-: Brand’s backbone +Tangible added value. If brand is a flower, physique is a stem. E.g..- Coca-Cola bottle picture on all coke cans. Personality-: Give a spokesperson/figure head symbol. E.g..- Pepsi cola. By communicating, it gradually builds up character, unique selling personality (Ted bates). Culture:See if values feeding the brands inspiration. E.g..- Apple- California (symbolizes in new frontier),

Relationship-: Nike-Greek name relates to specific culture, Olympic games, glorify human body. Suggests- encourages “Just do it” IBM-Orderliness, Apple- Friendliness. Reflection-: Client type young people, fathers (Porsche) showoffs, old folks. Cola- wider clientele. Coke-Cola- Independent life full of fun. Self-Image-: Targets own internal mirror. Buyers want to prove to themselves. Lacoste client pictures as members of sports club.

Definition Decline in brand equity/face in market share is known as brand fatigue. After a period of steady growth Brand sales hit a plateau, next sales start dipping. Causes Overtaken by younger competitors. Value gets outdated & occasionally brand simply fails to meet consumer

Brand Fatigue

1. 2.

How to overcome fatigue

3. 4. 5. 6.

Offer more benefits Identify strengths & weakness Repositioning hygiene Sales promotion Market expansion Proper advertising

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