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• Empowerment of women means development of women • The Constitution of India also specify regarding rights & privileges of women under , the head – “Fundamental Rights”
• Article 14, 15,15(3), 16, 39,42,51 (A) contains
various provisions for equal rights & opportunities for women.
• Amendments – 73 & 74 provides 1/3rd of total no. of seats reserved for women in
– Panchayat (50% from 27-08-2009) – Municipality and local bodies and Local self
Government (incorporated under State Act.)
• Several bills & laws have been passed under different Acts to protect the human rights for women.
• Female population of India is 48% (2001 census) • 73 rd & 74 th amendments 1993 to the Constitution of India provides 33.3% reservation for women in all local Govt. bodies.(Now revised to 50%)
Pillars of Empowerment
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Literacy ( very low in rural areas) Education is necessary to impart to women Better health facilities ( for mother & child) Nutrition Political representation ( Gram Panchayat to Lok Sabha) 6. Financial security
a. Equal opportunity for self employment b. Self- relience
This all depends on: a. Making Women aware about their rights b. Creating a conducive atmosphere c. Giving due opportunity to live (Equal opportunities are not given hence not getting equal wages)
• 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Indian women are now working in every field: Engineering Medical Management Administrative Services Industries Police & Armed forces Politics Education & Judiciary Public & Private sector Business entrepreneur and Corporate Houses.
• Great potential exist in Women. Men & Women are two wheels of our country . Both the wheels should move together for smooth movement. • Discrimination exist in society. This discrimination (difference) is required to be removed.
• Equal opportunity & powers to women will Empower a women.
• Microfinance has Empowered women. • The society has to change attitude towards girl-child & women. • There is need to create awareness in the society to fight against discrimination & violence against women (i.e. Torturing, depriving, exploitation , humiliating etc.)
• “The Father of Nation”-Mahatma Gandhi desired that:Women should enjoy the same rights as men in every walk of life, i.e.
• • • • Cultural – Social Political – Economic Developmental process Decision making etc.
• The Hon’ble President of India (Smt. Pratibha Devi Singh Patil) have recently said that—
– Half of population is women’s population, – i.e. Half the Talent, – Half the progress, – Half the Development.
• Thus, 50% is contributed by Women, so it must be realised and use of Talent (available) should be there. • Thus, Opportunity needs to be given to women for development.
GENDER BASED DISCRIMINATION:
• Gender based discrimination exists in our society which is enforced by Religious, Social and Cultural norms. • It is a Violation of the very Right to Life of Women and deprive them of the civil, political and Economic liberty both within the Society and Family.
• Gender justice is possible only through Women’s Empowerment which involves Economic and Political opportunities, Social Equality and Personal Rights.
HOW TO REMOVE DISCRIMINATION:
• To remove discrimination and improve the Status of women, following are the avenues : • 1. By promotion of EDUCATION and awareness among Men and Women. • 2. By Capacity Development in Women:
– (a) SKILL DEVELOPMENT (by Training) – (b) ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT (Trg.)
• 3. By Transfer of Technology to Women both in Farm and Non-Farm activities. • 4. By giving LEGAL RIGHTS in parental properties. • 5. By providing credit facilities to women by Banks for business or income -generating activities.
• 6. By giving opportunities to Enterprising Women (proper guidance for business to be given, if required). • 7. Promotion of SHGs and Area Programmes for Women. • 8. By showing Successful Model on Women Development – in various fields:SEWA Bank is one of the Model.
– Lady Political Leaders :
• • • • •
PRIME MINISTER (Smt. Indira Gandhi) PRESIDENT (Smt.Pratibha D. Patil) GOVERNOR OF STATES/UT CHIEF MINISTER (Smt. Sheela Dixit) OTHER AREAS:
– Economist, Scientists, Administrators, – IPS and IAS Officers, Army Officers, Pilots.
• High Court Judges. • Vice-Chancellors. • Chief Executive Officers in Corporate Houses like ICICI BANK, SEWA BANK,ENTERPRENUERS, CEO of COCACOLA COMPANY, Chairperson of NGOs and so many other portfolios. • Rly.Engine/Bus Driver/Conductors
GENDER BUDGTING: Allocation of Budget for Women
• (a) Allocation of number of Seats in Ministry– in Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assembly ( MP and MLA) for Women. • (b) Poverty Eradication Programmes, for Women. • (c) Special attention to productive Rights of Women for Quality Health & Care.
