Flow Simulation
Louis J. Durlofsky
Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University
ChevronTexaco ETC, San Ramon, CA
2
Acknowledgments
• Yuguang Chen (Stanford University)
• Mathieu Prevost (now at Total)
• XianHuan Wen (ChevronTexaco)
• Yalchin Efendiev (Texas A&M)
(photo by Eric Flodin)
3
• Issues and existing techniques
• Adaptive localglobal upscaling
• Velocity reconstruction and multiscale solution
• Generalized convectiondiffusion transport model
• Upscaling and flowbased grids (3D unstructured)
• Outstanding issues and summary
Outline
4
Requirements/Challenges for Upscaling
• Accuracy & Robustness
– Retain geological realism in flow simulation
– Valid for different types of reservoir heterogeneity
– Applicable for varying flow scenarios (well conditions)
• Efficiency
Injector
Producer
Injector
Producer
5
Existing Upscaling Techniques
• Singlephase upscaling: flow (Q /Ap)
– Local and global techniques (k ÷ k
*
or T
*
)
• Multiphase upscaling: transport (oil cut)
– Pseudo relative permeability model (k
rj
÷ k
rj
*
)
• “Multiscale” modeling
– Upscaling of flow (pressure equation)
– Fine scale solution of transport (saturation equation)
6
Local Upscaling to Calculate k
*
• Local BCs assumed: constant pressure difference
• Insufficient for capturing largescale connectivity in
highly heterogeneous reservoirs
or
Local Extended Local
Solve V·(k·Vp)=0 over local region
for coarse scale k
*
or T
*
Global domain
7
A New Approach
• Standard local upscaling methods unsuitable for
highly heterogeneous reservoirs
• Global upscaling methods exist, but require global
fine scale solutions (singlephase) and optimization
• New approach uses global coarse scale solutions to
determine appropriate boundary conditions for local
k
*
or T
*
calculations
– Efficiently captures effects of large scale flow
– Avoids global fine scale simulation
Adaptive LocalGlobal Upscaling
8
Adaptive LocalGlobal Upscaling (ALG)
Welldriven global coarse flow
• Thresholding: Local calculations only in highflow
regions (computational efficiency)
y
x
Coarse scale properties
k
*
or T
*
and upscaled well index
Local fine scale calculation
Interpolated pressure
gives Local BCs
Coarse pressure
Local fine scale calculation
Interpolated pressure
gives local BCs
Coarse pressure
9
Thresholding in ALG
Permeability Streamlines Coarse blocks
Regions for
Local calculations
• Avoids nonphysical coarse scale properties (T
*
=q
c
/Ap
c
)
• Coarse scale properties efficiently adapted to a given
flow scenario
• Identify highflow region, > c (c ~ 0.1)
q
c

q
c

max
10
Multiscale Modeling
( ) 0 = V · · V
c
p
*
k
0 ) ( = · V +
c
c
S
t
S
v
• Solve flow on coarse scale, reconstruct fine
scale v, solve transport on fine scale
• Active research area in reservoir simulation:
– Dual mesh method (FD): Ramè & Killough (1991),
Guérillot & Verdière (1995), Gautier et al. (1999)
– Multiscale FEM: Hou & Wu (1997)
– Multiscale FVM: Jenny, Lee & Tchelepi (2003, 2004)
11
Reconstruction of Fine Scale Velocity
( ) 0 = V · · V
c
p
*
k 0 ) ( = · V +
c
c
S
t
S
v
Upscaling, global
coarse scale flow
Solve local fine scale
V·(k·Vp)=0
Partition coarse
flux to fine scale
Reconstructed
fine scale v
(downscaling)
• Readily performed in upscaling framework
12
Results: Performance of ALG
Averaged fine
Pressure Distribution
Coarse: extended local
Coarse: Adaptive localglobal
Channelized layer (59) from 10th SPE CSP
Flow rate for specified pressure
• Fine scale: Q = 20.86
• Extended T
*
: Q = 7.17
• ALG upscaling: Q = 20.01
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
0 1 2 3 4
Iteration
Q
Q (Fine scale) = 20.86
ALG, Error: 4%
Extended local,
Error: 67%
Upscaling 220 × 60 ÷ 22 × 6
13
Results: Multiple Channelized Layers
Extended local T
*
Adaptive localglobal T
*
10th SPE CSP
14
Another Channelized System
100 realizations
120 × 120 ÷ 24 × 24
ALG T
*
T
*
+ NWSU k
*
only
15
Results: Multiple Realizations
• 100 realizations conditioned to seismic and well data
• Oilwater flow, M=5
• Injector: injection rate constraint, Producer: bottom hole
pressure constraint
• Upscaling: 100 × 100 ÷ 10 × 10
100 realizations
Time (days)
B
H
P
(
P
S
I
A
)
Fine scale
mean
90% conf. int.
