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Anatomy Review

Cat Muscles

Written by Eduardo Alvarez &
Roberto Martinez
Students of Professor Gonsalves
LACC Anatomy 1 Class

MUSCLES OF MASTICATION
Masseter
Origin:
Maxilla and Zygomatic Arch
Insertion:
Mandible
Action:
Elevates Mandible (closing mouth), Protracts Mandible


Temporalis
Origin:
Temporal Bone
Insertion:
Mandible
Action:
Elevates and Retracts Mandible


Digastric
Origin:
Occipital Bone and Mastoid Process
Insertion:
Mandible
Action:
Depresses Lower Jaw


Mylohyoid
Origin:
Layrnx
Insertion:
Hyoid Bone
Action:
Raises Floor of Mouth and Pulls Hyoid Forward


NECK MUSCLES THAT
MOVE THE HEAD
Sternomastoid
(only in cats)
Origin:
Manubrium
Insertion:
Mastoid Process
Action:
Turns and Depresses Head


Cleido-
mastoid
Origin:
Clavicle
Insertion:
Mastoid Process
Action:
Pulls Head Laterally and Pulls Clavicle Cranial


MUSCLES OF HYOID,
LAYRNX, & TONGUE
Sternohyoid
Origin:
First Rib (Intercostal)
Insertion:
Hyoid Bone
Action:
Pulls Hyoid Caudally, Raises Ribs and Sternum


Sternothyroid
Origin:
First Rib (Intercostal)
Insertion:
Larynx
Action:
Pulls Larynx Caudal (down)


Thyrohyoid
Origin:
Larynx
Insertion:
Hyoid Bone
Action:
Raises Larynx
Geniohyoid
(deep to
Mylohyoid)
Origin:
Mandible
Insertion:
Hyoid Bone
Action:
Pulls Hyoid Cranial (up)
MUSCLES THAT ATTACH
PECTORAL APPENDAGES TO
THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
Trapezius
Origin:
Occipital Bone and Cervical and Thoracic Vertebrae
Insertion:
Scapula
Action:
Raises Clavicle, Adducts, Elevates and Depresses Scapula
Latissimus
Dorsi
Origin:
Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae
Insertion:
Humerus
Action:
Pulls Arm Dorsal (back) and Caudal (down)
Rhomboideus
Capitis
Origin:
Lamboidal Ridge
Insertion:
Scapula
Action:
Pulls Scapula Cranial (up)
Rhomboideus
Minor
Origin:
Maxilla and Zygomatic Arch
Insertion:
Mandible
Action:
Elevates Mandible (closing mouth), Protracts Mandible


