Pollution Video

 Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural
environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or
discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living
organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical
substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants,
the elements of pollution, can be either foreign
substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants.
Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source
pollution. The Blacksmith Institute issues an annual list of the
world's worst polluted places. In the 2007 issues the ten top
nominees are located
in Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine and Zambia.


Definition
 Air pollution:- the release of chemicals and particulates into the
atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon
monoxide, sulfur dioxide:- chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen
oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles.
Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides
and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter, or fine dust is
characterized by their micrometre size PM
10
to PM
2.5
.
 Light pollution:- includes light trespass, over-
illumination and astronomical interference.
 Littering:- the criminal throwing of inappropriate man-made objects,
unremoved, onto public and private properties.
 Noise pollution:- which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft
noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar.
 Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released intentionally,
by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil
contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy
metals, MTBE,
[9]
herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons


Forms Of Pollution
 Radioactive contamination, resulting from 20th century
activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation
and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and
deployment. (See alpha emitters and actinides in the
environment.)
 Thermal pollution, is a temperature change in natural water
bodies caused by human influence, such as use of water as
coolant in a power plant.
 Visual pollution, which can refer to the presence of
overhead power lines, motorway billboards,
scarred landforms (as from strip mining), open storage of trash
or municipal solid waste.
 Water pollution, by the discharge of wastewater from
commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills)
into surface waters; discharges of untreated
domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, such
as chlorine, from treated sewage; release of waste and
contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters
(including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may
contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides); waste disposal and
leaching into groundwater; eutrophication and littering.

A substance in the air that can cause harm to humans
and the environment is known as an air pollutant.
Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid
droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or
man-made.
Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary.
Usually, primary pollutants are directly emitted from a
process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon
monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur
dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are
not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when
primary pollutants react or interact. An important example
of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone — one of
the many secondary pollutants that make up
photochemical smog. Some pollutants may be both
primary and secondary: that is, they are both emitted
directly and formed from other primary pollutants.

Air Pollution
Pollutants Include:
 Sulfur oxides (SO
x
) - especially sulphur dioxide, a chemical compound with
the formula SO
2
. SO
2
is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial
processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulphur compounds,
their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of SO
2
, usually
in the presence of a catalyst such as NO
2
, forms H
2
SO
4
, and thus acid
rain.[2] This is one of the causes for concern over the environmental
impact of the use of these fuels as power sources.
 Nitrogen oxides (NO
x
) - especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high
temperature combustion. Can be seen as the brown haze dome above
or plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound
with the formula NO
2
. It is one of the several nitrogen oxides. This reddish-
brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. NO
2
is one of the
most prominent air pollutants.
 Carbon monoxide - is a colourless, odorless, non-irritating but very
poisonous gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as
natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon
monoxide.
 Carbon dioxide (CO
2
) - a colourless, odorless, non-toxic greenhouse
gas associated with ocean acidification, emitted from sources such as
combustion, cement production, and respiration

Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation
and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to
individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that it is the leading
worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths
of more than 14,000 people daily. An estimated 700 million Indians have no
access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness
every day. Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water
pollution, and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water. In
addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing
countries, industrialized countries continue to struggle with pollution problems
as well. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United
States, 45 percent of assessed stream miles, 47 percent of assessed
lake acres, and 32 percent of assessed bay and estuarine square miles were
classified as polluted.
Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic
contaminants and either does not support a human use, such as drinking
water, and/or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent
biotic communities, such as fish. Natural phenomena such
as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major
changes in water quality and the ecological status of water.

