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- IS 4031_Part12
- friction lab
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- Chapter 2 Forces
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- 2.8
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- Qm
- Force
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- Chapter 8-Support Systems in Animals

1 Force

What is a force?

Is a push or a pull on an object.

Effect of a force:

(a) force changes the shape of an object

(b) force changes the position of an object

(c) force changes the speed of a moving object

(d) force changes the direction of a moving object

(e) can make object moves or stop a moving object

BUT!!!!

Force DOES NOT changes the MASS of an object.

Question:

Which of the following pairs is true about force?

Pushing force Pulling force

A Stretching a rubber

band

Lifting a box from

the floor

B Climbing a tree Squeezing a shirt

C Squeezing a shirt Climbing a tree

D Opening a bottle Closing a bottle

Type of Forces

a) Magnetic force

b) Electrostatic force

c) Gravitational force

d) Frictional force

a) Magnetic Force

Force of attraction and repulsion exerted by

magnet.

Magnet has 2 poles- North pole and South pole.

Like poles repel while unlike poles attract each

other

b) Electrostatic Force

Force of attraction and repulsion exerted by electric

charges.

2 types of charges-POSITIVE charge and NEGATIVE

charge.

Like charges repel while unlike charges attract each

other.

c) Gravitational Force (Force of gravity)

The force of attraction that causes objects to

falls(pulls) towards the centre of Earth.

d) Frictional Force

Produced when two surfaces in contact with each

other

It prevent an object at rest from moving

Frictional force

Question:

Diagram 2 shows a ball being pushed to the right.

Direction of friction that reacts to the ball is

A to the left C upwards

B to the right D any direction

Question:

Which of the following is true about electrostatic

forces?

A The force that pulls all the objects to the Earth

B The force that opposes the sliding of one surface

over another

C The force which pull or push that exist between

magnetic poles

D The force which pull or push that exist between

electric charges

Exercise 3 : 7.2 Types of force

1) There are various types of force, which

are ____________ , ______________ ,

___________ , and ________________ .

Exercise 3 : 7.2 Types of force

2) Complete the table by naming the types of force

based on their explanations.

Types of force Explanations

a

)

The force that pulls objects towards the

Earth.

b

)

The force that opposes the motion of

objects

c)

The attractive or repulsive force

between charges that is produced from

the rubbing of two objects

d

)

The attractive or repulsive force exerted

by magnets.

WHO IS HE ?

Issac Newton

was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely

recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and

as a key figure in the scientific revolution.

7.2 Measuring Force

A force can be measured using a spring balance.

The unit of force is Newton (N)

The greater the force acting on spring, the longer

the extension.

Issac Newton

Weight and Mass

Weight Mass

The pull of the force of gravity of Earth

on object.

Quantity of matter in the object

Unit: Newton(N) Unit: kilogram(kg)/ gram(g)

[1 kg = 1000 g]

Weight is measured by spring balance or

compression spring balance.

Mass is measured by lever

balance, triple beam balance,

Butchart balance

• Weight of object varies from place to

place.

• Weight of object decreases as it

moves away from Earth.

• The force of gravity on the moon is only

1/6 of the force of gravity on earth.

Mass of object does not change

because it always contains same

amount of substance.

Relationship between weight and mass

On Earth, the gravitational force acting on a mass of 1 kg

is 10 N.

So, mass of 1 kg object has weight = 10 N

Example:

a) Mass of sugar is 6 kg. Weight?

b) 0.8 kg of oranges. Weight?

c) Wooden block of 400 g. Weight?

d) Mass of 80 g salt. Weight?

e) Weight of 52 N of iron block. Mass?

f) Weight of a table is 390 N. Mass?

Question:

a) What is the

weight of object?

b) Calculate the

mass of the object.

Weight = 5 N

Mass = 0.5 kg

Question:

On

Earth

On

Moon

Outer

Space

Mass

Weight

Given that the mass of

Joseph is 60 kg.

60 kg 60 kg 60 kg

600 N

100 N 0 N

Working Principle of Spring Balance

Consists of a spring and a pointer.

Scale of pointer in Newtons (N)

Principle: The greater the pulling force, the longer

the extension of spring.

What is extension of spring?

5 cm

9 cm

Extension = 9 cm – 5 cm

= 4 cm

Question:

Number of marbles Extension of spring/

cm

10 6

20 X

30 18

What is the value of X?

X = 12 cm

Graph of extension against force

a) How much is the weight of

object that would be extend

the spring by 10 cm?

b) What is the mass of object

that extends the spring by 14

cm?

Weight = 5 N

Weight = 7 N

Mass = 0.7 kg = 700 g

Question:

What is the value of L?

L = 9 cm

7.3 Application of Frictional Force

Frictional Force

Frictional force occurs whenever two surfaces are in

contact with each other.

Frictional force is in opposite direction to the moving

object.

Frictional force has direction and magnitude.

Label the direction of frictional force.

Frictional force

Label the direction of frictional force

Factors that effect frictional force

A) Nature of surface in contact (rough/smooth)

The rougher the surfaces in contact, the greater the

frictional force acts

B) Weight of object

The heavier the object, the greater the frictional

force acts.

BUT!!!

Frictional force DOES NOT depends on area of

surface in contact.

Advantages of Frictional force

1. Enables a person to walk or run without slipping.

2. Enables a vehicles to slowed down and stop

when the brake is apply

3. Enables a ladder to lean against the wall and

prevent it from sliding

4. Enables a person to hold things steady on hand

Disadvantage of Frictional Force

1. Produced heat which can over heat and damage a

machine.