16
Results: Multiple Realizations
Coarse: Purely local upscaling Coarse: Adaptive localglobal
Time (days)
B
H
P
(
P
S
I
A
)
Mean (coarse scale)
90% conf. int. (coarse scale)
Time (days)
B
H
P
(
P
S
I
A
)
Mean (fine scale)
90% conf. int. (fine scale)
17
Results (F
o
): Channelized System
220 × 60 ÷ 22 × 6
Fractional Flow Curve
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
PVI
Fo
Fine scale
ALG T
*
Extended local T
*
Flow rates
• Fine scale: Q = 6.30
• Extended T
*
: Q = 1.17
• ALG upscaling: Q = 6.26
Oil cut from reconstruction
18
Results (S
w
): Channelized System
Fine scale S
w
(220 × 60)
Reconstructed S
w
from
extended local T
*
(22 × 6)
0.5
1.0
0.0
Reconstructed S
w
from
ALG T
*
(22 × 6)
Fine scale streamlines
19
Results for 3D Systems (SPE 10)
I
P2
P1
50 channelized layers, 3 wells
p
inj
=1, p
prod
=0
Typical layers
Upscale from
60×220×50 ÷ 12×44×10
using different methods
20
Results for Well Flow Rates  3D
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
I P1 P2
W
e
l
l
R
a
t
e
Fine
Standard k*
T*+NWSU
ALG
Average errors
• k* only: 43%
• Extended T
*
+ NWSU: 27%
• Adaptive localglobal: 3.5%
21
Results for Transport (Multiscale)  3D
fine scale
ALG T
*
local T
*
w/nw
standard k
*
Producer 1
F
o
PVI
fine scale
ALG T
*
standard k
*
Producer 2
local T
*
w/nw
F
o
PVI
• Quality of transport calculation depends on the
accuracy of the upscaling
22
Velocity Reconstruction versus
Subgrid Modeling
• Multiscale methods carry fine and coarse grid
information over the entire simulation
• Subgrid modeling methods capture effects of fine
grid velocity via upscaled transport functions:
 Pseudoization techniques
 Modeling of higher moments
 Generalized convectiondiffusion model
23
• Coarse scale pressure and saturation equations of same
form as fine scale equations
• Pseudo functions may vary in each block and may be
directional (even for single set of k
rj
in fine scale model)
Pseudo Relative Permeability Models
( ) , 0 ) , (
* *
= V · · V
c c
p S k x ì 0 ) , (
*
= · V +
c
c
c
c
S
t
S
x F
) ( ) (
) (
) (
) , ( , = ) , (
* *
*
c *
c * *
* *
c *
o i ro w i rw
w i rw
i
i
c
i i
o
ro
w
rw
μ k + μ k
μ k
S f
S f F
μ
k k
S
=
= + x v x
µ
ì
* ¬ upscaled function
c
¬ coarse scale p, S
24
Generalized ConvectionDiffusion
Subgrid Model for TwoPhase Flow
• Pseudo relative permeability description is convenient but
incomplete, additional functionality required in general
• Generalized convectiondiffusion model introduces new
coarse scale terms
 Form derives from volume averaging and
homogenization procedures
 Method is local, avoids need to approximate
 Shares some similarities with earlier stochastic
approaches of Lenormand & coworkers (1998, 1999)
) ( ) ( y x
j i
v v
' '
25
• Coarse scale saturation equation:
Generalized ConvectionDiffusion Model
( )
c c c
c
S S S
t
S
V · · V = · V +
c
c
) , ( ) , ( x D x G
) , ( ) ( ) , (