Water Pollution
Pollutants Include:
 Detergents
 Disinfection by-products found in chemically disinfected drinking water, such
as chloroform
 Food processing waste, which can include oxygen-demanding substances, fats
and grease
 Insecticides and herbicides, a huge range of organohalides and other chemical
compounds
 Petroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuels, and fuel
oil) and lubricants (motor oil), and fuel combustion byproducts,
from stormwater runoff
 Tree and bush debris from logging operations
 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as industrial solvents, from improper
storage.
 Chlorinated solvents, which are dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs),
may fall to the bottom of reservoirs, since they don't mix well with water and are
denser.
Polychlorinated biphenyl(PCBs)
Trichloroethylene
 Perchlorate
 Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products

 Human Health
Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. Ozone
pollution can cause respiratory disease cardiovascular
disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. Water pollution
causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination
of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. An estimated
700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian
children die of diarrhoeal sickness every day. Nearly 500 million Chinese lack
access to safe drinking water. 656,000 people die prematurely each year
in China because of air pollution. In India, air pollution is believed to cause
527,700 fatalities a year. Studies have estimated that the number of people
killed annually in the US could be over 50,000
Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollution induces hearing
loss, high blood pressure, stress, and sleep disturbance. Mercury has been
linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms. Older
people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air pollution. Those with
heart or lung disorders are under additional risk. Children and infants are also
at serious risk. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause
neurological problems. Chemical and radioactive substances
can cause cancer and as well as birth defects.

Effects Of Pollution
 Environment
Biomagnification describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals)
may pass through trophic levels becoming exponentially more concentrated
in the process.
Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification, the ongoing decrease
in the pH of the Earth's oceans as CO
2
becomes dissolved.
The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects
ecosystems in many ways.
Invasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity.
Invasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules (allelopathy) that can
alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment, often reducing
native species competitiveness.
Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilise land which can
change the species composition of ecosystems.
Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to
carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of tropospheric
ozone which damages plants.
Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. This will affect
other organisms in the food web.
Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers
the pH value of soil.


Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It
means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil.
Without pollution control, the waste products from consumption,
heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and
other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will
degrade the environment. In the hierarchy of controls, pollution
prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution
control. In the field of land development, low impact development is
a similar technique for the prevention of urban runoff.
Practices
recycling
Pollution control devices
Dust collection systems
• Baghouses
• Cyclones
• Electrostatic precipitators

Pollution Control
Scrubbers
• Baffle spray scrubber
• Cyclonic spray scrubber
• Ejector venturi scrubber
• Mechanically aided scrubber
• Spray tower
• Wet scrubber
Sewage treatment
• Sedimentation (Primary treatment)
• Activated sludge biotreaters (Secondary treatment; also used for industrial
wastewater)
• Aerated lagoons
• Constructed wetlands (also used for urban runoff)
Industrial wastewater treatment
• API oil-water separators
• Biofilters
• Dissolved air flotation (DAF)
• Powdered activated carbon treatment
• Ultrafiltration
Vapor recovery systems

5 Ways To Save The Planet
Linfen, China, where residents say they literally choke on coal dust in the evenings,
exemplifies many Chinese cities;
Haina, Dominican Republic, has severe lead contamination because of lead battery
recycling, a problem common throughout poorer countries [image];
Ranipet, India, where leather tanning wastes contaminate groundwater with
hexavalent chromium, made famous by Erin Brockovich, resulting in water that
apparently stings like an insect bite [image];
Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan, home to nearly 2 million cubic meters of radioactive mining
waste that threatens the entire Ferghana valley, one of the most fertile and densely
populated areas in Central Asia that also experiences high rates of seismic activity;
La Oroya, Peru, where the metal processing plant, owned by the Missouri -based Doe
Run Corporation, leads to toxic emissions of lead;
Dzerzinsk, Russia, one of the country's principal chemical weapons manufacturing
sites until the end of the Cold War [image];
Norilsk, Russia, which houses the world's largest heavy metals smelting complex;
Rudnaya Pristan, Russia, where lead contamination resulted in child blood lead levels
eight to 20 times maximum allowable U.S. levels;
Chernobyl, Ukraine, infamous site of a nuclear meltdown 20 years ago; and
Kabwe, Zambia, where child blood levels of lead are five to 10 times the allowable
EPA maximum [image].
Most Polluted Places In The World
THE END