Examples

Function of Elements in animal cells and plant cells
Elements Animal cells Plant cells
Carbon, Hydrogen,
Oxygen, Nitrogen
Synthesis of _____________________ compounds. For
example ________________________________________.
Synthesis of organic compounds. For example proteins, lipids
and nucleic acids.
Sulphur (S) Component of some _________________________. Component of some proteins.
Phosphorus (P)
Formation of bones and teeth. / _________________ of
muscles / synthesis _____________________
Induces the formation of flowers and _______________. /
Promotes cell division. / Synthesis of ATP and nucleic acids.
Sodium (Na)
Regulates _______________ pressure in the cells. / Helps in
the transmission of ___________________________.
Not Required.
Magnesium (Mg)
Involved in protein synthesis. / Act as a _________________
for some enzyme.
Required for the synthesis of _________________________. /
Activates enzymes in the cells.
Required for the formation of strong bones and teeth. /
Contraction of muscles cells / Promote blood clotting.
Synthesis of cell walls (________________________). /
Maintain the semi-permeability of plasma membrane.
Iron (Fe)
Synthesis of _________________ blood cells / Respiratory
enzymes.
Synthesis of _______________________. / Act as an electron
carrier during photosynthesis and respiration.
Required in muscle contractions and transmission of nerve
impulses.
Synthesis of carbohydrates. / Activates certain enzymes.
Chlorine (Cl)
Synthesis HCl by gastric glands in the stomach which destroys
pathogens and maintains ______________ of the stomach.
_______________________ of water during light reaction in
photosynthesis.
Substance composed of only one kind of atom which cannot be broken down
into simpler substances by chemical reactions.
Substance which consists of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio.
Contain carbon and
hydrogen
Do not contain carbon
and hydrogen
Medium of __________________
reactions
-digestive reactions such as
breaking down of protein, lipids and
sugars.
High surface tension and ___________
(tent to stick each other)
-Water can move in long unbroken
columns through the vascular tissue in
plants.
Water
The
importance of
water in the
cell
________ %
of our body
A polar molecules consists
of two _____________
atom dan one
_____________ atom.

Structure
___________________
-can dissolve many ionic
compounds such as salt and
polar molecules (sugar)
__________________ Medium
-in the blood, lymphatic,
excretory & digestive system
(transport sugar O
2
, CO
2
)
Maintain __________________
balance and ______________
-maintain the stable internal
environment within a living
organism.
____________________
-support the structure of a cell
(90% of the protoplasm is made
up of water)
Maintain ___________________
____________ and _______________
-Provides moisture to respiratory
surfaces (alveoli)
-Mucus assist the movement of food
substances in the intestinal tract.
Nucleic Acids





are
2 types
structure
structure
function function
Draw the structure
functions
Complex
macromolecules
which store _______
_________________
in the form of code.
• A __________-stranded nucleic
acid, with the two strands of
polynucleotides twisted around
each other to form a
_________________________
• Found in nucleus of a cell.
• Genetic material that
organisms ____________ from
their parents.
• Store information regarding its
own replication and the order in
which amino acids are linked to
make a protein.
• ____________ - stranded
nucleic acid.
• Found in the cytoplasm,
ribosomes and nucleus.
• _________________________
carries DNA’s genetic code into
the cytoplasm and directs the
synthesis of proteins.
Protein
Main
function
Elements
2 X
Equation
Long chain
2 types
Plant protein Animal protein
2 classes
• Amino acids that
cannot be synthesised
by the body.
• Can only be obtained
from a healthy diet.
• Amino acids that
can be synthesised
by the body.
(contain all the essential
amino acids)
(do not contain all the
essential amino acids)
• Linear sequence of amino acids
in a polypeptide chain
• Polypeptide chain that is coiled
to form alpha-helix or folded into
beta-pleated.
• The helix chains or beta-pleated
sheets are folded into a 3D
shape of polypeptide chain.
• Hormones, enzymes, plasma
protein, antibodies
• Two or more tertiary structure
polypeptide chains are arranged
to form a large and complex
protein molecule.
monomer
Carbohydrates
Elements
Main function
• Simple sugar
• C
6
H
12
O
6