c c c c
S S f S x m v x G + =
• Coarse scale pressure equation:
c c c c
S S S W S V · + + = ) , ( ) , ( ) (
2 1
*
x W x ì ì
(modified convection m
and diffusion D terms)
(modified form for total
mobility, VS
c
dependence)
“primitive” term
GCD term
( ) 0 ) , (
* *
= V · · V
c c
p S k x ì
26
• D and W
2
computed over purely local domain:
Calculation of GCD Functions
p = 1
S = 1
p = 0
) ( ) ( ) ( S f S f S S v v D ÷ = V ·
• m and W
1
computed using extended local domain:
(D and W
2
account for
local subgrid effects)
S S S f S f S V · ÷ ÷ = ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( D v v m
(m and W
1
 subgrid effects due
to longer range interactions)
target coarse block
27
Solution Procedure
• Generate fine model (100 × 100) of prescribed parameters
• Form uniform coarse grid (10 × 10) and compute k
*
and
directional GCD functions for each coarse block
• Compute directional pseudo relative permeabilities via total
mobility (Stonetype) method for each block
• Solve saturation equation using second order TVD scheme,
first order method for simulations with pseudo k
rj
fine grid: l
x
> l
z
L
x
= L
z
28
Oil Cuts for M =1 Simulations
• GCD and pseudo models agree closely with fine scale
(pseudoization technique selected on this basis)
l
x
= 0.25, l
z
= 0.01, o =2, side to side flow
÷ 100 x 100
÷ 10 x 10 (GCD)
÷ 10 x 10 (primitive)
÷ 10 x 10 (pseudo)
O
i
l
C
u
t
PVI
29
Results for TwoPoint Geostatistics
ì
x
=0.05, ì
y
=0.01, o
logk
=2.0
100x100 ÷ 10x10, Side Flow
10
0
5
• Diffusive effects only
30
Results for TwoPoint Geostatistics (Cont’d)
ì
x
=0.5, ì
y
=0.05, o
logk
=2.0
100x100 ÷ 10x10, Side Flow
10
0
5
• Permeability with longer correlation length
31
Effect of Varying Global BCs (M =1)
p = 1
S = 1
p = 0
0 s t s 0.8 PVI
p = 1
S = 1
t > 0.8 PVI
p = 0
l
x
= 0.25, l
z
= 0.01, o =2
O
i
l
C
u
t
PVI
÷ 100 x 100
÷ 10 x 10 (GCD)
÷ 10 x 10 (primitive)
÷ 10 x 10 (pseudo)
l
x
= 0.25, l
z
= 0.01, o =2
32
Corner to Corner Flow (M = 5)
÷ 100 x 100
÷ 10 x 10 (GCD)
÷ 10 x 10 (pseudo)
O
i
l
C
u
t
PVI
T
o
t
a
l
R
a
t
e
PVI
l
x
= 0.2, l
z
= 0.02, o =1.5
• Pseudo model shows considerable error, GCD model
provides comparable agreement as in side to side flow
33
Effect of Varying Global BCs (M = 5)
÷ 100 x 100
÷ 10 x 10 (GCD)
÷ 10 x 10 (pseudo)
O
i
l
C
u
t
PVI
T
o
t
a
l
R
a
t
e
PVI
l
x
= 0.2, l
z
= 0.02, o =1.5
• Pseudo model overpredicts oil recovery, GCD model
in close agreement
34
Effect of Varying Global BCs (M = 5)
l
x
= 0.5, l
z
= 0.02, o =1.5
• GCD model underpredicts peak in oil cut, otherwise
tracks fine grid solution
÷ 100 x 100
÷ 10 x 10 (GCD)
÷ 10 x 10 (pseudo)
O
i
l
C
u
t
PVI
T
o
t
a
l
R
a
t
e
PVI
35
) , (
* c c
S S V ì
( ) 0
* *
= V · · V
c
p k ì
Coarse scale flow:
Pseudo functions:
GCD
model:
T
*
from ALG, dependent on global flow
ì
*
, m(S
c
) and D(S
c
)
• Consistency between T
*
and ì
*
important for highly