• -Reducing Malnutrition, • -Reduction of Maternal Mortality (Girl child) • - Infant Mortality • -Death Rate • -Women’s Health care with child.
• (d) Private Sector Employment (in organised and unorganised sector) • (e) Safe and clean drinking water. • (f) Shelter and Housing facilities. • (g) Sanitation and Toilet facilities for women. • (h) Human values (equal for men and women)
• (i) Training in Gender sensitization in all areas. • OTHER PROGRAMMES WHICH ARE PROGRAMMES OF GOVERNMENT FOR EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN: • (1) RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMES: • DWCRA JGSY SGSY NREGS • IRDP SHG NSAP JRY
41 - WOMEN RELATED LEGISLAATIONS PASSED :
• Women Specific Legislations: • - The immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956. -The Dowry Prohibtion Act, 1961. -The Indecent Reprersentation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986. -The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987.
Women Related other important Legislations are as under :
• • • • • 1. The Guardians and Wards Act,1860. 2. Indian Penal Code, 1860. 3. Christian Marriage Act,1860. 4. The Indian Evidence Act, 1872. 5. The Married Women’s Property Act,1874 • 6. The Legal Practitioners (Women) Act, 1923. – The Workmen Compen.Act,1923.
• • • •
7. The Indian Succession Act, 1925. 8. The Child Marriage Restraint Act,1998. 9. The Payments of Wages Act, 1936. 10 The Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937. • 11.The Factories Act, 1948. • 12.The Minimum Wages Act, 1948.
• • • • • •
13.The Employees’ State Ins. Act, 1948. 14.The Plantation Labour Act, 1951. 15.The Cinematograph Act, 1952. 16.The Special Marriage Act, 1954. 17. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. 18. The Hindu Adoptions & Maintenance Act,1856
• 19.The Hindu Minority & Guardianship Act, 1956. • 20.The Hindu Succession Act, 1956. • 21.The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961. • 22.The Beedi & Cigar Workers (Condition of Employment ) Act, 1966. • 23.The Foreign Marriage Act, 1969. • 24.The Indian Divorce Act, 1969.
• 25.The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. • 26.Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. • 27.The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976. • 28.The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976. • 29.The Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1976.
• 30.The Inter-State Migrant Worker (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service ) Act, 1979. • 31.The Family Courts Act, 1984. • 32.Juvenile Justice Act, 1986. • 33.The Child Labour (Prohibition & and Regulation) Act, 1986.
• 34.National Commission for Women Act, 1990. • 35. The Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution Act,1992. • 36. The Pre-Natal Diagnostic Technique (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994.
LEADING BUSINESSWOMEN IN INDIA
• 1. Akhila Srinivasan, MD, Shriram Investments Ltd. • 2. Chanda Kocchar, ED, ICICI Bank. • 3. Ekta Kapoor, Creative Dirretor, Balaji Telefilms. • 4. Jyoti Naik, President, Lijjat Papad. • 5. Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw, CMD,Bicon. • 6. Lalita D. Gupta, Jt.MD, ICICI Bank.
• 7. Naina Lal Kidwai,Dy.CEO, SHBC. • 8. Preetha Reddy, MD, Apollo Hospitals • 9. Priya Paul, Chairman, Apeejay Park
10.Rajshree Pathy, Chairman, Rajshree Sugars and Chemicals Ltd. 11.Ranjana Kumar, Chairman, NABARD. 12.Ritu Kumar, Fashion Designer.
• 13.Ravina Raj Kohli, Media Personality and Ex-President , Star News. • 14. Renuka Ramnath, CEO,ICICI ventures • 15.Ritu Nanda, CEO, Escolife. • 16.Shahnaz Hussain, CEO Shahnaz Herbals. • 17. Sharan Apparao, Proprietor, Apparao
• 18.Simone Tata, Chairman, Trent Ltd. • 19. Sulajja Firodia Motwani, Jt.MD, Kinetic Engineering. • 20. Tarjani Vakil,Ex.CMD, EXIM Bank.
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