7.

1 Force
 What is a force?
Is a push or a pull on an object.

 Effect of a force:
(a) force changes the shape of an object
(b) force changes the position of an object
(c) force changes the speed of a moving object
(d) force changes the direction of a moving object
(e) can make object moves or stop a moving object
BUT!!!!
Force DOES NOT changes the MASS of an object.

Question:
 Which of the following pairs is true about force?

Pushing force Pulling force
A Stretching a rubber
band
Lifting a box from
the floor
B Climbing a tree Squeezing a shirt
C Squeezing a shirt Climbing a tree
D Opening a bottle Closing a bottle
Type of Forces
 a) Magnetic force
 b) Electrostatic force
 c) Gravitational force
 d) Frictional force
a) Magnetic Force
 Force of attraction and repulsion exerted by
magnet.
 Magnet has 2 poles- North pole and South pole.
 Like poles repel while unlike poles attract each
other
b) Electrostatic Force
 Force of attraction and repulsion exerted by electric
charges.
 2 types of charges-POSITIVE charge and NEGATIVE
charge.
 Like charges repel while unlike charges attract each
other.



c) Gravitational Force (Force of gravity)
 The force of attraction that causes objects to
falls(pulls) towards the centre of Earth.

d) Frictional Force
 Produced when two surfaces in contact with each
other
 It prevent an object at rest from moving
Frictional force
Question:
 Diagram 2 shows a ball being pushed to the right.





Direction of friction that reacts to the ball is
A to the left C upwards
B to the right D any direction

Question:
 Which of the following is true about electrostatic
forces?
A The force that pulls all the objects to the Earth
B The force that opposes the sliding of one surface
over another
C The force which pull or push that exist between
magnetic poles
D The force which pull or push that exist between
electric charges
Exercise 3 : 7.2 Types of force
1) There are various types of force, which
are ____________ , ______________ ,
___________ , and ________________ .
Exercise 3 : 7.2 Types of force
2) Complete the table by naming the types of force
based on their explanations.
Types of force Explanations
a
)
The force that pulls objects towards the
Earth.
b
)
The force that opposes the motion of
objects
c)
The attractive or repulsive force
between charges that is produced from
the rubbing of two objects
d
)
The attractive or repulsive force exerted
by magnets.
WHO IS HE ?
 Issac Newton
was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely
recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and
as a key figure in the scientific revolution.
7.2 Measuring Force
 A force can be measured using a spring balance.
 The unit of force is Newton (N)
 The greater the force acting on spring, the longer
the extension.
Issac Newton
Weight and Mass
Weight Mass
The pull of the force of gravity of Earth
on object.
Quantity of matter in the object
Unit: Newton(N) Unit: kilogram(kg)/ gram(g)
[1 kg = 1000 g]
Weight is measured by spring balance or
compression spring balance.
Mass is measured by lever
balance, triple beam balance,
Butchart balance
• Weight of object varies from place to
place.
• Weight of object decreases as it
moves away from Earth.
• The force of gravity on the moon is only
1/6 of the force of gravity on earth.
Mass of object does not change
because it always contains same
amount of substance.
Relationship between weight and mass
 On Earth, the gravitational force acting on a mass of 1 kg
is 10 N.
So, mass of 1 kg object has weight = 10 N
Example:
a) Mass of sugar is 6 kg. Weight?
b) 0.8 kg of oranges. Weight?
c) Wooden block of 400 g. Weight?
d) Mass of 80 g salt. Weight?
e) Weight of 52 N of iron block. Mass?
f) Weight of a table is 390 N. Mass?

Question:
a) What is the
weight of object?




b) Calculate the
mass of the object.

Weight = 5 N
Mass = 0.5 kg
Question:



On
Earth
On
Moon
Outer
Space
Mass
Weight
Given that the mass of
Joseph is 60 kg.
60 kg 60 kg 60 kg
600 N
100 N 0 N
Working Principle of Spring Balance
 Consists of a spring and a pointer.
 Scale of pointer in Newtons (N)
 Principle: The greater the pulling force, the longer
the extension of spring.

What is extension of spring?

5 cm
9 cm
Extension = 9 cm – 5 cm
= 4 cm
Question:
Number of marbles Extension of spring/
cm
10 6
20 X
30 18
What is the value of X?
X = 12 cm
Graph of extension against force
a) How much is the weight of
object that would be extend
the spring by 10 cm?
b) What is the mass of object
that extends the spring by 14
cm?
Weight = 5 N
Weight = 7 N
Mass = 0.7 kg = 700 g
Question:
What is the value of L?
L = 9 cm
7.3 Application of Frictional Force
Frictional Force
 Frictional force occurs whenever two surfaces are in
contact with each other.
 Frictional force is in opposite direction to the moving
object.
 Frictional force has direction and magnitude.
Label the direction of frictional force.
Frictional force
Label the direction of frictional force
Factors that effect frictional force
 A) Nature of surface in contact (rough/smooth)
The rougher the surfaces in contact, the greater the
frictional force acts

 B) Weight of object
The heavier the object, the greater the frictional
force acts.

