Introduction to

Quality Function Deployment
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
 What is QFD?
 Benefits of QFD
 QFD Methodology
 The Four Phases
 Product Planning
 Design Deployment
 Manufacturing Process Planning
 Production Planning
 Managing the QFD Process
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
What is QFD?
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
= QFD
HIN SHITSU
Quality
Features
Attributes
Qualities
KI NO TEN KAI
Deployment
Diffusion
Development
Evolution
Function
Mechanization
Quality Function Deployment - “Customer Driven
Product / Process Development”
QFD from the Japanese -
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
There is no single, right definition for QFD; this one captures its
essential meaning:
A system for translating customer requirements into appropriate
company requirements at each stage from research and product
development to engineering and manufacturing to marketing/sales
and distribution
Definition of Quality Function Deployment :
Prerequisites to QFD are ‘Market Research’ and ‘VOC gathering’.
As QFD is the process of building capability to meet or exceed customer demands, understanding the
market, knowing the various customer segments. what each customer segment wants, how important
these benefits are, and how well different providers of products address these benefits are some of the
key precursors to a successful QFD. These are prerequisites because it is impossible to consistently
provide products / services which will attract customers unless you have a very good understanding of
what they want.

Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Why was QFD developed?
1 Customers are our number one concern. Satisfied customers keep us in business.
Therefore, we must have an excellent understanding of their needs.
2 Proactive product development is better than reactive product development. QFD can help
a company move toward a more proactive approach.
3 Quality is a responsibility of everyone in the organization. QFD is a team methodology
which encourages a broader employee involvement and focus.
4 The QFD methodology helps an organization determine the most effective applications for
many engineering and analytical tools such as: Design of Experiments, Failure Analysis and
Statistical Process Control.
QFD was developed in Japan in the late 1960s by Professors Yoji Akao and Shigeru Mizuno.
The Professors aimed at developing a quality assurance method that would design customer satisfaction into a
product before it was manufactured. Prior quality control methods like Ishikawa were primarily aimed at fixing a
problem during or after manufacturing.
Key Rationale:
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Excitement
Needs
Performance
Needs
Basic
Needs
Satisfied
Customer
Dissatisfied
Customer
Don’t Have
Don’t Do
Included
Do Well




Excitement
Needs
Performance
Needs
Basic
Needs
Satisfied
Customer
Dissatisfied
Customer
Don’t Have
Don’t Do
Included
Do Well




• UNEXPECTED,
PLEASANT SURPRISES
• 3M CALLS THEM
CUSTOMER DELIGHTS
Spoken
Measurable
Range of Fulfillment
Unspoken
Taken For granted
Basic
Spoken If Not Met
QFD focuses on
Performance Needs
and unmet Basic
Needs
RECOGNIZE 1) The Impact of Needs on the Customer
2) That Customer Needs Change With Time
3) The impact of Communication of Customer Wants Throughout
the Organization
Where does QFD fit?
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Strategic Issues - Technical Tools - Cultural Change
Six Sigma / TQM
Quality Improvement Tools
QFD
- Planning Tool
- Customer Driven
- Proactive
- Cross Functional Teams
• Taguchi Methods
• FMEA‟s
• Fault Tree Analysis
• Cause-Effect Diagram
• Pareto
• Benchmarking
• Pugh Concept Selection
• Etc
• SPC
• Check Sheets
- Monitor
- Continuous Improvement
- Hold the “Gains”
Where does QFD fit?
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Customer Requirements
Company Measures
Part Characteristics (Design)
Manufacturing Process
Production Requirements
(Day to Day Operations)
QFD Overview
Converted to
Converted to
Converted to
Converted to
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
When should QFD be used?
1 Customers are complaining or aren‟t satisfied
with your product or service.
2 Market share has been consistently declining.
3 Extended development time due to excessive
redesign, problem solving, or fire fighting.
4 Lack of a true customer focus in your product
development process.
5 Poor communications between departments or
functions.
(Over-the -wall product development).

6 Lack of efficient and/or effective teamwork.

1.Complex Product Development Initiatives
1.Communications Flow Down Difficult
2.Expectations Get Lost
2.New Product Initiatives / Inventions
1.Lack of Structure or Logic to the Allocation of
Development Resources.
3.Large Complex or Global Teams
1.Lack of Efficient And/or Effective Processes
2.Teamwork Issues
4.Extended Product Development Times
1.Excessive Redesign
2.Changing Team
3.Problem Solving, or Fire Fighting.
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
BENEFITS OF QFD
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Change Comparison
Proactive
Company
Reactive
Company
Time - 14 Months
90% Complete
Production
Start
Fewer and Earlier Changes
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Less Time in Development
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CYCLE TIME
REDUCTION
1/3 TO 1/2
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Fewer Start-Up Problems
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Before QFD
After QFD
Production
Start
Months
TOYOTA PRODUCTION
START UP PROBLEMS
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Lower Start-Up Costs
Toyota Production Start-Up Costs
JAN 1977
INDEX = 100
OCT 197
INDEX = 80
NOV 1982
INDEX =62
APRIL 1984
INDEX = 39
LOSS
PREPARATION
(TRAINING)
Production Start
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Toyota European
Rust Warranty
Fewer Field
Problems
Before
QFD
After
QFD
4 x
Profit
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Satisfied
Customers
Focus on
Customer Satisfaction
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Competitive Advantages
• Fewer and Earlier Changes
• Shorter Development Time
• Fewer Start-up Problems
• Lower Start-up Cost
• Warranty Reduction
• Knowledge Transfer
• Customer Satisfaction
The bottom line of QFD is higher quality, lower cost, shorter
timing and a substantial marketing advantage.
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
QFD METHODOLOGY
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
House of Quality
DOOR SYSTEM QFD
PRODUCT PLANNING MATRIX
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
KANO MODEL
(Of Quality/Features)
PERFORMANCE
EXCITEMENT
BASIC
CUSTOMER
SATISFACTION