capitis
Rhomboideus
Major
Origin:
Thoracic Vertebrae
Insertion:
Scapula
Action:
Pulls Scapula Dorsally (toward back) and Medially (towards midline)
capitis
Levator
Scapulae
Ventralis
Origin:
Occipital Bone and Atlas (C
1
)
Insertion:
Scapula
Action:
Pulls Scapula Cranial (toward head)
MUSCLES THAT ATTACH
PECTORAL APPENDAGES TO
VENTRAL AND BODY WALL
Pectoante-
brachialis
(cat only)
Origin:
Manubrium
Insertion:
Forearm (proximal end)
Action:
Adducts Arm
Pectoralis
Major
Origin:
Sternum
Insertion:
Humerus
Action:
Adducts Arm
Pectoralis
Minor
Origin:
Sternum
Insertion:
Humerus
Action:
Adducts Arm
Xiphi-
humeralis
(cat only)
Origin:
Xiphoid Process
Insertion:
Humerus
Action:
Adducts Arm
Serratus
Anterior
Origin:
First 10 Ribs
Insertion:
Scapula
Action:
Pulls Scapula Forward, Depresses Scapula
MUSCLES OF THE
SHOULDER
(Deltoid)
Clavodeltoid
Origin:
Clavicle
Insertion:
Humerus
Action:
Flexes Forearm
(Deltoid)
Acromio-
deltoid
Origin:
Scapula
Insertion:
Humerus
Action:
Flexes Humerus and Rotates it Outward
(Deltoid)
Spinodeltoid
Origin:
Clavicle
Insertion:
Humerus
Action:
Flexes Humerus and Rotates it Outward
Supraspinatus
Origin:
Scapula
Insertion:
Humerus
Action:
Extends Humerus
Infra-
spinatus
Origin:
Scapula
Insertion:
Humerus
Action:
Rotates Humerus Outward
Teres major
Rhomboideus major
Teres
Major
Origin:
Scapula
Insertion:
Humerus
Action:
Flexes Humerus and Rotates Humerus Inward
Rhomboideus
major
Sub-
Scapularis
Origin:
Subscapular Fossa
Insertion:
Humerus
Action:
Pulls Humerus Medially
MUSCLES OF UPPER ARM
Triceps
Brachii
Origin:
Long Head: Scapula Lateral Head and Medial Head: Humerus
Insertion:
Ulna
Action:
Extends Forearm
Lateral head
Medial head
Long head
Biceps
Brachii
Origin:
Scapula
Insertion:
Radial Tuberosity (Radius)
Action:
Flexes (lowers) and Supinates (raises) Forearm
Brachialis
Origin:
Humerus
Insertion:
Ulna
Action:
Flexes (lowers) Forearm
MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK
Thoracic Region
External
Intercostals
Origin:
Caudal border of rib
above
Insertion:
Crainal border of rib
below
Action:
Raises Rib (Inhalation)
Origin:
Cranial border of rib
below
Insertion:
Caudal border of rib
above
Action:
Draw Adjacent Ribs
Together and Lower
Rib
Internal
Intercostals
Rectus
Abdominous
Origin:
Pubic Bone
Insertion:
Costal Cartilage of 1
st
through 4
th
Ribs
Action:
Compresses Abdomen
Extenal
Abdominal
Oblique
Origin:
Last nine Ribs
Insertion:
Sternum to Pubis
Action:
Compresses Abdomen
Transversus
Abdominis
Origin:
False Ribs, Lumbar Vertabrae, Ilium
Insertion:
Linea Alba
Action:
Compresses the Abdomen
Extensor dorsi communis ?
Origin:
Humerus
Insertion:
Tendons on 4 digits
Action:
Extends digits
MUSCLES OF THE
HIP REGION
Tensor
fascia
latae
Origin:
Ilium
Insertion:
Patella and Tibia
Action:
Extends Thigh, Aids in Abduction and Rotation
Caudo-
femoralis
Origin:
Caudal (Coccyx) Vertebrae
Insertion:
Patella
Action:
Abducts Thigh and Extends Shank
Gluteus
Maximums
Origin:
Sacral and Caudal Vertebrae
Insertion:
Femur
Action:
Abducts Thigh
Gluteus
Medius
Origin:
Sacral and Caudal Vertebrae, & Iliac
Insertion:
Femur
Action:
Abducts Thigh
MUSCLES OF THE THIGH
Dorsal Femoral Group
(Flexors)
Biceps
Femoris
Origin:
Ischial Tuberosity
Insertion:
Patella & Tibia
Action:
Adducts Thigh, Flexes Shank
Semi-
membranosus
Origin:
Ischial Tuberosity
Insertion:
Femur
Action:
Extends Thigh
Semi-
tendinosus
Origin:
Ischial Tuberosity
Insertion:
Tibia
Action:
Flexes Shank
MUSCLES OF THE THIGH
Ventral Femoral Group
(Extensors)
Sartorius
Origin:
Ilium
Insertion:
Patella
Action:
Adducts and Rotates Femur, Extends Tibia
Quadriceps

Rectus
femoris
Origin:
Ilium
Insertion:
Patella
Action:
Extends Lower Leg
Quadriceps

Vastus
Lateralis
Origin:
Femur
Insertion:
Patella
Action:
Extends Lower Leg
Quadriceps

Vastus
Medialis
Origin:
Femur
Insertion:
Patella
Action:
Extends Lower Leg
MUSCLES OF THE THIGH
Medial Femoral Group
Gracilis
Origin:
Ischium and Pubis
Insertion:
Tibia
Action:
Adducts Thigh and Pulls Caudally (down)
Adductor
Longus
Origin:
Pubis
Insertion:
Femur
Action:
Adducts Thigh
Adductor
Femoris
Origin:
Pubis & Ischium
Insertion:
Femur
Action:
Extends Thigh
MUSCLES OF THE
LOWER LEG
Gastrocnemius
Origin:
Femur
Insertion:
Calcaneus
Action:
Extends Foot
Soleus
Origin:
Fibula
Insertion:
Metatarsals
Action:
Extends Foot
Tibialis
Anterior
Origin:
Tibia and Fibula
Insertion:
First Metatarsals
Action:
Flexes Foot