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The design proposal is based on

the concept of the museum as an
ever-changing event space.
To emphasize the aspect of
transformability of the space the
designers would like to explore the
possibility to equip the new
museum with something like a
"stage-machinery". They devised a
series of large-scale kinetic
elements that offer the option to
radically transform the
arrangement of the gallery spaces.
They would also like to make this
dramatic transformation of the
space itself a spectacle, visible
even on the outside appearance of
the building. Thus the internal
reconfiguration of the exhibition
spaces creates a public sensation
within the urban scenery.

Urban Setting

The generous site on Taichungkang Road is tied into a master plan of
two crossing axes that give an organizing structure to the ensemble of
four new landmark buildings that shall comprise the Guggenheim
Museum, the new town hall, the city assembly and the national opera.
This arrangement implies that the museum will be approached from
two main sides: From Taichung Harbour Road on the one side and
from the crossing point of the two axes on the other side. This double
orientation leads to the idea of a large lobby space that can be
approached from two opposing ends and thus cuts a public path
through the museum. Much of the internal organization of the museum
follows from this initial move, motivated by the urban configuration.
Designers decided to bend the axis of the project so that the building
thrusts diagonally through the site towards the corner of Taichung
Harbour Road and Hui Chung Road. Thus they pull away from the
neighboring buildings east of the site. Here they propose to cut a new
road in order to clearly separate and define the site.

Architectural Form

The building gradually emerges from a soft landscape
formation. The formal language and architectural articulation
is premised on the idea that the building bleeds into the
open public space of the urban axis. The overall dynamism
and fluidity of the elongated form suggests an emphasis of
movement through and around the building. Both the public
flow through the building as well as the internal circulation
through the exhibition spaces is expressed by means of
swooping ramps. Although the building can be approached
from both ends, these two ends are articulated rather
differently. On Taichung Harbour Road the building offers its
urban edge with a severe cantilevering volume which
projects towards the Taichung Harbour Road like a huge

The 50 meter
projects close
Harbour Road
and will provide
experience for
visitors entering
the site from
here. The
opposing end
facing the future
park-scape of
the new urban
ensemble is
characterized by
curved ramps
merging into the
Internal Organization
The central lobby that connects the two opposing
entrances divides the museum into two gallery
wing, an East Wing and West Wing. Between
these two wings will be the public lobby area
created by a roof, which spans between the two
Each of these two wings operates on two
principle levels.
The urban entrance on the north and the park
entrance on the south of this area provide the
main access into the museum.
Internal Organization
In addition to the East Wing Galleries is a large
moving platform mediates between the two man
gallery floors of the East Wing.
The platform, stationary while being used for
exhibitions, can be accessed either straight on
from the two gallery levels, from the East Wing
ramp, or from the elevator and stairs provided
within the service zone next to the main gallery
space .
Internal Organization
The West Wing also consists of two principal
gallery levels and some support and ancillary
An entire piece of West Wing galleries will be
mobile. Utilizing railtracks, this Mobile Gallery can
either dock against the other gallery spaces,
against the part of the West Wing housing the
ancillary functions (retail, restaurant, caf and
education center) or to position further out in the
landscape. As well as this lateral movement, the
Mobile Gallery has a telescopic roof that allows it
to extend its overall volume.
Internal Organization
The facades are also given kinetic properties at
certain places. On the roof of the cantilever
gallery is a proposed mobile louver- system. Its
function is to allow for control of day lighting.
However, it also provides a point of visual interest
both from within as well from without. When it
opens, it creates a dramatic tent- shaped profile
over the ski- line of the building.
These are computer controlled to provide any
number of ripple effects on the skin, much like the
skirts of a stingray.
Beijing National Stadium, China
The 300m Beijing National Stadium, located at the south of the centerpiece
Olympic Green, is a stunning landmark building, which staged the 2008 Olympic
Games from 8 August to 24 August 2008. The opening and closing ceremonies
and athletic track and field events of the 29th Olympiad took place at the stadium.
It also hosted the Summer Paralympics from 6 September to 17 September 2008
and Race of Champions 2009.
The stadium has a gross volume of three million cubic meters and is considered
to be the world's largest enclosed space. It is also the world's largest steel
structure with 26km of unwrapped steel used. The innovative structure was
designed by Herzog & De Meuron Architekten, Arup Sport and the China
Architecture Design and Research Group, and has been nicknamed the "bird's
nest" due to the web of twisting steel sections that form the roof.
As well as designing a modern stadium, the team was challenged with creating a
venue that was part of the culture of China and would put Beijing on the map.
The 91,000-seat stadium was designed to incorporate elements of Chinese art
and culture. The National Stadium's main structure is an enormous saddle-
shaped elliptic steel structure weighing 42,000t. The stadium extends 333m from
north to south and 294m from east to west, with a height of 69.2m. The stadium
design included demountable seats of 11,000.