2. Slows down movement.

3. Wears away materials like the soles of shoes.

4. Noise produced.

How to reduce friction force ?

a) Use wheel or rollers.

b) Apply lubricating oil or grease between the

surfaces in contact

c) Use air cushion to prevents contact between two

surface, example:- hovercraft

d) Use the ball bearing in axles of vehicles

Question:

The frictional force between two surfaces can be

reduced by using the following methods. Which is

the least effective?

A Ball bearings

B A cushion of air

C Grease

D Water

Weight

Is a gravitational force acting on an object.

Measured by spring balance.

The force of gravity on the moon is only 1/6 of the

force of gravity on earth

Formula:

Weight(N) = mass(kg) x 10

a) 0.8 N = …….kg

b) 20 N = ……..kg

c) 50 kg = ………N

d) 500 g = ………N

Work done

Work is the energy used to transfer an object from one

place to another.

Work is said to be done when a force is able to move an

object through a distance.

Examples for work done and work not done:

Work done Work not done

•Climbing the stairs •Sitting on a chair

•Rowing a boat •Pushing against a wall

•Running in a race •Sleeping on bed

•Lifting a book from table •Thinking about an experiment

Calculate Work Done

Unit of work done : Joule (J) or Newton Metres (Nm)

Formula:

Example 1:

Work done(J) = Force(N) X Distance(m)

2 m

Work done = 50 N x 2 m

= 100 J

Example 2:

Given the mass of car is 500 kg.

What is the work done to lift the

car through distance of 1.5 m?

1.5 m

Force = 500 x 10 = 5000 N

Work done = 5000 N x 1.5 m

= 7500 J

Work done(J) = Force(N) x Distance(m)

Example 3:

A student with mass 45 kg carrying a 3 kg beg while

climbing a staircase.

What is the work done by

the boy?

Work done(J) = Force(N) x Distance(m)

Force = 48 x 10 = 480 N

Work done = 480 N X 3 m

= 1440 J

Distance?

Distance =

Example 4:

A worker pushes a wheelbarrow with mass of 20 kg

over a distance. If the work he has done is 2 000 J,

calculate the distance he has moved. (Assume that 1

kg = 10 N)

独轮车

Solution :

Work done = Force (N) x Distance (m)

2 000 J = ( 20 x 10 ) N x distance

2 000 Nm

20 x 10 N

= 10 m

Power

What is power?

Rate of doing work.

Unit of power: Watt (W) or Joules per second ( )

Formula:

Example 1:

A man takes 5 seconds to push a cupboard and does 50 J

of work. What is the power of the man?

1

Js

) (

) (

) (

s time

J WorkDone

W Power

Power = 50 J/ 5s

= 10 W

速度

Example 2:

A lady uses a force of 50N to move a trolley over a

distance of 2 meters in 4 seconds. Calculate the power.

Work done = 50 N x 2 m

= 100 J

Power = 100J

) (

) (

) (

s time

J WorkDone

W Power

= 25 W

4s

Example 3:

Amzar takes 5 minutes to ride his motorbike for a

distance of 20 m. If the force exerted is 300 N.

Calculate the power.

Work done?

Work done = 300 N x 20 m

= 6000 J

Time?

Time = 5 x 60

= 300 s

Power?

Power = 6000 J/ 300 s

= 20 W

Ahmad pushes a car with a force of 450 N over a

distance of 2 m in 10 second. Calculate the power.

Example 4:

Solution :

Power = Work Done

Time

= Force (N) x Distance (m)

= 450 N x 2 m

10 s

= 90 W

Time

A student climbs a flight of stairs in 10 seconds. If a

power of 400 W is generated, calculate the work

done.

Example 5:

Solution :

Power = Work Done

Time

= Work Done

10 s

= 400 W x 10 s

400 W

Work done

= 4000 J

A student climbs a flight of stairs in 10 seconds. If a

power of 400 W is generated, calculate the work

done.

Example 5:

Solution :

Power = Work Done

Time

= Work Done

10 s

= 400 W x 10 s

400 W

Work done

= 4000 J

A worker moves a load of 500 N over a distance of

2m in 2 seconds. Calculate the power.

Example 6:

Solution :

Power = Work Done

Time

= 500 N x 2 m

= 500 W

= Force (N) x Distance (m)

Time

2 s

Exercise 7.5

1) What is power ?

2) What is the formula for power which shows its

relationship with work done and time ?

3) A boy does 500 J of work in 10 seconds when

lifting a load up a flight of stairs. Calculate his rate

of doing work (power used).

Exercise 7.5

1) What is power ?

2) What is the formula for power which shows its

relationship with work done and time ?

Power is the rate of doing work.

Power = Work Done

Time taken

Exercise 7.5

3) A boy does 500 J of work in 10 seconds when

lifting a load up a flight of stairs. Calculate his rate

of doing work (power used).

Power = Work Done

Time

= 500 J

= 50 W

10 s

7.6 The importance of Force in Life

Force is important as it enables us to carry out our

daily activities.

Without

Gravitational force

• We would be floating around in the air.

Frictional force

• We would slip and vehicles would not able to stop

moving.

Electrical force

• We would not be able to use electrical appliances

which make our lives more comfortable.

Magnetic force

• The compass would not function.

a)

b)

c)

d)

1. Can a person skate on ice if there is no friction ?

Explain your answer.

2. Can a parachute be used if there were no

gravitational force acting on it ? Give a reason for

your answer.

Exercise 7.6

降落伞

No. The ice skater requires friction to get a

grip on the ice. Without friction he will slip on

the ice.

No. The parachute would just float.

Exercise 7.1 : Dynamic

Carry out the following activities and then complete the sentences

in the table below.

Exercise 7.1 : Dynamic

Carry out the following activities and then complete the sentences

in the table below.

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