• combine with
proteins and lipids to
form ________ &
______ respectively
characteristics
characteristics
characteristics
3 types
3 types 3 types
Genaral Equation
3 types
Equation
• _______________ sugar /
complex sugars.
• Consists of 2 _____________
joined together through
condensation
Sucrose
• Hundreds or thousands of
monosaccharides linked through
_________________ to form a long
chain of molecules.
• ___________________ in water
• Do not taste sweet.
• Do not crystallise.
Lipids
Main
function
Elements
Fats Oils
Main component of
plasma membrane
Fatty acids
Equation
plant
animal
structure
5 main types
_________ at
room temperature
___________ at
room temperature
Long chain
molecules / water
proof.
• Found on the
____________ of the
epidermis of leaves,
fruits and seeds of
some plants.
• ____________ that is
excreted from oil
glands in the skin
contains wax that
soften the skin.
Major component in plasma
membrane.
Male sex hormone.
Female sex hormones.
The Differences between saturated fats and
unsaturated fats
Saturated Fats Differences Unsaturated Fats
The presence of
double bonds
between carbon
atoms in fatty acids
Ability to react with an
additional hydrogen
atom


Condition at room
temperature


Cholesterol level


Examples

Element
Compound
Examples
Function of Elements in animal cells and plant cells
Elements Animal cells Plant cells
C, H, O, N
Synthesis of organic compounds. For example proteins, lipids
and nucleic acids
S Component of some proteins
P
Formation of bones and teeth. / Contraction of muscles /
synthesis ATP
Induces the formation of flowers and seeds. / Promotes cell
division. / Synthesis of ATP and nucleic acids.
Na
Regulates osmotic pressure in the cells. / Helps in the
transmission of nerve impulses.
Not Required
Mg
Involved in protein synthesis. / Act as a cofactor for some
enzyme.
Required for the synthesis of chlorophyll. / Activates enzymes
in the cells.
Ca
Required for the formation of strong bones and teeth. /
Contraction of muscles cells / Promote blood clotting.
Synthesis of cell walls (Cellulose). / Maintain the semi-
permeability of plasma membrane.
Fe Synthesis of red blood cells / Respiratory enzymes.
Synthesis of chlorophyll. / Act as an electron carrier during
photosynthesis and respiration.
K
Required in muscle contractions and transmission of nerve
impulses.
Synthesis of carbohydrates. / Activates certain enzymes.
Cl
Synthesis HCl by gastric glands in the stomach which destroys
pathogens and maintains pH of the stomach.
Photolysis of water during light reaction in photosynthesis.
Substance composed of only one kind of atom which cannot be broken down
into simpler substances by chemical reactions.
Substance which consists of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio.
Organic compounds
Inorganic compounds
Contain carbon
Not contain carbon
Carbohydrates, proteins,
lipids, nucleic acids
Water
High surface tension and cohesion
(tent to stick each other)
-Water can move in long unbroken
columns through the vascular
tissue in plants.
Water
The
importance of
water in the
cell
70-90% of our
body
A polar molecules
consists of 2
hidrogen atom & 1
oxygen atom