The 100,000-seat National Stadium in Beijing is a multi-use
sports venue and will be ready for the 2008 Olympic Games.
Beijing National Stadium structure and design

The stadium has two independent structures, a red concrete
seating bowl and the outer steel frame around it at a 50ft distance.
As this was an Olympic venue, there were many standards that the
design consortium had to conform to. Everything from the width of
the track to the size and location of the long and high jump pits
needed to satisfy the requirements set out by the International
Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Amateur Athletics
Federation (IAAF).
The architects and engineers also had to satisfy the requirements
laid down by the National Stadium Company in order to create a
bold, stand-out, world-class stadium and to design it with as much
flexibility as possible for future use.
To earthquake proof the stadium, the bowl and roof were split
into two separate elements and the bowl split into eight zones,
each with its own stability system and effectively its own
The circular shape of the stadium represents heaven,
but has been described as a bird's nest, with its pattern
inspired by Chinese-style crazed pottery. A series of
cantilevered trusses has been designed to support the
roof, shading the seats. While designing the stadium,
architects and engineers also ensured comfortable
seats and optimum view for all spectators.
Focus was also given to designing the stadium in such a
way that it should be able to withstand earthquakes
without much damage as the stadium is located in one
of the world's most seismic zones.

Beijing National Stadium structure and design

The concourses are wide and spacious for making the
refreshment and merchandising stalls easily accessible. There
is also a large mixed-use retail development beneath the
stadium featuring shops, restaurants, cinemas, a health club
and parking.
National Stadium Architecture

To achieve the optimum design, the team relied heavily
on parametric design software. This helped to work out
the sightlines, the bowl geometry, airflow to keep the
grass in good condition, seismic studies and the design
of the external envelope.
While the surface of the structure is simple, the
geometry is complex the calculations were so
numerous and complicated that they could not be
solved manually. Software was needed to make sure
that the web of twisting steel sections fitted together, as
they have to twist and bend to follow the surface

The main elements support each other and converge
into a grid formation. The stand of the stadium is a
seven-storey shear wall system with a concrete
framework. The upper part of the stand and the stadium
steel structure are actually separated from one another,
but both of these are based on a joint foundation.
The "nest" structure, however random it might look,
follows the rules of geometry and contains 36km of
unwrapped steel. The shape of the roof was inspired by
yin yang, the Chinese philosophy of balance and

National Stadium Architecture

The steel structure of the
stadium appears random but
every element is carefully
The roof is covered with a double-layer membrane structure, with a
transparent ETFE (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene) membrane fixed on
the upper part of the roofing structure and a translucent PTFE
(polytetrafluoroethylene) membrane fixed on its lower part. A PTFE
acoustic ceiling is also attached to the side walls of the inner ring.
The spaces in the structure of the stadium are filled with inflated
ETFE cushions. On the faade, the inflated cushions are mounted on
the inside of the structure where necessary, to provide wind
Since all of the facilities restaurants, suites, shops and restrooms
are all self-contained units, it is possible to do largely without a solid,
enclosed faade. This allows natural ventilation of the stadium, which
is the most important aspect of the stadium's sustainable design.

National Stadium Architecture

To keep costs down, all the structural elements of the
stadium are contained within it, so there are no towers
or cable nets. The bowl of the structure is split into
eight zones, each with its own stability system, making
each zone effectively as its own building.
Entrance to the stadium is controlled by tripod barriers
supplied and fabricated by Kaba Gallenschtz of
Germany. The project involved the installation of 138 of
these units at the 12 entrances to the stadium.