heterogeneous systems
Combine GCD with ALG T* Upscaling
) (
* c
S ì
36
ALG + Subgrid Model for Transport (GCD)
t < 0.6 PVI t > 0.6 PVI
• Stanford V model (layer 1)
• Upscaling: 100×130 ÷ 10×13
• Transport solved on coarse scale
flow rate oil cut
37
flow simulation
flow simulation
upscaling
gridding
diagnostic
Gocad
interface
coarse model
info. maps
fine model
Unstructured Modeling  Workflow
38
Numerical Discretization Technique
• CVFE method:
– Locally conservative; flux on a face expressed as linear
combination of pressures
– Multiple point and two point flux approximations
• Different upscaling techniques for MPFA and TPFA
i
j
k
q
ij
= a p
i
+ b p
j
+
c p
k
+ ... or q
ij
= T
ij
( p
i
 p
j
)
Primal and
dual grids
39
3D Transmissibility Upscaling (TPFA)
Dual cells Primal grid
connection
p=1
p=0
fitted
extended
regions
cell j cell i
Tij
*
= 
<q
ij
>
<p
j
> <p
i
> 
40
Grid Generation: Parameters
• Specify flowdiagnostic
• Grid aspect ratio
• Grid resolution constraint:
– Information map (flow rate, t
b
)
– P
a
and P
b
, s
a
and s
b
– N (number of nodes)
min max
1
property
cumulative frequency
a b
Pa
Pb
min max
Sa
Sb
property
resolution constraint
a b
41
velocity
grid density
Upscaled k
*
Unstructured Gridding and Upscaling
(from Prevost, 2003)
42
FlowBased Upscaling: Layered System
• Layered system: 200 x 100 x 50 cells
• Upscale permeability and transmissibility
• Run k*MPFA and T*TPFA for M=1
• Compute errors in Q/Ap and L
1
norm of F
w
p=0
p=1
1 0. 5
0.25
43
FlowBased Upscaling: Results
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
PVI
Reference (fine)
TPFA
MPFA
8 x 8 x 18 = 1152 nodes
6 x 6 x 13 = 468 nodes
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
F
w
error in Fw
error in Q/Ap
TPFA 7.6% 1.2%
MPFA 17.9% 25.2%
error in Fw
error in Q/Ap
TPFA 16.8% 5.9%
MPFA 21.3% 31.7%
PVI
F
w
(from M. Prevost, 2003)
44
Layered Reservoir: Flow Rate Adaptation
• Grid density from
flow rate
log V
grid size
s
b
s
a
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
PVI
F
w
reference
uniform coarse (N=21x11x11=2541)
flowrate adapted (N=1394)
Q
c
=0.82
Q
c
=0.99
PVI
F
w
• Flow results
(from Prevost, 2003)
(Q
f
= 1.0)
45
Summary
• Upscaling is required to generate realistic coarse
scale models for reservoir simulation
• Described and applied a new adaptive localglobal
method for computing T
*
• Illustrated use of ALG upscaling in conjunction with
multiscale modeling
• Described GCD method for upscaling of transport
• Presented approaches for flowbased gridding and
upscaling for 3D unstructured systems
46
Future Directions
• Hybridization of various upscaling techniques
(e.g., flowbased gridding + ALG upscaling)
• Further development for 3D unstructured systems
• Linkage of singlephase gridding and upscaling
approaches with twophase upscaling methods
• Dynamic updating of grid and coarse properties
• Error modeling