VERY SATISFIED
VERY DISSATISFIED
•EXPECTED
•TYPICAL OF
„INVISIBLE‟ PRODUCTS
•ONE-DIMENSIONAL
•MOST MARKET
RESEARCH
•UNEXPECTED, PLEASANT
SURPRISES
•3M CALLS THEM CUSTOMER
DELIGHTS
UNSPOKEN
DEGREE OF
AGREEMENT
DID NOT
DO AT ALL
SPOKEN
FULLY ACHIEVED
TIME
UNSPOKEN
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Voice of
the customer
Translating
for action
The items contained in this list are
usually very general, vague and
difficult to implement directly - they
require further detailed definition.
One such item might be good ride
which has a wide variety of meanings
to different people.
This is a highly desirable product
feature, but is not directly actionable.
WHAT WHAT HOW
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
WHAT
HOW
HOW
WHAT
COMPLEX
RELATIONSHIPS
UNTANGLING
THE WEB
RELATIONSHIPS
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
WHAT
HOW
Kinds of
Relationships
STRONG relationship
MEDIUM relationship
WEAK relationship
Customer Wants (CTQs)
„Process / Product‟
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
WHAT
HOW
RELATIONSHIPS
HOW MUCH
How much is enough?
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
WHAT
HOW
RELATIONSHIPS
HOW MUCH
Correlation Matrix
Strong Positive
Positive
Negative
Strong Negative
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
WHAT
HOW
HOW MUCH
RELATIONSHIPS
CONFLICT!
1 2 3 4 5
= OUR COMPANY
= COMPETITOR #1
= COMPETITOR #2
BAD GOOD
5
4
3
2
1

BAD

GOOD

COMPETITIVE ASSESSMENTS
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
IMPORTANCE RATINGS
RELATIONSHIPS
HOW
WHAT
HOW MUCH
5
3
2
1
5
2
4
2
33 89 9 13 21 25 21 18
= 1
= 3
= 9
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
The Four Phases of QFD
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
HOW
HOW
WHAT
WHAT
HOW MUCH
HOW MUCH
RELATIONSHIPS
RELATIONSHIPS



Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Deploying the “Voice of the Customer”
PHASE 1 PHASE 11 PHASE 111 PHASE IV
PRODUCT DESIGN MANUFACTURING PROCESS PRODUCTION
PLANNING DEPLOYMENT PLANNING PLANNING
COMPANY
MEASURES
NEW NEW NEW
PART
CHARACTERISTICS
KEY PROCESS
OPERATIONS
PRODUCTION
REQUIREMENTS
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Deploying the “Voice of the Customer”
PHASE 1 PHASE 11 PHASE 111 PHASE IV
PRODUCT DESIGN MANUFACTURING PROCESS PRODUCTION
PLANNING DEPLOYMENT PLANNING PLANNING
DOOR CLOSE
EASILY
ETC
ETC
CLOSING
EFFORT @
7 FT LBS
COMP LOAD
DEFL
RPM
EXTRUDER
WEATHER
STRIP
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Managing the QFD Process
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
• Provide the time
• Demonstrate your commitment
• Push for progress, but not too hard
• Be realistic
• Review the charts - make sure you
understand
• Set priorities if needed
• Help the team through the rough
spots
• Keep asking the right questions
• Spans a major portion of the product
development process
• Identify key milestones
• Major projects will require 50-60 hours
of meetings
• Meetings are used to coordinate
activities and update charts
• Most of the work happens outside the
meetings
Management Support of the Team Timing
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
Common Pitfalls
• Blank rows
Unfulfilled customer wants

• Blank columns
Unnecessary requirements
Incomplete customer wants

• Rows or columns with only weak relationships
Banking a lot on “maybe‟s”

• Unmeasurable “HOWs”
Difficult to do what can‟t be measured

• Too many relationships
More than 50% relationships make it hard to
prioritise

• Opportunities to excel

• Negative correlations
Try to eliminate
Trade off if needed

• Conflicting competitive assessments
• QFD on everything

• Inadequate priorities

• Lack of teamwork
Wrong participants
Turf issues
Lack of team skills
Lack of support

• Too much “chart focus”

• Handling trade-offs

• Too much internal focus

• “Stuck on tradition”

• “Hurry up and get done”

• Failure to integrate QFD
What to look for
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
• How was the voice of the customer
determined?

• How were the design requirements (etc)
determined? Challenge the usual in-house
standards.

• How do we compare to our competition?

• What opportunities can we identify to gain
a competitive edge?

• What further information do we need?
How can we get it?

• How can we proceed with what we have?

• What trade-off decisions are needed?

• What can I do to help?
• The process may look simple, but requires
effort.

• Many of the entries look obvious - after
they are written down.

• If there aren‟t some “tough spots” the first
time, it probably isn‟t being done right!

• Focus on the end-user customer.

• Charts are not the objective.

• Charts are the means of achieving the
objective.

• Find reasons to succeed, not excuses for
failure.
Some “Right Questions” Points to Remember
Introduction to Quality Function Deployment
THANK YOU!
Have a look at some of the service industry applications of QFD: http://www.mazur.net/publishe.htm