National Stadium Architecture

Jurgen Mayer H. Architects:
Level Green Exhibition
Personal responsibility in the sustainable use of global
resources continues to play
an increasingly important role in the life of the average
consumer. in this context German
firm j. mayer h. architects together with art + com were
commissioned to develop
a permanent exhibition on the topic sustainability for
the Volkswagen autostadt (car city)
in Wolfsburg, Germany. the exhibition level green was
opened on the 4th of June 2009
and encompasses approximately 1000 sq.m., rendering
the highly complex topic providing
for an aesthetic access to information.
As one of the first prominent signs of the growing
consciousness for environmentally friendly
consumption, the well known PET sign was taken
as a starting point from which the metaphor of the
extensively branched web was developed. the
original 2-dimensional sign was extended into a
third dimension and through a series of step by step
manipulations a complex structure was created,
which allows for an abstract property of the topic to
be experienced on a spatial level.
After a phase of extensive material research, the design was executed by
the use of easily processed wood composite sheets with varying
thickness according to the structural and geometrical demands. In order
to guarantee the structural performance of the construction,
all vertical elements were reinforced with a steel structure and bolted to
the concrete floor. After various testing, the color coating was executed
with acrylic-based car paint, developed to guarantee high usability while
meeting strict environmental regulations.
The concept for the display is divided into areas of object like data and
statistics and a touch sensitive surface for in depth explanations on
different aspects of the topic. Designed to evoke the visitors initial
interest, the first are placed within the exhibition space in the form of
data sculptures or sample objects. The latter take on the form of black
surfaces for interaction or information carrier and are seamlessly
integrated into the vertical elements which define
different areas within the space.

Building Automation
Describes the functionality provided by the control
system of a building. A building automation system (BAS)
is an example of a distributed control system. The control
system is a computerized, intelligent network of
electronic devices designed to monitor and control the
mechanical and lighting systems in a building.
BAS core functionality keeps the building climate within a
specified range, provides lighting based on an occupancy
schedule, and monitors system performance and device
failures and provides email and/or text notifications to
building engineering staff. The BAS functionality reduces
building energy and maintenance costs when compared
to a non-controlled building. A building controlled by a
BAS is often referred to as an intelligent building system.


Occupancy is one of 2 or more operating modes for a
building automation system. Unoccupied, Morning
Warmup, and Night-time Setback are other common
Occupancy is usually based on time of day schedules.
In Occupancy mode, the BAS aims to provides a
comfortable climate and adequate lighting, often with
zone-based control so that users on one side of a
building have a different thermostat (or a different
system, or sub system) than users on the opposite side.
A temperature sensor in the zone provides feedback to
the controller, so it can deliver heating or cooling as

Building Automation:

Morning Warmup
If enabled, Morning Warmup (MWU) mode occurs prior to
Occupancy. During Morning Warmup the BAS tries to bring the
building to setpoint just in time for Occupancy. The BAS often
factors in outdoor conditions and historical experience to
optimize MWU. This is also referred to as Optimised Start.
An override is a manually-initiated command to the BAS. For
example, many wall-mounted temperature sensors will have a
push-button that forces the system into Occupancy mode for a
set number of minutes. Where present, web interfaces allow
users to remotely initiate an override on the BAS.
Some buildings rely on occupancy sensors to activate lighting
and/or climate conditioning. Given the potential for long lead
times before a space becomes sufficiently cool or warm, climate
conditioning is not often initiated directly by an occupancy


Lighting can be turned on, off, or dimmed with a building
automation or lighting control system based on time of
day, or on occupancy sensor, photosensors and
One typical example is to turn the lights in a
space on for a half hour since the last motion was
sensed. A photocell placed outside a building can sense
darkness, and the time of day, and modulate lights in
outer offices and the parking lot.
Lighting is also a good candidate for Demand response,
with many control systems providing the ability to dim (or
turn off) lights to take advantage of DR incentives and

Building Automation:

Air handlers

Most air handlers mix return and outside air so less
temperature change is needed. This can save money by
using less chilled or heated water (not all AHUs use
chilled/hot water circuits). Some external air is needed to
keep the building's air healthy.
Analog or digital temperature sensors may be placed in
the space or room, the return and supply air ducts, and
sometimes the external air. Actuators are placed on the
hot and chilled water valves, the outside air and return air
dampers. The supply fan (and return if applicable) is
started and stopped based on either time of day,
temperatures, building pressures or a combination.

Building Automation:

Variable volume air-handling units

A more efficient unit is a "variable air volume (VAV) air-
handling unit," or VAV. VAVs supply pressurized air to
VAV boxes, usually one box per room or area. A VAV
air handler can change the pressure to the VAV boxes
by changing the speed of a fan or blower with a variable
frequency drive or (less efficiently) by moving inlet guide
vanes to a fixed-speed fan. The amount of air is
determined by the needs of the spaces served by the
VAV boxes.

Building Automation:

WPIR Passive Infrared Ceiling Sensor

WattStoppers WPIR Sensor
is a versatile ceiling mount
sensor that utilizes the latest
passive infrared (PIR)
technology to turn lights on
and off based on occupancy.
The WPIR controls lighting in
a wide variety of applications,
but is especially adept at
controlling small spaces with
well-defined coverage.