Structure
Cell, lymph, blood plasma
and interstitial fluid.
Medium of biochemical reactions
-digestive reactions such as
breaking down of protein, lipids
and sugars.
Solvent
-can dissolve many ionic
compounds such as salt and
polar molecules (sugar)
Transport Medium
-in the blood, lymphatic,
excretory & digestive system
(transport sugar O
2
, CO
2
)
Maintain osmotic balance and
turgidity
-maintain the stable internal
environment within a living
organism.
Support
-support the structure of a cell
(90% of the protoplasm is made
up of water)
Maintain body temperature
Moisture and lubrication
-Provides moisture to respiratory
surfaces (alveoli)
-Mucus assist the movement of
food substances in the intestinal
tract.
Nucleic Acids





are
DNA
RNA
2 types
structure structure
function function
structure
functions
Complex
macromolecules which
store genetic
information in the form
of code.
nucleotides
• A double-stranded nucleic acid,
with the two strands of
polynucleotides twisted around
each other to form a double
helix.
• Found in nucleus of a cell.
• Genetic material that
organisms inherit from their
parents.
• Store information regarding its
own replication and the order in
which amino acids are linked to
make a protein.
• Single-stranded nucleic acid.
• Found in the cytoplasm,
ribosomes and its nucleus.
• Messenger RNA carries DNA’s
genetic code into the cytoplasm
and directs the synthesis of
proteins.
• Transmission of
genetic
information.
• Store genetic
information
Protein
Main
function
Elements
Amino acids
2 X
equation
Long chain
2 types
Plant protein Animal protein
2 classes
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
nitrogen. Most proteins also
contain sulphur and
phosphorus.
dipeptide
polypeptide
Essential amino
acids (20)
Non-essential
amino acids (11)
• Amino acids that
cannot be
synthesised by the
body.
• Can only be obtained
from a healthy diet.
• Amino acids that can
be synthesised by
the body.
First class protein
(contain all the essential
amino acids)
Second class protein
(do not contain all the
essential amino acids)
• Linear sequence of amino acids
in a polypeptide chain
• Polypeptide chain that is coiled
to form alpha-helix or folded into
beta-pleated.
• The helix chains or beta-pleated
sheets are folded into a 3D
shape of polypeptide chain.
• Hormones, enzymes, plasma
protein, antibodies
• Two or more tertiary structure
polypeptide chains are arranged
to form a large and complex
protein molecule.
Build new cells for growth
and renew damaged tissues
and store energy.
Carbohydrates
Elements
Main
function
• Simple sugar
• C
6
H
12
O
6

• combine with
proteins and lipids to
form ________ &
______ respectively
characteristics
characteristics
characteristics
3 types
3 types 3 types
formula
3 types
Equation
Carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen.
Ratio of H and O is
2 : 1
• Glucose (grape sugar)
• Fructose (in fruits / honey)
• Galactose (in milk)
• Double sugar / complex
sugars.
• Consists of 2
monosaccharides joined
together through
condensation
Sucrose
• Hundreds or thousands of
monosaccharides linked through
condensation to form a long chain of
molecules.
• Insoluble in water
• Do not taste sweet.
• Do not crystallise.
Lipids
Main
function
Elements
Fats Oils Waxes Steroids
Main component of
plasma membrane
Fatty acids
Equation
plant
animal
structure
Cholesterol
Testosterone
Oestrogen, progesteron
5 main types
Carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen.
Solid at room
temperature
liquid at room
temperature
Long chain
molecules / water
proof.
• Found on the cuticles
of the epidermis of
leaves, fruits and
seeds of some plants.
• Sebum that is
excreted from oil
glands in the skin
contains wax that
soften the skin.
Source of energy
and energy
storage.
Major component in plasma
membrane.
Male sex hormone.
Female sex hormones.
The Differences between saturated fats and
unsaturated fats
Saturated Fats Differences Unsaturated Fats
• Do not have any double bonds.
The presence of
double bonds
between carbon
atoms in fatty acids
• Have at least one double bond
between the carbon atoms.
• Cannot form any chemical bonds with
other atoms or react with additional
hydrogen atoms.
Ability to react with
an additional
hydrogen atom
• Able to react with additional
hydrogen atoms. (with one double
bond are called monounsaturated
fats)
• Solid
Condition at room
temperature
• Liquid
• Contain more cholesterol.
Cholesterol level
• Contain less cholesterol
• Animal fats like butter
Examples
• Vegetable oils like corn oil and palm
oil.