BUT!!!
Frictional force DOES NOT depends on area of
surface in contact.
Advantages of Frictional force
1. Enables a person to walk or run without slipping.
2. Enables a vehicles to slowed down and stop
when the brake is apply
3. Enables a ladder to lean against the wall and
prevent it from sliding
4. Enables a person to hold things steady on hand
Disadvantage of Frictional Force
1. Produced heat which can over heat and damage a
machine.
2. Slows down movement.
3. Wears away materials like the soles of shoes.
4. Noise produced.
How to reduce friction force ?
a) Use wheel or rollers.
b) Apply lubricating oil or grease between the
surfaces in contact
c) Use air cushion to prevents contact between two
surface, example:- hovercraft
d) Use the ball bearing in axles of vehicles
Question:
The frictional force between two surfaces can be
reduced by using the following methods. Which is
the least effective?
A Ball bearings
B A cushion of air
C Grease
D Water
Weight
 Is a gravitational force acting on an object.
 Measured by spring balance.
 The force of gravity on the moon is only 1/6 of the
force of gravity on earth
 Formula:

Weight(N) = mass(kg) x 10
a) 0.8 N = …….kg
b) 20 N = ……..kg
c) 50 kg = ………N
d) 500 g = ………N
Work done
 Work is the energy used to transfer an object from one
place to another.
 Work is said to be done when a force is able to move an
object through a distance.
 Examples for work done and work not done:

Work done Work not done
•Climbing the stairs •Sitting on a chair
•Rowing a boat •Pushing against a wall
•Running in a race •Sleeping on bed
•Lifting a book from table •Thinking about an experiment
Calculate Work Done
 Unit of work done : Joule (J) or Newton Metres (Nm)
 Formula:


 Example 1:

Work done(J) = Force(N) X Distance(m)
2 m
Work done = 50 N x 2 m
= 100 J
Example 2:




Given the mass of car is 500 kg.
What is the work done to lift the
car through distance of 1.5 m?
1.5 m
Force = 500 x 10 = 5000 N
Work done = 5000 N x 1.5 m
= 7500 J
Work done(J) = Force(N) x Distance(m)
Example 3:
A student with mass 45 kg carrying a 3 kg beg while
climbing a staircase.
What is the work done by
the boy?
Work done(J) = Force(N) x Distance(m)
Force = 48 x 10 = 480 N
Work done = 480 N X 3 m
= 1440 J
Distance?
Distance =
Example 4:
 A worker pushes a wheelbarrow with mass of 20 kg
over a distance. If the work he has done is 2 000 J,
calculate the distance he has moved. (Assume that 1
kg = 10 N)
独轮车
Solution :

Work done = Force (N) x Distance (m)
2 000 J = ( 20 x 10 ) N x distance
2 000 Nm
20 x 10 N
= 10 m
Power
 What is power?
Rate of doing work.
 Unit of power: Watt (W) or Joules per second ( )
 Formula:


 Example 1:
A man takes 5 seconds to push a cupboard and does 50 J
of work. What is the power of the man?

1 
Js
) (
) (
) (
s time
J WorkDone
W Power 
Power = 50 J/ 5s
= 10 W
速度
Example 2:
 A lady uses a force of 50N to move a trolley over a
distance of 2 meters in 4 seconds. Calculate the power.

Work done = 50 N x 2 m
= 100 J
Power = 100J

) (
) (
) (
s time
J WorkDone
W Power 
= 25 W
4s
Example 3:
Amzar takes 5 minutes to ride his motorbike for a
distance of 20 m. If the force exerted is 300 N.
Calculate the power.
Work done?
Work done = 300 N x 20 m
= 6000 J
Time?
Time = 5 x 60
= 300 s
Power?
Power = 6000 J/ 300 s
= 20 W
 Ahmad pushes a car with a force of 450 N over a
distance of 2 m in 10 second. Calculate the power.
Example 4:
Solution :
Power = Work Done
Time
= Force (N) x Distance (m)
= 450 N x 2 m
10 s
= 90 W
Time
 A student climbs a flight of stairs in 10 seconds. If a
power of 400 W is generated, calculate the work
done.
Example 5:
Solution :
Power = Work Done
Time
= Work Done
10 s
= 400 W x 10 s
400 W
Work done
= 4000 J
 A student climbs a flight of stairs in 10 seconds. If a
power of 400 W is generated, calculate the work
done.
Example 5:
Solution :
Power = Work Done
Time
= Work Done
10 s
= 400 W x 10 s
400 W
Work done
= 4000 J
 A worker moves a load of 500 N over a distance of
2m in 2 seconds. Calculate the power.
Example 6:
Solution :
Power = Work Done
Time
= 500 N x 2 m
= 500 W
= Force (N) x Distance (m)
Time
2 s
Exercise 7.5
1) What is power ?


2) What is the formula for power which shows its
relationship with work done and time ?


3) A boy does 500 J of work in 10 seconds when
lifting a load up a flight of stairs. Calculate his rate
of doing work (power used).
Exercise 7.5
1) What is power ?


2) What is the formula for power which shows its
relationship with work done and time ?


Power is the rate of doing work.
Power = Work Done
Time taken
Exercise 7.5

3) A boy does 500 J of work in 10 seconds when
lifting a load up a flight of stairs. Calculate his rate
of doing work (power used).
Power = Work Done
Time
= 500 J
= 50 W
10 s
7.6 The importance of Force in Life
 Force is important as it enables us to carry out our
daily activities.
 Without

Gravitational force
• We would be floating around in the air.
Frictional force
• We would slip and vehicles would not able to stop
moving.
Electrical force
• We would not be able to use electrical appliances
which make our lives more comfortable.
Magnetic force
• The compass would not function.
a)
b)
c)
d)
1. Can a person skate on ice if there is no friction ?
Explain your answer.



2. Can a parachute be used if there were no
gravitational force acting on it ? Give a reason for
your answer.
Exercise 7.6
降落伞
No. The ice skater requires friction to get a
grip on the ice. Without friction he will slip on
the ice.
No. The parachute would just float.
Exercise 7.1 : Dynamic

Carry out the following activities and then complete the sentences
in the table below.
Exercise 7.1 : Dynamic

Carry out the following activities and then complete the sentences
in the table below.